Exclusion of liability

This translation is generated by eTranslation, a machine translation tool provided by the European Commission.

Website experience degraded
We are currently facing a technical issue with the website which affects the display of data. The full functionality will be restored as soon as possible. We appreciate your understanding. If you have any questions or issues, please contact EEA Helpdesk (helpdesk@eea.europa.eu).
Elejir un país:
Italia
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czechia
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey

Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2023-03-15

Italy is located in an area identified as particularly vulnerable to climate change: the Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of climate change impacts. Italy is characterized by complex orography, ranging from high mountain chains (Alps and Apennine) to a very diverse coastline. Italy is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea and the climate is influenced by the arid climate of North Africa and by the temperate and rainy climate of central Europe. Being Italy surrounded by sea, Italy’s climate is temperate Mediterranean. From the Alps to Sicily there are 11 latitude degrees. The peninsula is divided into two versants from Apennines, and the continental part of the country is surrounded by Alps. Italy’s climate is formally divided in four types, characterized by specific features:
• Alpine climate, dominant on Alps and northern and central Apennines, characterized by night and winter low temperatures and moist summer;
• Mediterranean climate, in the island and in the southern Italy, characterized by mild temperatures and moist winter;
• Peninsular climate, peculiar of the central part of the peninsula, characterized by mild temperatures along the coast and in the prompt hinterland (in the middle where the altitude is high there is an alpine climate), moist in spring and autumn;
• Po valley climate, with low temperatures in the winter, high in the summer, moist in spring and autumn.

Italy has a rich biological heritage of forest and several types of landscape, as our peninsula constitutes a bridge between the central European environmental settings, including those of the continental type, and the Mediterranean ones. The diversification can be observed, in terms of forestry resources. Italian land surface belonging to forest land category was about 7,590 kha in 1990; 8,369 kha in 2000; 9,032 kha in 2010; and 9,578 kha in 2020, equivalent to 32% of our national land surface. The Italian forested area is spreading due to the dismissal of agriculture practices, mostly in mountain zones, and to the natural conversion of cultivated lands and grazing into forests. However, forest expansion rate has been decreasing along the last decade: it was about 78 kha y-1 in 2000 and it was about 53.8 kha y-1 in from 2010 to 2020. The natural protected areas (established on various administrative levels: national, regional and local) include 30.5% of the total forested areas. The Italian forest area certified under international forest management certification schemes was 892,610 ha in 2021 under the Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC).

The reference is the Chapter 2 of the VIII National Comunication (https://unfccc.int/documents/624766 )
The national population was 56.744 million in 1991 (13th national survey) and 56.960 million in 2001 (14th national survey) while it was 59.948 million in 2011 (15th national survey) (ISTAT) . Since 2018 the National survey on Population and Housing has been taking place yearly and no longer every ten years. The resident population has been steadily decreasing since 2014 and at first of January 2022, according to first provisional data, it was 58,983 million, -2.3% compared to 2014. The widening gap between births and deaths – started about thirty years ago together with the most recent contraction in the migration balance are the main causes of the demographic trend. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic of the last two years has contributed to this demographic dynamic already in a recession since 2014. Between 1 January 2020 and 1 January 2021, the Italian population decreased by 405 thousand units (corresponding to -0.7% of its population) and in absolute terms, it was the highest decrease observed in the European Union that registered a drop of 278 thousand people. Between 1 January 2021 and 1 January 2022, a drop by 0.4% (corresponding to -253 thousand units) was registered with the pandemic still present, albeit with less pronounced impacts than in 2020. In the two pandemic years (2020 and 2021), the population decline was mainly due to the strongly negative natural balance: in 2021 births will felt below 400,000, the lowest since the unification of Italy; deaths were dramatically high during the pandemic period and remained at high levels compared to the pre-covid. At first January 2022, about 46.5 % of the resident population lives in northern Italy, about 19.9% of the population lives in central Italy, about 22.8% of the population lives in southern Italy and the remaining 10.8% lives in the islands. The distribution of the population may have implications for transport demand and for the development of energy supply infrastructure. The reference is the Chapter 2 of the VIII National Comunication (https://unfccc.int/documents/624766 )
Italy was the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP in the world in 1990 and its rank has been decreasing since then. According to the World Bank, in 2021 Italy is the world’s eighth largest economy and the fourth largest economy in 2021 among the EU countries (about 12% of the EU27 GDP at current prices and chain linked volumes 2015) behind Germany, UK and France. The GDP was 1,678,489.9 million € in 2021 (chain linked volumes, 2015) against 1,499,354.9 million € in 1995. Around the mid-2000s, a global financial and economic crisis hit the advanced economies thus resulting into severe recession in the EU, Japan and the United States. In 2009 Italy’s GDP fell by 5.3% compare the previous year and by the end of that year, a general recovery in the economies appeared and the GDP raised by 1.7% in 2010. Between 2010 and 2012 Italy, like many advanced economies, moved into recession again then the national economy has been showing a moderate recovery until 2017. In the year 2020 due to the Covid pandemic, with the implementation of severe measures of social containment and restriction of production activities, Italian GDP felt by 9%, compared to a fall in EU-27 GDP of 5.7%. The fall in GDP was mainly driven by the collapse in domestic demand, particularly consumption. In 2021 the GDP grew by 6.7% over 2020 while the EU GDP increased by 5.3%. The economic recovery of 2021 was more pronounced in the areas most affected by the 2020 crisis: the North-West area where the GDP registered +7.7% compared to the previous year and the North-East area with +7% of GDP. The increase in GDP was less pronounced than average in the Centre (+6%) and in the South (+5.8%)

Concerning the Italian GDP per capita, in 2021 it was 30,150 € per capita, about 6.7% below the average EU27 value (32,389 € per capita) and about 8% higher than the value of the previous year (27,940 € per capita), which was strongly affected by the Covid pandemic.

The driving sector of the national economy is the service sector, which accounted for 68.4% of GVA in 1995, later increased up to 73.4% in 2009 and to 74.5% in 2014 and 2015. Since 2015 the share of service sector started to decrease and in 2018 it was 73.8% of GVA. In 2020 increased up to 74.2%, then in 2021 it felt to 72.9 %.

Italian energy asset is essentially dependent by import. The energy dependence of Italy from abroad is high compared with the EU27 average (73.5% in 2020 in Italy; 57.5% in 2015 in EU). Compared with other European countries, Italy’s energy consumption is characterized by a higher share of natural gas, a lower coal share, a structural electricity imports, and the absence of nuclear power. The share of renewable energy (which increased from 4.4% in 1990 to 20.7% in 2020) in Italy’s energy supply mix is higher than the EU27 average (17.9% in 2020). Energy end-uses total consumption in 2020 was of 103.1 Mtoe, of which 45.8% related to the civil sector (households, commercial and public services) and 28.1% to the transports. Industry accounts for 23.2%.

Concerning the power sector, the average electricity production provided by thermoelectric power plants was around 80.5% from 1990 to 2007, after such year the share has been decreasing up to the lowest value of 63% in 2014 in correspondence with the highest level of renewable share reached by the country (43.1% of electricity production). The weight of renewable resources, after a fall to 35.1% up to 2017, has kept growing in the latest years (41.7% in 2020). The capacity of renewable power plants has been constantly increased with an average rate of 6.9% per year from 2005 to 2020. The unpredictability of precipitation and related hydroelectric production make sense for the variability of renewable electricity production.

As for transport facilities, the Italian railroad network had in 2020 about 19,863.54 km (66.8% of which electrified), while the Italian road network had at the end of 2020 about 167,911 km, 12.4% more compared to the road extension in 1990. The extension of the Italian oil pipeline network in 2020 was 3,931 km, with a coefficient of use equal to 45.3%. The extension of the Italian gas pipeline network in 2020 was 32,683 km.

The reference is the Chapter 2 of the VIII National Comunication (https://unfccc.int/documents/624766 )
A comprehensive observational national and regional monitoring networks cover the Italian territory. About one hundred meteorological stations, certified according to WMO standards, belong to the synoptic national network of the Italian Air Force Meteorological Service; several hundred stations are available from hydro-meteorological networks by Civil Protection; moreover, other national and regional meteorological and agrometeorological networks regularly collect and archive observations of different meteorological variables.

