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Adaptation to climate change using green and blue infrastructure - A database of case studies (2010)


The aim of this database of case studies is to showcase climate change adaptation approaches, with a particular emphasis on those relating to green and blue infrastructure. The database is an important deliverable of the GRaBS project1. Rather than focus on the physical elements of the case studies, the database describes in detail the process that have supported the implementation of adaptation responses in a range of urban areas across the world. The case studies therefore identify and highlight key factors in different areas (e.g. governance, stakeholder relationships, science and research) that influenced the success of adaptation responses in different locations. It is hoped that the database will meet an important need in terms of progressing green and blue infrastructure adaptation responses, and will act as a valuable resource for a wide range of stakeholder communities engaged in these activities. Analysis of previous studies on factors influencing the success of the development and implementation of adaptation responses (chapter 2) highlights the following significant issues:

•Collaboration with external stakeholders
•Strong leadership or championship
•Access to funding
•Awareness levels within the organisation
•Outsourcing research and other actions
•Human resources and skills
•Public awareness and engagement
•Quality and availability of information and data
•Position of adaptation on the list of priorities
•Development of local regulations and policies.

The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) that characterise and face the partner organisations participating in the GRaBS project during their preparation of adaptation responses using green and blue infrastructure (chapter 2) link closely to factors identified in previous studies. The crucial factors were as follows:

•Regulations and policy at the local level
•Access to and quality of data and information
•Cross-departmental collaboration
•Public engagement
•Policy framework at higher levels (national and regional)
•Collaboration with external stakeholders
•Access to funding
•Learning from others (networking, research projects)
•Need for urban development or regeneration
•Existence of a strong sustainability movement
•Public awareness
•Current green space resources.

The results of these two exercises, supplemented by a questionnaire survey gauging the interest of GRaBS partners in different climate change impacts and forms of adaptation response to be explored during the project, guided the selection of the 15 in-depth case studies presented in chapter 3. The case studies were selected from around the world, although a focus was maintained on subject matter relevant to European conditions.

Reference information

University of Manchester


green infrastructure

Climate impacts

Droughts, Extreme Temperatures, Flooding, Ice and Snow, Sea Level Rise, Storms, Water Scarcity


Adaptation Measures and Actions


Buildings, Disaster Risk Reduction, Forestry, Urban

Geographic characterisation


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