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Manual for monitoring insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors and selecting appropriate interventions


There is growing evidence that climate change is linked to observed changes in vector-borne disease (VBD) endemicity; this, in turn, is caused by shifts in vector distribution and expansion of vector species into geographical regions that were hitherto unsuitable for climatic reasons. These changes have led to the emergence of VBDs that were historically absent because of climatic unsuitability in areas where the current climate enables pathogen transmission by local vectors. In other cases, invasive vector species have been able to survive under local environmental conditions and thus become established. The best example of these is Ae. albopictus, commonly known as the Asian tiger mosquito, an exotic species which has become firmly established in many countries of the WHO European Region. Native mosquitoes can act as vectors of exotic pathogens; one example is Culex pipiens, which can transmit West Nile virus.

With global changes caused by environmental and climate change, and ever-expanding trade and travel, the likelihood of exotic mosquito vectors invading new geographical areas is high, as the experience of the last decade has shown. Once the presence of an invasive mosquito species has been confirmed, it is necessary to decide if further spread of the species should be halted, if elimination is feasible and desirable, and what actions should be taken to prevent the arrival and potential establishment of other mosquito vector species. This document provides specific guidance on how to assess insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors.

The manual is aimed at field entomologists and biologists within ministries of health or partner institutions, as well as programme managers and others in charge of designing and implementing vector control strategies who need to draw on resistance data to inform their decisions. Lastly, it can help researchers and the pesticide industry to assess, in a standardized way, vector resistance to compounds used in existing and new vector control products. 

Reference information

WHO Regional Office for Europe

Published in Climate-ADAPT May 10 2023   -   Last Modified in Climate-ADAPT Dec 12 2023

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