A non-exhaustive compendium of climate statistics and indicators, derived from available data originating from several networks operating on the national territory, is managed and yearly updated through the SCIA (Sistema nazionale per la raccolta e la diffusione di dati climatici di interesse ambientale) system. Time series have different characteristics in terms of continuity, completeness, spatial coverage. As the climatic data originate from heterogeneous sources, different quality levels are expected. Therefore, a set of automatic routines are applied to climate data in the SCIA database. Through the SCIA web site climate statistics and indicators at different time resolutions from a wide number of weather stations and for different meteorological variables are provided, along with secondary products like maps and climatological values. The climate indicators can be downloaded and displayed in the form of tables, diagrams and maps. Based on SCIA data, trends of mean temperature and total precipitation, as well as their extremes, are regularly updated and disseminated throught the web site and the annual report on climate state and variations over Italy, published by the National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA). Some regions have local initiatives on climate monitoring and trend evaluation, including dissemination of information via web sites and climate bulletins.
Providing climate projection for Italy is a challenging topic due to the complex orography ranging from high mountain chains to a very diverse coastline. The Italian peninsula is therefore a good example of the need of high-resolution climate analysis required to provide detailed climate change projection to support climate change analysis on the impacts and vulnerability. Two different categories of tools are available for this goal: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The first class of methods, based on Regional Climate Models (RCMs) is the only currently available to provide climate scenarios over the whole country in a uniform way, with the advantage to provide a large number of atmospheric variables, not only in terms of average values but also of extremes. Nevertheless, RCMs are still affected by significant systematic bias, due to several reasons. In recent years in order to try to overcome these limitations, the WCRP Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) project has been established, to provide a global coordination of regional climate downscaling for improved climate change adaptation policy and impact assessment.

In particular, EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the CORDEX initiative. An ensemble of historical simulations and climate projections was performed at 0.11° resolution in a combined effort among several research groups. Hindcast simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis were evaluated in terms of their ability to represent the basic patterns of the European climate for the period 1989–2008 against the E-OBS dataset. Climate projections of EURO-CORDEX models are available until 2100 through the Copernicus C3S service, based on different IPCC emission scenarios. Using an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX model simulations (outputs from 14 models), climate projections over Italy were selected and elaborated in terms of expected mean variations for the 2036-2065 period (centered on 2050) respect to 1981-2010 normal. The employment of this set of climate models made it possible to evaluate not only the average projected value (ensemble mean) but also the dispersion of model simulations around the mean value (uncertainty). To evaluate future climate variation in Italy simulations under three different IPCC scenarios were considered: RCP8.5 (Business-as-usual), RCP4.5 (intermediate scenario) and RCP2.6 (strong mitigation). The analysis was performed in terms of average and extreme values, using a set of climate indicators related to different climate hazards. Climate projections highlight a general warming expected in Italy by 2036-2065, especially under the RCP8.5 scenario, while a decrease in annual total precipitation for southern Italy is expected, under the RCP8.5 scenario. However, as precipitation patterns are subject to significant natural variations, the evaluation of future change in precipitation is more uncertain than in temperature.

In order to study the expected mid-21st century climate anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH), climate simulations under RCP 8.5 scenario from the NEMO ocean model, applied to the Mediterranean Sea (resolution of 7 km), were considered. NEMO was forced with CMCC-CM climate model at ~80 km horizontal resolution. With reference to the Italian seas, an overall increase in SST is expected by 2036-2065, as well as an increase in SSH.
Italy is notoriously prone to natural hazards and climate change is expected to increase the Italian vulnerability to climate-related hazards over the next decades. This, combined with the economic, social and environmental pressures, makes Italy one of the most vulnerable country in Europe.
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
Snow and ice load
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and types
Saline intrusion
Sea level rise
Water scarcity
Solid massAcuteAvalanche
Landslide
Subsidence
ChronicCoastal_erosion
Soil erosion
Sol degradation
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frost
Heat wave
Wildfire
ChronicChanging temperature
Permafrost thawing
Temperature variability
WindAcuteCyclone
Storm
Tornado
Chronic
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtsignificantly increasing
Floodsignificantly increasing
Heavy precipitationsignificantly increasing
Snow and ice loadsignificantly decreasing
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and typesevolution uncertain or unknown
Saline intrusionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sea level risesignificantly increasing
Water scarcitysignificantly increasing
Solid massAcuteAvalanche Futuresignificantly increasing
Landslide Futuresignificantly increasing
Subsidence Futureevolution uncertain or unknown
ChronicCoastal erosionevolution uncertain or unknown
Soil erosionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sol degradationevolution uncertain or unknown
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frostsignificantly decreasing
Heat wavesignificantly increasing
Wildfiresignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging temperaturesignificantly increasing
Permafrost thawingsignificantly increasing
Temperature variabilityevolution uncertain or unknown
WindAcuteCycloneevolution uncertain or unknown
Stormevolution uncertain or unknown
Tornadoevolution uncertain or unknown
Chronic
Prolonged periods of drought, extreme events as well as changes in rainfall patterns, constitute risks to the quality and availability of water resources in Italy. Furthermore droughts, and the consequent reduction in flow rates, together with overexploitation of water resources, make watercourses and coastal land reserves more exposed to the action of sea level rise, with consequent saltwater intrusion and increased salinity in the freshwater reserve

The increase in localised precipitation phenomena plays an important role in aggravating the risk of geohydrological instability throughout all the peninsula. In this context, anthropogenic factors - such as soil consumption and sealing or occupation of river areas - combined with climate change hazards play a significant role in exacerbating risks. The expected rise in intense rainfall contributes to a further increase in the hydraulic risk for small basins, and amplifies the risk associated with surface landslides in areas with more permeable soils (such as urban areas). Urbanised areas are considered a climate ‘hot spot’ because of the complex system . The expected intensification of extreme weather phenomena, especially heat waves (and urban heat island phenomenon) and intense precipitation over the coming decades, is one of the main amplifiers of climate risks in cities. Due to temperature increases, there is also a significant real risk of a re-emergence of previously endemic agents, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Mediterranean spotted fever, and West Nile fever. Moreover the rise of temperatures have impacts on the mountain areas (Alps and Apennines) with glacial retreat and glacial mass loss, snow cover reduction at low altitude, a progressive warming of permafrost, on the terrestrial ecosystem with the variation of floristic composition, extension, pattern of spatial distribution of plant communities and on dynamism and species colonization processes and on marine ecosystem with the reduction of species with an affinity for cold-water conditions.

