You are here: Home / Database / Publication and reports / Heat-waves: risks and responses
Original page

Publications and Reports

Heat-waves: risks and responses (2004)


High air temperatures can affect human health and lead to additional deaths even under current climatic conditions. Heat waves occur infrequently in Europe and can significantly affect human health, as witnessed in summer 2003. This report reviews the current knowledge about the effects of heat-waves, including the physiological aspects of heat illness and epidemiological studies on excess mortality, and makes recommendations for preventive action. Measures for reducing heat-related mortality and morbidity include heat health-warning systems and appropriate urban planning and housing design.

Reference information

WHO Regional Office for Europe


city planning, environmental monitoring, heat, information systems, risk assessment, risk management, warning system

Climate impacts

Extreme Temperatures


Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation Measures and Actions


Health, Urban

Geographic characterisation


Document Actions