Nilüfer (Bursa) -
Climate change impacts
Nilüfer is a sub-municipality in the Metropolitan City of Bursa in Turkey with a population of over 400,000 people. The dynamic, industrial city of Bursa is located in western Anatolia and Nilüfer is home to the largest and most populous organized industrial zones in the city. Because of this dynamism, Nilüfer and Bursa in general have above avarage annual population increases (around 5% per annum) that put large stresses on municipal services and create huge physical expansion dynamics that endanger the natural and agricultural hinterland of the city. Dramatic negative climate change impacts have been predicted by climate change models for western Anotolia, with an increase in average seasonal temperatures, lower rainfall, and an increase in extreme heat waves. The urban heat island effect (UHI) is a severe problem in Bursa and measurements thereof have demonstrated increased avarage summer temperatures and increased occurence of heat waves. Future water deficiencies have also been modeled for the city, indicating reduced water availability for the important agricultural sector in the city. Important negative impacts also are related to the natural endowments of the city via influence on water availability and loss of biodiversity and semi-wild nature areas surrounding it. In addition to biodiversity loss, the loss of natural habitats and green areas in the city center is linked to urban sprawl and more impermeable surfaces in city, which increases the risk of flash floods, such as the flooding in 2010.
Nilüfer and Bursa are dependent on the industrial and agricultural sectors for high quality jobs and livelihoods. The quality of life in the urban center is dramatically effected by loss of natural habitat and green spaces in the center, resulting in dramatic public health risks. Decreased availability of water is also critical in the sustainability of the agricultural sector, while the loss of ecological endowments has negative impacts on the tourism sector.
Main motivation for taking adaptation action
Nilüfer-Bursa is a rapidly growing industrial urban center in Turkey with all the trappings and problems related with uncontrolled and unplanned urban sprawl. The local climate has already changed in the past 10 years as the city has experienced hotter avarage summer temperatures but more importantly heat waves and much longer days with very high temperatures. This situation is severely amplified by the heat island effect (HIE) that is already creating serious public health issues.
Another important motivation to take adaptive action is to control to a certain extent, runaway carbon-intensive urbanisation, coupled with carbon-intensive mobility options as unplanned built areas increase the new growth axes of the city. Growth that is encroaching on the urban natural and agricultural hinterland is a serious threat to the city's natural endowments, biological diversity, and rural and semi-rural livelihoods, making an adaptive strategy imperative.
Have you already developed an adaptation strategy?
No, Mayors Adapt is the first example of my city considering adaptation and we will develop an adaptation strategy
Summary of the strategy/plan
Nilüfer does not yet have an climate adaptation strategy but is in the process formulating one as soon as possible. The main tenets of the adaptation policy will adress the major challanges faced by the city already manifested by record heat waves and number of hot days, lower rainfall in the winter season and the risk of floods as demonstrated by the 2010 events. The characteristic dynamic of Turkish urbanisation, also apparent in Nilüfer, is marked by very high population growth rates of up to 5 % per annum, which places immense pressure on the surrounding rural and nature areas. Low carbon urban growth options are the only way to curb this spatial explosion and destruction of urban hinterlands.
Additional information on adaptation responses
Planning capacity has been developed according to cooperation with businesses and other local stakeholders. The main partners involved are "Turkey - Carbon and Climate Consultancy", a consulting firm active in the elaboration of the strategy and action plans.
Planned adaptation actions
Nilüfer seeks to determination the impacts of climate change impacts on rural areas and agriculture as well as underground waters and water springs. The city also plans to conduct a drought assessment and subsequently implement measures to reduce the impacts of droughts on the local population and resources.
Good practice / spotlight item
Green Urban Land program
Nilüfer is in the process of preparing its Climate Adaptation Plan. The local government however has put in place an ambitious "green urban land" program to increase green areas in the city centre and growth regions. Several initiatives to encourage citizen participation in "urban farming" are also advancing. Regarding longer term solutions, Nilüfer is developing plans for low carbon, urban built area development in the expansion zones through "ecological city" planning, an example of which can be seen below.
Example of development mapping as part of the Nilüfer's ecological approach city planning.
Climate change impacts
- Extreme Temperatures
- Water Scarcity
Key vulnerable sectors
- Water Management
Energy Office, Project Administrator
Mayors Adapt signatory
Date of officially joining Mayors Adapt
07 Oct 2015
Covenant of Mayors 2020 signatory