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)marine and fisheries
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Changes in thermal regimes, rainfall and their effects on the concentration of dissolved oxygen and salinity can have direct effects on reproduction, growth and survival of the species. The vulnerability of aquaculture to climate change is influenced by the localization of infrastructures used for production that cannot be moved in the case of exceptional climatic conditions. The most vulnerable areas in Italy are located in the North-East and along the Adriatic coast
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Climate change could increase risk for economic activities based on the collection of bivalve and gastropod mollusks or shellfish. The lagoons and the river delta are considered to be the most vulnerable to the effects associated to the increase of surface temperatures, the sea level rise, the water acidification, the increase in the extreme weather events and the water stress. The most vulnerable areas in Italy are located in the North-East and along the Adriatic coast
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Climate change is already affecting the hydrological cycle, with observed consequences on soil moisture, runoff, groundwater recharge. The existing conditions of high stress on water resources and hydro-geologic disturbance in some Italian regions could be exacerbated by projected climate change, with the following effects: reduced water availability and quality and increases in frequency and intensity of droughts especially in summer; increases in frequency and severity of river summer flows reductions and annual river flow decline and limited groundwater recharge; increased seasonal water deficit due to significant pressure of summer tourism peaks in small Italian islands. All these pressures will reduce the capability regenerate reservoirs, increasing, especially in summer and in southern regions, the competition among the different water uses. The systems that have the highest risks are those that use water resources from alluvial aquifers that are characterized by a large storage capacity coupled with long recharging times. Systems dependent on small-sized karst aquifers are particularly vulnerable to possible deficits, requiring the use of alternative resources (usually alluvial aquifers), with the consequent risk of overexploitation in case of prolonged drought.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Prolonged periods of drought, extreme events as well as changes in rainfall patterns, constitute risks to the quality and availability of water resources in Italy. These risks are most evident in the summer months and in semi-arid areas. In the coming decades, the increase in average temperature, evapotranspiration and low rainfall will contribute to a 40% decrease in flow by 2080. A further reduction of 10-15% is also expected because of anthropogenic activities, such as increased water withdrawals. Strong competition for water resources between sectors - such as households, agriculture, industry, energy, tourism - is expected to be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, and will affect both water quality and quantity, especially during the summer season. Furthermore droughts, and the consequent reduction in flow rates, together with overexploitation of water resources, make watercourses and coastal land reserves more exposed to the action of sea level rise, with consequent saltwater intrusion and increased salinity in the freshwater reserve
Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentDesertification is the combined result of anthropic pressure and climate change effects. Regions with “higher sensitive areas” compared to the national average (30%) are: Basilicata, Marche, Molise, Sicilia, Sardegna, Puglia e Emilia-Romagna . Coastal areas of Sardegna, Sicilia and Puglia, like almost all the Italian coastal regions, are already affected by saltwater intrusion which is mainly due to a groundwater overexploitation and to the consequent decreasing ground levels. Water erosion already affects arable hilly areas of central Italy and the calanchian areas of Calabria and Basilicata that are likely to be also the most exposed to the climate change effects on soil erosion.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The gradual worsening of desertification trends, already observed in the whole country, can be accelerated by climate change as it increases the actions of erosion, salinization, loss of organic matter and drying up of soil. Severe indirect socio-economic impacts of this desertification process may follow, including: decline in agriculture and tourism productivity, growing unemployment in rural areas with consequent migration, conflicts over water uses, harm to properties and people, due to increased frequency of fires, overall biodiversity loss.
Key affected sector(s)civil protection and emergency management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentDue to the conformation of the territory and its geographical location in Europe, Italy is an area strongly affected by geological, hydrological, and hydraulic instability phenomena, which represent a significant threat both in terms of expected damages and safety. An analysis of flood risk showed that around 4.0%, 8.1% and 10.6% of the Italian territory was prone to high (return period 1: 20–50 years), medium (return period 1: 100–200 years) and low risk (return period 1: 300–500 years), respectively. In Italy about 94% of the municipalities is actually affected by landslide, flooding and coastal erosion risk. It is estimated that about more than 8 million people (12,5% of the national population) is potentially exposed to high risk and buildings potentially involved are more than 2 million.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The increase in localised precipitation phenomena plays an important role in aggravating the risk of geohydrological instability throughout all the peninsula. In this context, anthropogenic factors - such as soil consumption and sealing or occupation of river areas - combined with climate change hazards play a significant role in exacerbating risks. The most affected areas in relation to this hazard are (and will be) on the Alps and on Apennines, both in terms of magnitude and seasonality of disturbances. Moreover, the expected rise in intense rainfall contributes to a further increase in the hydraulic risk for small basins, and amplifies the risk associated with surface landslides in areas with more permeable soils (such as urban areas).
Key affected sector(s)biodiversity (including ecosystembased approaches)
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The impacts of recent climate change have been so far more evident mainly in the Alpine region and in the Mediterranean area. Among the most significant impacts on species distribution in the alpine region are: the upward migration of alpine species, the upward migration of shrubs species, the rise of arboreal species, the variation of floristic composition, extension and pattern of spatial distribution of plant communities and finally the acceleration of the impacts of climate change on dynamism and species colonization processes.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Mediterranean-type terrestrial ecosystems are likely to be affected by climate change with the following future effects: (i) advancing trends in plant phenology; (ii) changes in spatial distribution of flora and fauna; (iii) increased risk of extinction for several terrestrial species, changes in the structure of the biological community and biodiversity loss; (iv) loss of wetlands ecosystems; (v) reduction in forests extension and biodiversity loss, especially in the South and in the mountains; (vi) shift of plant and animal species towards higher elevations (with changes in the composition and structure of alpine and nival communities)
Key affected sector(s)energy
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The energy sector is particularly vulnerable to climate change, as a result mainly of the high sensitivity of production and consumption to temperature and extreme weather events. The hydropower production is already affected, and will be increasingly affected in the future, by meteo-climatic variations, which are responsible of a reduction of water availability and a more difficult water management.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The increase in energy demand for cooling in summertime could exceed the decreasing energy demand for heating in winter. Summer cooling needs might increase up to 50% Italy by 2080. Furthermore, the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather phenomena will also affect the energy production and supply, both from fossil fuel power plants and form plants based on renewable sources.
Key affected sector(s)marine and fisheries
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentBiodiversity effects associated to the increasing sea surface temperature of the Mediterranean sea are already occurring and are documented by the high number of tropical alien species that are now settled in the basin. This phenomena, combined with the reduction of species with an affinity for cold-water conditions, are producing change in the structure of marine ecosystems and consequently in their functioning. In the Adriatic, over the last 20 years, the number of thermophilous species has increased significantly and several rare species are becoming abundant. In the last decades the increasing development of marine mucilage in Italian waters indicates altered environmental conditions for such aquatic system. This phenomenon might favor the spreading of pathogenic bacteria. A moderate rise in the Mediterranean mean surface temperature has been observed together with changes in the geographical and bathymetric distribution of animal and plant species, including the fish fauna. The influx of non-Mediterranean species has become progressively more rapid in recent times.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Mediterranean marine organisms, communities and ecosystems might be further altered by climate change, including with spreading of invasive species driven by water warming, which would cause a general threat and possible decline of marine biodiversity. Many biological processes are expected to be negatively affected by climate change especially in summer (possible mass mortality of invertebrates); simulations of these conditions indicate a biomass loss higher than 35%. The following adverse climate change effects can be expected: (i) fish stock movements, inducing changes in the composition of biological communities in a given area also affecting the economic activities related to fishery; (ii) reduction in the resilience of many water ecosystems due to anthropogenic stress (e.g. from overfishing, pollution, tourism, fragmentation and loss of habitat); (iii) possible general reduction in the productivity of the fished species.
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The most vulnerable inland and transition water ecosystems are marginal environments and groundwater dependent ecosystems, high altitude lakes, and the waterways of the Apennines and the major islands on which significant pressures are already insisting such as land and water resources exploitation. High vulnerability is projected also for lakes of central and southern Italy, due to a reduction of precipitations and an increase in temperature that, combined with an increase in water consumption, could accentuate the risk of deterioration of water quality
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Future scenarios for these ecosystems depict loss of habitats, as well as biotic components and processes. Higher temperatures might increase the risk of excessive growth of algae and cyanobacteria in the lakes and eventually of eutrophication processes in lake ecosystems, especially in late summer
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The observed impacts are : (i) increased heat-related mortality and morbidity, related to summer heat waves; (ii) slight reduction of cold-related mortality, linked to expected milder winter temperatures; (iii) increased risk of injuries, morbidity and deaths, from floods, heavy precipitation and fires events; (iv) increased respiratory diseases and allergic disorders; (v) adverse consequences of potentially more frequent and prolonged extreme ozone events and increasing toxicity of pollutants particularly in summertime; (vi) possible increase of the cases of West Nile fever and leishmania, of risks for malaria and dengue fever and of the spreading of vector borne diseases
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Increase in injuries, morbidity and deaths due to climate-related events (heat waves, flooding, heavy precipitation, fire events). Due to temperature increases, there is a significant real risk of a re-emergence of previously endemic agents, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Mediterranean spotted fever, and West Nile fever. The health sector could be also affected in the short term by the arrival of communicable tropical diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, Crimean-Congo fever or Rift Valley fever, and diseases occurring in animals, including bluetongue and oily skin disease. In addition, in the international context, Italy has the highest heat related effects on daily mortality considering overall summer temperatures.
Key affected sector(s)forestry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The impact of climate change is causing changes in growth rates and productivity, changes in the composition of existing species ,altitudinal /latitudinal displacement of forest habitats, biodiversity loss , increased risk of fire and damages from insects and pathogens, as well as alteration of the water and carbon cycles
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Existing studies show that climate change could induce overall changes in the composition of species and habitats of Italian forests, resulting in local losses of biodiversity. Potential impacts of climate change include: (i) northwards and altitudinal shift of the range of climatic and environmental conditions typical of the Mediterranean area; (ii) reduction of growth and productivity rates in central-Southern Italy; (iii) changes in the distribution of main tree forest species in central Italy mostly located in the central Apennines, over 1500 m, in 2080; (iv) higher risk of forest fires and droughts, with possible extension of burned areas, more ignitions and longer fire seasons (in particular in the Alpine area and in Calabria, Campania, Sicilia and Sardegna regions). Some possible positive impacts, such as an increase in forest productivity in the Alps in relation to the expansion of the growing season could be expected.
Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The productive capacity of agricultural crops in the Mediterranean region is strongly conditioned by the amount of available water in the soil even more than by the temperatures. In Italy water shortages during specific crop development stages may reduce the productivity of most crops (e.g. corn, soybeans and wheat). The decline in agricultural productivity could especially concern wheat yield and fruit and vegetables production, as a consequence of water scarcity, pathogens species and soil degradation increase.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The risk posed by climate change to the agricultural sector in Italy is significant for both plant and animal production. Higher atmospheric concentrations of CO2 can promote photosynthetic activity and water use efficiency of crops, but at the same time can negatively affect the nutritional quality of products, reduce the protein content of cereals and the concentrations of iron and zinc, with significant consequences on nutritional values. The assessment of climate risk for irrigated agriculture due to climate change is strongly linked to the specific crop needs and climatic conditions of each geographical area. Specifically, the Regions that will be most negatively affected are the Southern Regions (e.g., Sicily, Sardinia, and Apulia), while some Central and Northern Regions could be positively affected. Regarding the negative impacts of climate change on the livestock, climate change will have repercussions on health, production, and reproduction. Increasing rising temperatures will subject the livestock to heat stress events (amplified in term of magnitude and frequency), with significant consequences for productivity in this sector.
Key affected sector(s)coastal areas
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe costal erosion phenomena are related to sea level rise, due to the melting of glaciers, the subsidence and the thermal expansion of the ocean masses because of climate change and the anthropogenic pressures that make them particularly vulnerable, with increased flood risk, instability and saline intrusions into coastal aquifers. Over 7.500 km of Italian coasts, 47% is represented by high or rocky shores and 53% are beaches. About 42% of the beaches is currently undergoing erosion processes. Saltwater intrusion in the coastal groundwater is already occurring in many coastal areas and will be aggravated by the sea level rise and the precipitation reduction, causing new potential problems to water supply.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The potential future impacts are: (i) increase in coastal erosion and instability; (ii) loss of coastal land and related economic activities, infrastructures, urban settlements, recreational areas and natural heritage sites; (iii) reduction and loss of biodiversity and ecosystems (especially wetlands), and decrease of marine life caused by the combined effect of climate change and anthropogenic stress; (iv) damages to coastal rural economy, due to saltwater intrusion; (v) negative impacts on tourism and possible displacement of tourist flows; (vi) possible threat to human health posed by flood events
Key affected sector(s)tourism
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentClimate change impacts projections on the tourist sector show a decrease in the italian attractivity as an international destination which will mean a decrease in tourist flows. Those impacts will vary across regions: the most likely vulnerable regions are, in descending order, Sicily, Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available fot this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Without adaptation measures, according to the estimates of the Hamburg Tourism Model, Italy by the end of the century will lose significant market shares sliding from the current fifth to the thirteenth among the most popular international destinations. Climate change will particularly affect: 1) coastal summer, due to high temperatures and water scarcity, 2) winter mountain tourism, due to decreasing natural snow cover, 3) tourism in art cities. According to several studies, in the coming decades a snow cover will decrease and a rise of the snowfall limit will be observed. Winter tourism will be then strongly affected, in particular in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardia, Trentino Alto Adige and Piemonte.
Key affected sector(s)urban
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Urbanised areas are considered a climate ‘hot spot’ because of the complex system that characterises them, but also for the number of citizens that populates them. In Italy, urban centres host 56% of the population.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. The expected intensification of extreme weather phenomena, especially heat waves (and urban heat island phenomenon) and intense precipitation over the coming decades, is one of the main amplifiers of climate risks in cities also the climate risk related to flooding is projected to increase.
Key affected sector(s)tourism; urban
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentWater plays a predominant role as a possible damage factor of cultural heritage: extreme events, floodings and storms, could cause structural damages to the roofs and ornamental elements of buildings. Humidity changes are responsible for the growth of microorganisms, especially on stone and wood materials, and the formation of salts that degrade surfaces and accelerate corrosion phenomena.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, combined with rainfall, is expected to cause an increase up to 30% of the chemical dissolution of carbonate stone materials, respect to the present. Data show that Mediterranean regions including Sicily, particularly rich in monuments and archaeological sites in stone, will continue to experience a high level of thermal stress risk, with values sometimes over 200 events per year at the end of the century
Key affected sector(s)transport
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentIn Italy, there is no currently a unique, specific and complete framework for the assessment of climate change impacts on transports. Extreme weather events already cause damages to infrastructure: • the increase in temperatures, which increases the vulnerability of road and rail infrastructure • the variation in precipitation, which adversely affects soil stability and consequently road and railway infrastructures located in unstable environments and increases the risk of flooding of underground infrastructures; • sea level variation, which poses risks for road and rail infrastructures located on coastal areas and port infrastructures; • floods, which have impacts on transport infrastructures located near watercourses
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Due to the future possible increase in extreme weather events, temperature rise, changing precipitation patterns, increased risk of floods, landslides and rock falls, possible deterioration, disruption or inaccessibility of the transport network will occur increasingly
Key affected sector(s)industry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentOver the last 20 years at least 20 NaTech events (events in which a natural disaster triggers one or more technological disaster) have taken place, involving refineries, chemical and petrochemical industries and gas pipelines
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Due to the future increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, the impacts on infrastructure (i.e. gas pipelines, oil pipelines, pipelines carrying inflammable or toxic substances) and hazardous industrial activities (i.e. plants at risk of major accident and other productive activities using hazardous chemical substances) will be increasingly significant
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe climate change impacts on mountain areas (Alps and Apennines) mainly concern glacial retreat , glacial mass loss, snow cover reduction at low altitude and progressive warming of permafrost.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. In the coming decades the impacts of climate change so far observed in the mountain systems will increase their magnitude. The decrease in summer rainfall and the increase in winter precipitation - increasingly in terms of rain - together with the acceleration of the cryosphere melting, will result in significant changes in the mountainous hydrological regime. An increase in glacial risk is also expected, as substantially stable areas will become more subject to collapses and landslides.
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe river Po district is the most important in Italy in terms of geographical, economic, social and political conditions, despite the abundance of water resources is extremely vulnerable to changes induced by climate change. Since 2003, the Po basin has been characterized by frequent water scarcity conditions compared to the demand, as a consequence of the more arid climate on one side and the variations in demand related to new factors on the other side. In particular, summer energy needs have increased in addition to water irrigation needs arising from agricultural drought.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAssessment not available for this sector
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentQualitative assessment. Due to climate variations and to the reduction of the area and the volume of the alpine glaciers, large variations of water outflows will likely occur and will be only partially compensated by the existing artificial hydraulic works.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Italy is notoriously prone to natural hazards and climate change is expected to increase climate-related hazards over the next decades. This, combined with the economic, social and environmental pressures, makes Italy one of the most vulnerable countries in Europe. The Italian NAS, adopted in 2015, analyzed the state of scientific knowledge on impacts and vulnerability to climate change for the major socioeconomic and environmental sectors. During the 2021 an update of the risk analysis has been developed by the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC). Since 2018 the National System for Environmental Protection, which is composed by ISPRA and the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies (Law n. 132/2016), set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators. A subset of 20 national indicators and 30 regional case studies have been elaborated.
In 2015 the Ministry for the Environment and Energy Security (former Ministry for the Ecological Transition) adopted the National Adaptation Strategy to climate change. The Strategy outlined a national framework to deal with the impacts of climate change on the main natural systems and economic sectors. The Ministry is currently working for the implementation of the Strategy through the National Adaptation Plan (NAP), now undergoing strategic environmental assessment (SEA). The scoping phase of the SEA was completed in May 2021. As a result of comments received, the draft Plan was reformulated and amended to better respond to the observations. After the NAP approval, a monitoring scheme will be set up.
In the framework of CReIAMO PA project "Strengthening of administrative capacity for climate change adaptation" (financed on EU funds) DG USSRI (Directorate General for sustainable land use and water resources) coordinates of line 5 addressed to Regions and Local Administrations, for strengthening administrative capacity on adaptation. In this context the expert team initiated a reflection on the topic, in particular with regard to monitoring indicators. In addition, the Ministry is monitoring the presence of the elements related to adaptation in the SEA procedures, pointing out any lack of climate-related considerations in the consultations.
The NAS includes a proposal for actions aiming at reinforcing coordination between disaster risk prevention and management and the adaptation strategies, to guarantee an enhanced capacity to cope with some extreme events, in particular the hydrogeological damage, including under climate change. The draft National Adaptation Plan also suggests actions related to the assessment and management of climate change risks. However, at the moment, there is not any coordination mechanism for integrating climate change impact assessment into disaster risk management. However, one of the soft actions in the draft Plan is focused on mainstreaming adaptation into national, regional and local Plans and Programs.
The National System for collection, elaboration and dissemination of environmentally relevant climate data (SCIA) has been realized by ISPRA. It aims to establish a common procedure for calculating, updating and representing Italian climate data. In addition, the National System for Environmental Protection, set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators. In October 2022, the National Platform on Adaptation to Climate Change was published, a portal aimed at informing and raising awareness on the issue of adaptation. The Platform makes available data and tools for supporting public administration in decision-making processes.
Adaptation is a cross-cutting issue that needs synergistic actions that take into account the impacts of climate change in different sectors. Therefore, the main interests are directed to: define the National Adaptation Plan to climate change; support local administrations through information exchange and training activities; disseminate and share data and knowledge on the subject through easily accessible interactive tools; develop studies, models and tools concerning specific relevant hazards to which the Italian territory is subject. The Ministry of Environment and Energy Security is primarily focusing its attention on administrative strengthening and knowledge enhancement.
At the national level there is still a lack of coordination, while at the sub-national level there is a great lack of homogeneity in adaptation planning and actions. Difficulties are linked to the lack of detailed data for the construction of climate frameworks and for regional and local forecasting scenarios; the lack of decision support systems to guide the decision makers in their choices; the lack of specific skills within the administrations and the need to build new governance models; the availability of funds to cover the needs of the different sectors and the difficulty to act in an integrated way. Italy is trying to overcome this barriers through systemic actions under the NAP, aimed at defining national governance for adaptation, mainstreaming adaptation into planning at all levels, defining sectoral and cross-sectoral means for implementing adaptation measures, improving, and systemizing the knowledge framework. The steering functions of the governance structure are represented by defining roles, responsibilities and priorities for action, identifying sources of funding, and identifying legislative, regulatory, and procedural barriers to adaptation. Some activities aimed at laying the knowledge base on regulatory barriers have already been initiated.
The Ministry of Environment and Energy Security is working on the implementation of the NAS through the development of the National Adaptation Plan to climate change (NAP). The purpose the NAP is to lay the foundation for short and long term planning, through the definition of specific measures aimed both at strengthening the adaptive capacity and development of an optimal organizational framework. The overall goal of the NAP is declined through four specific objectives:
- establishing national governance on adaptation;
- improving and systematizing the knowledge framework on climate change impacts, vulnerability and risks;
- defining ways to include adaptation principles, actions and measures in national, regional and local Plans and Programs:
- definition of sectoral and cross-sectoral tools for implementing actions.

