Coastal areas

Sea level rise can cause flooding, coastal erosion and the loss of low-lying coastal systems. It will also increase the risk of storm surges and the likelihood of landward intrusion of saltwater in freshwater systems and will endanger coastal ecosystems and wetlands. Expected rises in water temperatures will, furthermore, contribute to a restructuring of coastal ecosystems with implications for ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling and fishery yields. Ocean acidification will also affect coastal ecosystems.

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