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A Guide for Trade Unions: Adaptation to Climate Change and the World of Work

Climate change adaptation means “anticipating the ad- verse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise” . The primary objective of adaptation is to reduce climate vulnerability of specific regions, economic sectors or populations

Manual on prevention of establishment and control of mosquitoes of public health importance

There is growing evidence that climate change is linked to observed changes in vector-borne disease (VBD) endemicity; this, in turn, is caused by shifts in vector distribution and expansion of vector species into geographical regions that were hitherto unsuitable for climatic reasons. These changes have led to the emergence of VBDs that were historically absent because of climatic unsuitability in areas where the current climate enables pathogen transmission by local vectors

Air quality co-benefits for human health and agriculture counterbalance costs to meet Paris Agreement pledges

Local air quality co-benefits can provide complementary support for ambitious climate action and can enable progress on related Sustainable Development Goals. Here we show that the transformation of the energy system implied by the emission reduction pledges brought forward in the context of the Paris Agreement on climate change (Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs) substantially reduces local air pollution across the globe

Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor (UMEP): An integrated tool for city-based climate services

UMEP (Urban Multi-scale Environmental Predictor), a city-based climate service tool, combines models and tools essential for climate simulations. Applications are presented to illustrate UMEP's potential in the identification of heat waves and cold waves; the impact of green infrastructure on runoff; the effects of buildings on human thermal stress (health); solar energy production; and the impact of human activities on heat emissions

URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites

The main goal of the proposed project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) was to investigate the potential of Earth Observation (EO) to retrieve anthropogenic heat fluxes. The main research question addressed whether EO is able to provide reliable estimates of anthropogenic heat flux spatiotemporal distribution, at local and city scales

#KeepCool campaign

A range of risk communication, awareness and advocacy strategies can help inform communities and decision-makers about how to reduce health risks due to heat and hot weather, and how to adapt society to a hotter future. WHO/Europe’s annual #KeepCool campaign kicked off in May 2021 with new resources, including short informational videos for use on social media and factsheets translated into many of the languages of the Region

‘Reverse’ identification key for mosquito species

During the latter part of the 20th century, the role of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases of public health concern was generally considered limited to the tropics. However, in the early 21st century, an increasingly connected world through travel, trade, and tourism means that Europe is seeing regular transmission of mosquito-borne diseases, a trend confirmed by advances in pathogen detection

Geodata for Environmental Health

An overview of geographical data available for Swedish actors, at different levels, to use in the work with environmental health. The report contains examples of how geodata can be used for environmental health, what analyses are possible and a review of the scientific literature. Examples include the use of geodata in health-related work on air pollution, drinking water, green spaces, noise, radiation, radon and climate change.

Wind storms (no further updates)

Storm location, frequency and intensity have shown considerable decadal variability across Europe over the past century, such that no significant long-term trends are apparent. Recent studies on changes in winter storm tracks generally project an extension eastwards of the North Atlantic storm track towards central Europe and the British Isles

Ocean heat content (no further updates)

The warming of the oceans has accounted for approximately 93 % of the warming of the Earth since the 1950s. Warming of the upper (0–700 m) ocean accounted for about 64 % of the total heat uptake

Phenology of plant and animal species (no further updates)

The timing of seasonal events has changed across Europe. A general trend towards earlier spring phenological stages (spring advancement) has been shown in many plant and animal species, mainly due to changes in climate conditions

Hail (no further updates)

Hail events are among the most costly weather-related extreme events in several European regions, causing substantial damage to crops, vehicles, buildings and other infrastructure. The number of hail events is highest in mountainous areas and pre-Alpine regions

Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets (no further updates)

The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are the largest bodies of ice in the world and play an important role in the global climate system. Both ice sheets have been losing large amounts of ice at an increasing rate since 1992

Glaciers (no further updates)

The vast majority of glaciers in the European glacial regions are in retreat. Glaciers in the European Alps have lost approximately half of their volume since 1900, with clear acceleration since the 1980s

Distribution shifts of plant and animal species (no further updates)

Observed climate change is having significant impacts on the distribution of European flora and fauna, with distribution changes of several hundred kilometres projected over the 21st century. These impacts include northwards and uphill range shifts, as well as local and regional extinctions of species

Crop water demand (no further updates)

Climate change led to an increase in the crop water demand and thus the crop water deficit from 1995 to 2015 in large parts of southern and eastern Europe; a decrease has been estimated for parts of north-western Europe. The projected increases in temperature will lead to increased evapotranspiration rates, thereby increasing crop water demand across Europe

Forest composition and distribution (no further updates)

Range shifts in forest tree species due to climate change have been observed towards higher altitudes and latitudes. These changes considerably affect the forest structure and the functioning of forest ecosystems and their services

Agrophenology (no further updates)

The flowering of several perennial and annual crops has advanced by about two days per decade during the last 50 years. Changes in crop phenology are affecting crop production and the relative performance of different crop species and varieties

EU Taxonomy Compass

This EU Taxonomy Compass provides a visual representation of the contents of the EU Taxonomy, starting with the Delegated Act on the climate objectives, as adopted on 4 June 2021.

European Policy Centre

The European Policy Centre (EPC) is an independent, not-for-profit think tank dedicated to fostering European integration through analysis and debate, supporting and challenging  decision-makers at all levels to make informed decisions based on evidence and analysis, and providing a platform for engaging partners, stakeholders and citizens in EU policy-making and in the debate about the future of Europe.

Climate adaptation to shifting stocks

Management of marine fisheries is still far from incorporating adaptation to climate change, even though global stocks are heavily overexploited, and climate change is adding additional pressure to the resource. In fact, there is growing evidence that current fisheries management systems may no longer be effective under climate change, and this will translate into both ecological and socioeconomic impacts

Management of Weather Events in the Transport System

MOWE-it is a EU-funded project aiming at identifying existing best practices and developing methodologies to assist transport operators, authorities and transport system users to mitigate the impact of natural disasters and extreme weather phenomena on transport system performance. The European transport system has shown vulnerability to external shocks, which have partially or, in some cases, totally shut down part of the transport system

Towards COast to COast NETworks of marine protected areas (from the shore to the high and deep sea), coupled with sea-based wind energy potential

COCONET developed a four-step guideline for the selection of MPAs (Marine Protected Areas) in the Mediterranean and the Black Seas, shifting from local (single MPA) to regional (Networks of MPAs) and basin (network of networks) scales. The steps include: (i) collection of relevant information, (ii) identification of cells of ecosystem functioning, (iii) identification of networks and priority areas (iv), and designing a management plan

Effects of climate-induced habitat fragmentation on high alpine biodiversity

Alpine biodiversity is especially vulnerable to climate change; warmer temperatures are forecast to cause altitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and vertical advance of the treeline. Such effects will result in a lower area of suitable habitat for high alpine specialists as their optimal habitat becomes increasingly small

Water Adaptation is Valuable for Everybody

The central aim of cooperation within WAVE is to prepare for future developments in regional water systems, caused by climate change, taking into account regional circumstances and practices. The overall challenge of the WAVE project is to create conditions for a sustainable, regional development in which the different (land use) functions are approached in an integrated manner and opportunities are used in such a way that the region is equipped to set off the consequences of climate change

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