The draft NAP is currently subject to public consultation under the Strategic Environmental Assessment. At the end of the procedure the Plan will be formally approved and within three months of its approval the governance structure will be established.

Also in 2023, the activities of the CReIAMO PA project – Line 5 "Strengthening of administrative capacity for climate change adaptation" (financed on EU funds) continue with supporting regions and municipalities in applying methodologies for developing adaptation strategies and plans.

As a result, the number of administrations that have produced acts and documents on adaptation in their territories is increased in the last two years and it is expected to increase further.

In June 2021, a funding Program for urban adaptation was launched. It is aimed at increasing the resilience of cities to the risks of climate change, particularly to heat waves, extreme rainfall and drought phenomena. This is the first initiative to set these objectives at the national level, for now intended for municipalities with a population over 60.000 inhabitants. The Programme allocates around 80 million euro for the implementation of mainly green and blue actions, but also, to a lesser extent, grey actions. In addition, it includes a series of adaptive capacity building measures. As of December 2022, 80 municipalities have been eligible for funding and have started interventions.
One of the actions of the NAP aimed at administrative strengthening for adaptation, is focused on mainstreaming. The action aims at the Identification of modalities, tools and competent actors for the introduction of climate change adaptation principles, measures and actions in the national, regional and local plans and programs. It will be implemented by the governance structure within six months of the approval of the NAP. For this purpose, some activities have already been started, such as the establishment of a working group on adaptation for the implementation of the national strategy of the circular economy.
In the National Recovery and Resilience Plan envisages some measures:
- Structural works for at-risk areas and damaged buildings: structural measures aimed at ensuring safety against landslides or reducing the risk of flooding are complemented by non-structural measures included in water and flood risk management plans, focusing on land maintenance, rehabilitation, tracking and prevention. In areas hit by disasters, damaged public structures and infrastructure will be restored, as well as reducing the residual risk to protect public and private safety.
- Measures to protect existing green areas and create new urban forests and forests in the outskirts, planting over 6.6 million trees. Biodiversity will be preserved and enhanced, protecting the ecological processes linked to the full functionality of ecosystems.
- Restore the course of the River Po to promote the recovery of original natural habitats;
- Increased protection for marine habitats through the use of new technology
- Increased digitalisation of national parks and marine reserves to better protect the local area and natural habitats
- More resilient water infrastructure throughout Italy: finance 25 projects for enhancement, completion and extraordinary maintenance of the primary infrastructures for source, stocking and water supply in the entire Country, so as to improve the quality of the water and guarantee the continuity of supply to the important urban areas and large irrigated areas.
The Ministry of Environment and Energy Security finances measures for energy efficiency, sustainable mobility and climate change adaptation in the small islands and in the national parks. The projects developed by the target public actors may foresee the involvement of private sector in the planning and implementation of the interventions.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Description
The Programme is aimed at increasing the resilience of urban centres to risks generated by climate change, with particular reference to heat waves and extreme rainfall and drought phenomena
Status
being implemented
Key type measure (KTM)
D: Nature based solutions and ecosystem-based approaches
Sub-KTM
D1: Green options
The national System for collection, elaboration and dissemination of environmentally relevant climate data (SCIA) has been realized by the national Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA). The climate indicators can be downloaded and displayed in the form of tables, diagrams and maps. Based on SCIA data, trends of mean temperature and total precipitation, as well as their extremes, are regularly updated and disseminated throught the web site and the annual report on climate state and variations over Italy, published by ISPRA. Some regions have local initiatives on climate monitoring and trend evaluation, including dissemination of information via web sites and climate bulletins. Moreover since 2018 the National System for Environmental Protection, which is composed by ISPRA and the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies (Law n. 132/2016), set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators. The first set of indicators is published in June 2021 providing a first picture on climate change impacts at national and regional level. Thirteen sectors have been analized: water resources; soil; terrestrial ecosystems; marine ecosystem; Alpine and Appennine environment; coastal areas; health; forestry; agriculture; fishing; energy; urban areas; culture heritage, and thirty-three potential impacts have been identified.

A subset of 20 national indicators and 30 regional case studies have been elaborated. These indicators belong to various vulnerable sectors according with the NAS and for each one the report specifies climate factors, frequency of data collection, temporal and spatial coverage, and limitations, as well as overall future trends. The indicators have heterogeneous characteristics in terms of data, consistency and length of the historical series.

