Preparing the ground for adaptation
1.6 Who are the main (internal and external) players and stakeholders in adaptation processes and how do I involve them?
Cooperation with relevant stakeholders, including sectoral authorities, interest groups, NGOs or representatives from the private sector can be set up with different levels of involvement, e.g. access to information, consultation on specific issues of concern to participatory involvement throughout the whole process. The level of involvement can also change over the course of the adaptation process (e.g. high level when defining objectives vs. low level when working on an evaluation scheme). But when starting the process, the aims of the process as well as the role of stakeholders need to be clear and communicated to manage expectations.
All relevant authorities (e.g. responsible for health, civil protection, transport, energy, economy, finance, education etc.) need to be informed and involved in the adaptation process, receiving a clear mandate to take decisions in their fields of responsibility. This applies as well to the core team discussed in Q1.2. Their degree of involvement may vary from providing and exchanging information to building adaptive capacity or to taking decisions on adaptation within their sphere of authority.
It is also useful to make use of existing stakeholder platforms and institutional set-ups. For example, some cities may already have an established stakeholder participation process and institutional set-up for the involvement of stakeholders in sustainable development planning or urban spatial planning.
Some key points when involving stakeholders should be taken into account:
- Every stakeholder involvement process is different and thus a diversified skill set (e.g. moderation, mediation, adaptation related knowledge) is needed to deal with the various possible developments in the phases of involvement;
- Stakeholder involvement processes are resource intensive (e.g. human and financial) and thus a clear process design should be available right from the start to calculate resources needed by stakeholders as well as the organization team;
- Short hand-outs about the process as well as minutes documenting the discussions and key results within the process should be prepared to guarantee the continuous information exchange and transparency;
- Stakeholders need to be informed about the intended use of results and give their approval in case of a planned publication;
- Careful consideration needs to be given regarding communication messages and tools for each type of stakeholder groups (See Q1.7).
EU City-specific information
- The Integrated Management for Local Climate Change Response: Capacity Development Package
- Rotterdam exchange: Water Management and Multi-Benefit solutions
- Urban climate adaptation and leadership
- Elaboration and implementation of a local adaptation strategy or action plan
- 3rd Open European Day 2016 Conference Report
- Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change - Guidelines for Municipalities
- Adapting to Climate Change: Local areas' action
- Methods and Tools for Adaptation to Climate Change - A Handbook for Provinces, Regions and Cities
- On urban resilience - expert thoughts on the urban adaptation challenge
- Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe - Challenges and opportunities for cities together with supportive national and European policies
- A flood and heat proof green Emscher valley, Germany
- Climate bond financing adaptation actions in Paris
- EEA grants supporting the city of Bratislava to implement climate adaptation measures
- Ghent crowdfunding platform realising climate change adaptation through urban greening
- Green roofs in Basel, Switzerland: combining mitigation and adaptation measures
- Implementation of the Heat-Health Action Plan of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
- Integrated management and adaptation strategies for Cork Harbour, Ireland
- Integrating climate change adaptation into coastal planning in Šibenik-Knin County (Croatia)
- Public-private partnership for a new flood proof district in Bilbao
- Urban storm water management in Augustenborg, Malmö
- Zaragoza: combining awareness raising and financial measures to enhance water efficiency
International information for cities
- Guide to Climate Change Adaptation in Cities
- Participatory Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment – A toolkit based on the Sorsogon City experience
- Changing Climate, Changing Communites: Guide and Workbook for Municipal Climate Adaptation
- Environment and Urbanization - Towards transformative adaptation in cities: the IPCC's Fifth Assessment