For some indicators, that have a long time series data, clear and significant trend has been identified. It is important to highlight how the phenomena observed through these indicators present a mostly high cause-effect relationship with climate change. The indicators related to the mountain enviroment have the most concern. The trend of indicators related to socio-ecomonic sectors as average temperature of commercial catches, transpiration deficit and also ones with indirect connections show that phenomena of species distribution, increase in agricultural drought and water stress of natural vegetation are already in progress. The indicators showing trends in progress, although not yet statistically significant, already seem to be consistent with the expected future scenario. Only after the continuous observation and monitoring of the phenomena, the statistical and validation of data the current evidence can be confirmed.
After the NAP approval, a monitoring scheme will be set up also taking into account the information available on literature.
The specific objectives of the NAP are aimed at defining national governance for adaptation, mainstreaming adaptation into planning at all levels, defining sectoral and cross-sectoral means for implementing adaptation measures, improving, and systemizing the knowledge framework. The steering functions of the governance structure are represented by defining roles, responsibilities and priorities for action, identifying sources of funding, and identifying legislative, regulatory, and procedural barriers to adaptation.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment. The specific objectives of the NAP are aimed at defining national governance for adaptation, mainstreaming adaptation into planning at all levels, defining sectoral and cross-sectoral means for implementing adaptation measures, improving, and systemizing the knowledge framework.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment. The first measure envisage in the draft NAP is the establishment of the "National observatory for adaptation to climate change". The National Observatory will have the task of updating the priorities and the adaptation actions identified by the NAP.
At the national level there is still a lack of coordination, while at the sub-national level there is a great lack of homogeneity in adaptation planning and actions. Difficulties are linked to the lack of detailed data for the construction of climate frameworks and for regional and local forecasting scenarios; the lack of decision support systems to guide the decision makers in their choices; the lack of specific skills within the administrations and the need to build new governance models; the availability of funds to cover the needs of the different sectors and the difficulty to act in an integrated way. Italy is trying to overcome this barriers through systemic actions under the NAP, aimed at defining national governance for adaptation, mainstreaming adaptation into planning at all levels, defining sectoral and cross-sectoral means for implementing adaptation measures, improving, and systemizing the knowledge framework. The steering functions of the governance structure are represented by defining roles, responsibilities and priorities for action, identifying sources of funding, and identifying legislative, regulatory, and procedural barriers to adaptation. Some activities aimed at laying the knowledge base on regulatory barriers have already been initiated.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment.
In application of the NAS, the NAP is currently being drafted and submitted to the Strategic Environmental Assessment.

Good practices and lessons learnt

The demonstration actions carried out on 1400 hectares of beech forest were aimed at testing an adaptive forest planning, closely linked to constant climate monitoring, which takes the form of planning and carrying out the necessary silvicultural interventions when the forest is in a phase of high reactivity, avoiding to intervene when the same is in a phase of low reactivity. Thanks to this approach, forests will be able to react better to silvicultural interventions and to climate change.
CNR - ISMAR analysed climate risks experienced by coastal and transitional areas, particularly in the Sacca di Goro and Muggia di Grado, as part of the Italy-Croatia Interreg, CHANGE WE CARE. The main objective was to establish a paradigm for transferring effective analysis methods and adaptation measures for pilot sites to other systems facing similar problems on a transboundary scale, and provide coastal communities with integrated, shared planning options based on the eco-systems approach.
The Climate transition strategy was approved by the Municipality of Mantua and by the other administrations of the area to overcome territorial fragmentation and adopt an integrated and synergistic approach between the territories. It addresses the issue of adaptation and mitigation through actions ranging from planning to design, dissemination and training. Actions aimed at increasing resilience address hydrogeological problems, environmental quality and the production system.
GreenRisk4ALPs developed methods and decision support tools to foster an ecosystem-based integrated risk management of natural hazards and climate change impact focusing on protective forests. Five pilot areas of the Alpine Space were involved in the study.
The main goals have been the integration of adaptation strategies in the metropolitan Area of Milan and the creation of a common governance, through the elaboration of tools that allow to implement strategies and policies to increase urban resilience. In order to make the metropolitan area of Milan able to prevent and contrast effectively heat waves and hydrological risk, an integrated plan was developed to support urban planners and policy makers in establishing the priorities.
The study examined the Gran Paradiso National Park as part of the Life PASTORALP project, which also covered the Parc National des Ecrins (France). The initiatives implemented focused on the positive effects found through rational grazing of animals through pastoral plans and exploitation of resources according to forage production.
In order to maintain adequate water availability, the University of Florence, as part of the Life PASTORALP project, has examined the Gran Paradiso National Park by developing adaptation strategies to improve water management through tools that ensure water storage (agricultural or multifunctional reservoirs) and its distribution during periods of greatest need.
The main objective is to develop an integrated toolbox focusing on climate-proof water resources management. Italian project partners led the testing process in the Enza Basin pilot area in northern Italy, mainly in the Emilia-Romagna region, with the aim of addressing major water related issues in the area, represented by floods events and related risks, water scarcity events with particular impact on the agricultural sector.
The Municipality of Venice together with the Veneto project partnership is developing a high-resolution forecasting model for the coasts of the northern Adriatic Sea which will take into account sediment transport, erosion, waves, as to simulate different future scenarios concerning the possible impact of floods and storm surges in the Veneto coastal areas, with a focus on Venice and its Lagoon.
SALUTE4CE developed the concept of Urban Environmental Acupuncture (UEA), acting on many small places achieving great effects due to the large number of such places, which significantly contributed to the improvement of environmental management in FUAs. A common methodology and criteria for selecting spots and types of interventions and to elaborate action plans are developed. The Municipality of Alessandria is the area targeted by project activities.
The main objective of Joint_SECAP is to raise the awareness of local authorities to develop targeted climate adaptation capacities in coastal areas, enable them to integrate climate adaptation measures into existing SEAPs (or other plans), to adopt an approach beyond the municipality level as to enhance performance of such measures. The project has involved coastal areas of Italy and Croatia. The scope is to operate on a wider district level refining strategies and adaptation actions.
Flexibility in livestock management practices is the main driving factor in ensuring successful adaptation in alpine permanent grassland. University of Florence proposes a series of strategies to address the vulnerability of Alpine pastures and provides a better capacity to reduce them to ensure success for the adaptation of forage resources in mountain pastures with focus on Parco Nazionale del Gran Paradiso as a part of LIFE PASTORALP involving other Italian and French partners.
The pilot project allowed the implementation of different types of sustainable urban drainage systems in small municipalities, the creation of a help desk and a purchasing group aimed at citizens, and a new building regulatory framework aiming at reducing impacts on land consumption and soil sealing. The project aims to tackle the flood issue on a new participatory perspective. It promotes a set of low-cost measures that municipalities, farms or citizens can manage efficiently.
LIFE ASTI's forecasting systems integrate meteorological forecast and other types of data to anticipate Urban Heat Island occurrence in the cities. It differs from a regular weather forecast of heat wave events as it focuses on the negative impacts of heat on human health. Short-term warning systems, integrated with long-term urban adaptation planning, for the City of Rome, provide potential measures to improve the city living conditions during heatwave and Urban Heat Island occurrence.
The project has been testing a Desertification Adaptation Model to stop further marginalization of the demonstration areas, using innovative climate adaption strategies and technologies to improve land quality, soil conservation and plant support for private and public lands in Mediterranean areas under desertification risk. An overall integrative ecosystem approach is taken, where adaptation targets are combined with improved ecosystem functions and improved socioeconomic development.
SECAP provides guidelines, tools and databases, practical support to municipalities in the Friuli Venezia Giulia and Veneto regions of Italy. The approach has led to the development of timely adaptation measures which guarantee coherence between different sectors and levels of governance in order to understand the impacts of climate change and implement policies for optimal adaptation through the development of regional and local strategies, coherent with national ones.
The objective of the Life SimetoRes project-located within the Simeto Valley, in the municipalities of Paternò, Ragalna and Santa Maria di Licodia-is to promote the implementation of interventions in urban areas that aim to implement the principle of hydraulic invariance, that is, to allow the water cycle to be accomplished without excessive dysfunction due to anthropogenic works, including increased soil sealing, and uncontrolled cementing of natural water flow paths.

Cooperation and experience

Italy is currently engaged in gearing the SDGs to the economic, social and environmental planning. The delivery and the implementation of the NSDS interlink the national programming documents. Regarding the “Planet” area of the strategy, an integrated and inclusive approach geared towards is instrumental for building sustainable and efficient cities, more resilient and safe communities and more interconnected territories enhancing green infrastructures.
Italy is committed to cooperation at international level. For example, in the framework of cooperation on climate change in Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus Region and Central Asia, work is concentrated in strengthening the institutional capacities of local authorities in facing the challenges posed by climate change. Memoranda of understanding have been signed in the field of climate change vulnerability, risk assessment, adaptation and mitigation (sustainable development), with Georgia (15/11/2017), Kazakhstan (4/9/2017), Uzbekistan (24/01/2019) and Turkmenistan (7/11/2019). Two projects, both entitled "Supporting in Implementing the Technical Arrangement on Sustainable Development Cooperation in the field of Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation" have been launched with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
Italy provides support to initiatives to promote a more effective adaptation and resilience action.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

While adaptation planning and implementation at the national level is primarily the responsibility of the Ministry of the Environment, joint efforts may also occur with other national authorities:
- with ISPRA, i.e. for the recent implementation of the National Platform on adaptation.
- inside the MASE, through inter-departmental working groups.
- with other national authorities to fulfil commitments established in national, EU and international law.
- in the context of the Plan for Ecological Transition approved by CITE (act no. 1/2022).
- following the entry into force in 2022 of the National Agency for Meteorology and Climatology (ItaliaMeteo) (according to Law 205/2017).
All Italian Regions and several local authorities participate in activities of the Ministry of the Environment to strengthen administrative capacity in adaptation through Line 5 of the CReIAMO PA Project. Groups of Regions (Po Valley, Alpine areas, Tyrrhenian and Adriatic) collaborate with local authorities to foster adaptation at the local scale. Municipalities in the Alps participate in the 2017 'Budoia Charter for Adaptation in the Alps', within the Alpine Convention. Others participate in the 2018 "Charter of the Apennines". A group of Regions in Central Italy are integrating adaptation in the post-2016 earthquake reconstruction. A path has also been started to adopt a Charter of the Mediterranean Small Islands for climate adaptation.
According to the Italian Constitution (Article 114) 'the Republic is constituted by Municipalities, Provinces, Metropolitan Cities, Regions and the State. Municipalities, Provinces, Metropolitan Cities and Regions are autonomous entities with their own statutes, powers and functions according to the principles established by the Constitution'.

A) REGIONS AND AUTONOMOUS PROVINCES

I) Some local authorities have long since prepared their own Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and/or Plans.

Ia) Lombardia Region adopted, with the support of the Fondazione Lombardia per l'Ambiente (FLA):
- in 2012 the Guidelines for a Climate Change Adaptation Plan (PACC).
- in 2013-2014 the Regional Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change - SRACC (DGR 2907/2014).
- in 2016 a Regional Action Document on Climate Change Adaptation (DGR 628/2016), in order to identify the priority areas in which to intervene by responding to the needs of sector programming.

Ib) Emilia-Romagna Region:
- in 2015 approved the Pathway towards an integrated strategy to combat climate change (DGr 2200/2015)
- in 2018 adopted the Regional Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy that provides a reference framework for the different territorial areas and regional sectors affected by climate change (DGR 187/2018)

Ic) Sardinia Region in 2019 adopted its own Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategy that provides a framework document for sectoral and territorial adaptation policies (DGR 6-50/2019)

Id) Valle d'Aosta Region adopted its Regional Adaptation Strategy in 2021 (DGR 1557/2021).

Ie) Piedmont Region approved a first draft of its Regional Climate Change Strategy in 2022 (DGR no. 23-4671/2022).

If) Molise Region approved its Regional Adaptation Strategy in 2022 (DGR 444/2022).

Ig) The Liguria Region approved its Regional Adaptation Strategy at the beginning of 2023 (DGR 18)/2023).

II) Other Regions (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Marche, Umbria, Lazio, Piedmont, Apulia, Sicily, Abruzzo, and the Autonomous Province of Trento) have started paths, differentiated and with various levels of progress, aimed at preparing a Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategy:

IIa) Abruzzo Region with an approved Programmatic Document of 2015 started a path directed to the drafting of a Climate Change Adaptation Plan (DGR 308/2015)

IIb) Marche Region, Apulia Region, Umbria Region and Lazio Region aim at including adaptation strategies in the Regional Sustainable Development Strategies, collecting climate data, analysis and information and defining the governance structure. Following the approval of the Regional Sustainable Development Strategy, the Apulia Region in 2021 and the Marche Region in 2022, started the Climate Profile as a knowledge base for the elaboration of an Adaptation Plan.

IIc) In 2021, the Autonomous Province of Trento approved the 'Trentino Clima 2021-2023' work programme to draft its own Provincial Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategy (DGP 1306/2021).

III) Some Regions (Basilicata, Tuscany, Friuli Venezia Giulia) adopted Regional Laws dealing with adaptation:

IIIa) by LR 32/2018, Basilicata Region sets as fundamental and characterising objectives of its sectoral policies the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) and the reduction of territorial vulnerability and risks related to climate change (adaptation). With a view to maintaining and increasing the adaptive capacity of natural, social and economic systems.

IIIb) by LR 35/2022, the Region of Tuscany established the Regional Plan for the Ecological Transition as a planning tool, which focuses on sustainable development and the fight against climate change, both in terms of emission reduction and adaptation, as well as setting up a Scientific Technical Committee (composed of experts from ARPAT and other regional research institutes) to support planning.

IIIc) by LR 4/2023, the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region adopted a planning instrument outlining the pathway towards the adoption of various acts, including the Mitigation and Adaptation Strategy and the Mitigation and Adaptation Plan, establishing a governance structure for their adoption that is headed by a steering committee, which makes use of technical-scientific support mainly from public structures.

B) PROVINCES

The Province of Potenza, by means of Presidential Decree No. 76 of 31 July 2015, has adopted a 'Strategic Policy Framework to tackle climate change in the Province of Potenza and consequent actions' that sets out energy-environmental matrix objectives to be pursued in the sphere of territorial planning, which include the promotion of resilience for the aspects pertaining to adaptation.

C) METROPOLITAN CITIES (CM)

Some of the 15 Metropolitan Cities (CM), such as CM Milan, are very active on adaptation planning and implementation paths.

D) MUNICIPALITIES

As far as Municipalities are concerned, Ancona was the first Italian city to adopt a Local Adaptation Plan in 2013, thanks to its participation in the European project LIFE ACT - Adapting to Climate change in Time. Through its participation in the European LIFE+ project BLUEAP (Bologna Local Urban Adaptation Plan for a resilient city), Bologna also implemented its own Adaptation Plan in 2015. In 2018, the Municipality of Bologna signed the new Covenant of Mayors for Energy and Climate: in this new framework, the update of the Adaptation Plan merged into the drafting of the Action Plan for Energy and Climate (PAESC) containing: a new climate profile with the reworking of scenarios to 2050, a summary of adaptive capacity factors and vulnerability analysis linked to three areas of contrast such as heat waves in urban areas, extreme events and hydrogeological risk, drought and water shortage.

Milan and Rome are the first Italian cities participating in the '100 Resilient Cities' project initiated by the Rockefeller Foundation (100RC). The Programme promotes the resilience of cities through the appointment of a Chief Resilience Officer, the creation of a Resilience Strategy and the sharing of knowledge and case studies through the global network of partner cities. In 2018, Rome published its Resilience Strategy. Milan approved its Air and Climate Plan (CAP) in 2022, which aims to: fall within the air quality limit values; reduce CO2 emissions and become Carbon Neutral by 2050; and contribute to containing the local temperature increase within 2°C through urban cooling actions and heat island reduction.

In July 2020, Turin's Climate Resilience Plan was approved, outlining an articulated local adaptation strategy to ensure health, liveability of the city, and continuity of services. As part of the Plan, attached are the Open Space Design Guidelines for Climate Resilience (LGRC) edited by the municipality's environment area, with the technical-scientific support of ARPA Piemonte, University of Turin, SMAT SpA, and the Piedmont Region.

At the end of 2019, the Municipality of Genoa equipped itself with a 'Lightouse Genoa flagship city' strategy, identifying priorities and tools to prevent and adapt to the main expected trends of change, including climate change. Addresses and paths to translate these inputs were specified in 2021, in the document Genoa 2050: action plan for a Lighthouse City, based on 12 priority measures, to put the overall design into practice.

The Adaptation Strategy of the city of Reggio Emilia in 2021 (Life Urban Proof Project 'Climate Proofing Urban Municipalities') was developed as part of the Action Plans that municipalities submit as signatories of the Covenant of Mayors, identifying the main vulnerabilities of the territory and a series of short and long-term adaptation measures to reduce the impacts of heat waves and flooding, focusing on open space design addresses and regulations to combat soil consumption.

Within the Adapt Project (Interreg Italy-France Maritime Programme 2014-2020), the Municipality of Livorno coordinated the elaboration of the Local Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change and Floods; together with Livorno, other centres in the Tyrrhenian area such as Alghero, Sassari, Oristano, La Spezia, and Savona have drafted risk analyses and local plans of action to counter flooding.

In its own path towards adapting to climate change, the city of Padua also drew up Guidelines for the construction of the Climate Change Adaptation Plan in 2016.

Besides the above mentioned initiatives, many other of the approximately 7,900 Italian Municipalities already adopted a Local Adaptation Plan (or a Local Mitigation and Adaptation Plan) or a SECAP (Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan), or are concluding its adoption. Among the latter is the Municipality of L'Aquila, which is pursuing a well-structured pathway on adaptation planning.

E) As to efforts on adaptation, it may also be pointed out that 14 sub-national Italian authorities are signatories of the Horizon Europe Adaptation Mission Charter (8 Regions, 2 Provinces, 3 Municipalities and 1 Mountain Community)".
The National Operational Plan for the prevention of the effects of heat on health (Ministry of Health and Department of Epidemiology of the Lazio Region) encourages the activation of emergency protocols, call centers and support services for the most vulnerable, especially in the northern cities affected by the increase in mortality, which in summer 2022 reached +36% in the country.

Several European projects (Interreg, Life, H2020, UIA, ESPON, etc.) have helped over the years to activate local adaptation partnerships made up of students, researchers, experts, young professionals involved in drafting risk analyses, addresses to raise awareness among citizens and stakeholders, as well as making available data and decision-support tools that can be used by public administrations to plan services for the most vulnerable.

Examples are:
- The Life Metro Adapt project, concluded in 2020, which led to the drafting of guidelines for climate analysis, vulnerability management and planning in regional areas (Sardinia, Lombardy) and metropolitan aggregations of municipalities (North Milan, Metropolitan City of Venice, North Salento)
- Life Veneto Adapt, which ended in 2021, focused on the impact of climate in large areas (network of cities in central Veneto) with a special focus on combating floods and heat islands.
- Several cross-border cooperation projects (Interreg Adapt, SECAP, Joint, AdriaClim, etc.) have given rise to urban and local partnerships, as well as to online participative platforms, supporting the development of adaptation plans for the Adriatic or Tyrrhenian coastal strip.
- The initiatives taken by networks of Regions, Cities and local authorities, concerning very fragile territorial areas exposed to the impacts of climate change, such as:
a) the "Budoia Charter for Adaptation in the Alps" (June 2017), which sees the participation of municipalities belonging to 7 states in the Alpine arc.
b) the "Charter of the Apennines" (May 2018) presented in Camerino, which sees the participation of municipalities in the Apennines.
c) the path towards the adoption of a "Charter of the Minor Islands of the Mediterranean for Adaptation to Climate Change", the process of which was undertaken on the occasion of the Workshop entitled "Adaptation to Climate Change in the Minor Islands" organised in 2022 by Line 5 of the CReIAMO PA Project (PON Governance and Institutional Capacity 2014-2020).
d) the development of collaborative networks at an interregional and Po river basin scale (e.g. Life ClimaxPo Project).

Some Regions also took initiatives to localise adaptation actions in particular areas of their context. One example is the collaboration project between the Central Italian Regions affected by the 2016-17 earthquake (Abruzzo, Marche and Umbria), which set up a coordination table with the aim of tackling the reconstruction and management aspects of risks that are not only anthropic, but also environmental and climatic, acting in a multi-level perspective capable of strengthening the area's degree of resilience. Such table, promoted by Line 5 of the CReIAMO PA Project, was also attended by the Lazio Region and the Central Apennine District Basin Authority to discuss planning processes at the basin scale.

The Municipality of Milan has also initiated a process of public consultation and listening to citizens during both the adoption and implementation phases of the Air and Climate Plan. The process in the adoption phase involved stakeholders, civil society organisations, professional associations and economic subjects. For the implementation phase of the Plan's actions, a Permanent Citizens' Climate Assembly was set up, made up of 90 citizens drawn by lot, who could discuss, debate and deepen their thoughts on the Plan.
In Emilia-Romagna, the Regional Climate Change Forum, established following the regional joint Strategy of Mitigation and Adaptation, promotes permanent dialogue with local authorities, citizens and productive sectors by providing a forum to discuss policies and update choices. In 2021 the Forum started a survey activity among enterprises to detect their knowledge of the climate issue, as well as training and awareness-raising meetings on mitigation and adaptation management tools for SMEs. The Emilia Romagna Region has also signed the Pact for Work and the Climate together with local authorities, trade unions, businesses, schools, universities, environmental associations, the third sector and voluntary sector, professions, chambers of commerce and banks. The Pact and the subsequent agreements that will be signed are the instrument to define the strategic objectives towards which to direct the resources available for the regional territory (EU, national and regional funds, private investments) and to share the urgent and structural interventions needed to get the economy and society moving again, with a focus on climate and adaptation objectives.

Other relevant initiatives are the thematic and/or territorial forums implemented by several regional administrations within the definition process of the Regional Sustainable Development Strategies: specific discussion activities on climate change adaptation issues took place in 2021 and 2022, particularly in Marche and Lazio. The Abruzzo Region in 2021, within the Joint-Secap project (Interreg Italy-Croatia) carried out several thematic meetings with coastal municipalities, SMEs and Universities located in Abruzzo, to illustrate the Climate Change Adaptation Guidelines by the task force for the drafting of the Adaptation Plan.

Important dialogue paths with business stakeholders, the research world and local civil society actors have been developed in continuity with the processes supported by the MASE for the definition of Metropolitan Sustainable Development Agendas. Particular research activities have involved the metropolitan cities of Milan, Rome Capital, Venice and Genoa on adaptation issues related to metropolitan spatial and strategic planning. Among these, it is worth mentioning the adaptive redevelopment path 'productive areas pro adaptive areas (ap+a)', launched in 2021, consisting of co-design meetings and living labs with the actors of the productive and commercial districts of the metropolitan city of Milan.

On a municipal scale, the city of Bologna initiated the 'urban green areas pact' (GAIA) based on a public-private partnership model that uses financial compensation for the carbon footprint of companies to purchase plants and maintain trees throughout the city. Developed in several project phases (Life Programme), various tools and guidelines prepared by the municipality detail the steps to ensure the proper implementation of the initiative.

Still on the subject of urban forestation, in 2021 the municipality of Florence signed an operating agreement with the Consorzio di Bonifica for the management and maintenance of Mensola Park (north-east of the city) in order to adapt it to the growing risks of flooding, assigning to the Consorzio the realisation of hydraulic works, while the municipality will be responsible for complementary works for the evacuation and use of the park such as: a cycle-pedestrian connection path, signage, recreational areas, surveillance.
Line 5 “Strengthening Administrative Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation” of the project “CReIAMO PA” (PON Governance and Institutional Capacity 2014-2020), of which the Ministry of the Environment and Energy Security is a beneficiary, within the framework of its planned activities, is currently carrying out a review concerning the state of play of the implementation of measures planned under sub-national strategies, policies, plans and efforts and stakeholder engagement.
Line 5 “Strengthening Administrative Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation” of the project “CReIAMO PA” (PON Governance and Institutional Capacity 2014-2020), of which the Ministry of the Environment and Energy Security is a beneficiary, within the framework of its planned activities, is currently mapping the good practices with regard to steps taken to review and update subnational adaptation plans, policies, strategies and measures. The results of the Project will be available in the late 2023.
Ancona was the first Italian city to adopt a Local Adaptation Plan in 2013, thanks to its participation in the European project LIFE ACT - Adapting to Climate change in Time. Through its participation in the European LIFE+ project BLUEAP (Bologna Local Urban Adaptation Plan for a resilient city), Bologna also implemented its own Adaptation Plan in 2015. Within the Adapt Project (Interreg Italy-France Maritime Programme 2014-2020), the Municipality of Livorno coordinated the elaboration of the Local Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change and Floods. Several cross-border cooperation projects (Interreg Adapt, SECAP, Joint, AdriaClim, etc.) have given rise to urban and local partnerships, as well as to online participative platforms, supporting the development of adaptation plans for the Adriatic or Tyrrhenian coastal strip.

Ministry of Environment and Energy Security

Directorate General Sustainable Land Use and Water Resources
Coordinating adaptation policies
Baffo Fabiana
Official

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'