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Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2022-12-31

Item Status Links
Meteorological observations
Climate projections and services
Adaptation portals and platforms
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
Bulgaria is situated in one of the regions that is particularly vulnerable to climate change (mainly through temperature increase and extreme precipitation) and to the increased frequency of climate change-related extreme events, such as droughts and floods. The risks inflicted by climate change-related events may lead to loss of human life or cause considerable damage, affecting economic growth and prosperity, both nationally and transboundary.
    Consensus exists in the scientific community that climate change is likely to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. Over the past decades, in Bulgaria, this frequency has increased significantly. The most common hydrometeorological and natural hazards are extreme precipitation and temperatures, storms, floods, wildfires, landslides, and droughts. The number of deaths and victims due to natural hazards is considerable, indicating weather and climate vulnerability. The vulnerability of Bulgaria’s population and businesses to the impacts of climate change is accelerated by a relatively high degree of poverty in the most affected areas, the continuing concentration of the country’s population in several industrial and urban regions, and various consequences of the transition from a state-controlled economy to a free-market economy. A growing body of evidence suggests that economic losses from climate- and weather-related disasters have also been rising.
There is a continuing process of population aging, which results in reduction of the share of the population of ages below 15 and increase of the share of ages 65 and above. According to recent United Nations projections, by 2050, one in three Bulgarians is projected to be older than 65 and only one in two Bulgarians will be of working age. Because the proportion of the population that works is a key determinant of a country’s income level, its decline is likely to depress growth. The higher productivity grows, the easier it will be for Bulgaria to manage this demographic challenge. The World Bank Group estimations show that productivity will need to grow by at least 4 percent per year over the next 25 years for Bulgaria to catch up with average EU income levels and thus, boost prosperity.
    In 2017, Bulgaria’s population was 7,050,034 with people over 65 years accounting for 21 percent of the total. A recent EuroStat survey found that, in 2017, 35 percent of the population (2.5 million Bulgarians, mainly aged below 15 and over 65) is living in poverty. Thus, a serious challenge to the social development of the country is the risk of poverty and social exclusion, which is above the EU average. This unfavorable demographic situation is not only affecting economic development but is also placing a high burden to the national health system threatening its financial stability.
    From a regional development perspective, large disparities still exist between urban and rural areas, and between the development regions in Bulgaria. Problems such as negative natural population growth, migration, poor age structure, low level of employment, and poor infrastructure need to be urgently addressed especially in the northwestern region NUTS 2 level and in smaller settlements. The intra-regional disparities are a major problem to achieving sustainable regional development. The development of key economic sectors like tourism, agriculture, and urban development are hindered by these disparities, and these are also designated among the most vulnerable to climate change.
Currently, 73.2 percent of the total population lives in urban areas, 46 percent out of which is concentrated in six big cities, including the capital Sofia. This concentration places considerable pressure on the urban infrastructure, environment, and natural resources. The condition of technical infrastructure networks and amenities do not adequately meet urban needs and obstructs the proper functioning of cities. The physical environment and the buildings are worn out, while facilities like roads, pedestrian areas, landscaping, urban centers, and so on, are in poor condition.
    Almost 99 percent of the population are supplied with drinking water, but the supply systems within settlements is physically and morally outdated with frequent failures, low efficiency of operation and high losses (of over 60 percent). The availability of sewerage networks and wastewater treatment plants are much less developed than water supply systems. According to Eurostat data from 2016, the share of towns and cities with sewerage systems is 67 percent and rural areas is 3.2 percent.
    Another major challenge facing the country’s economy is low energy efficiency, which has a negative impact on competitiveness. This is due to the outdated energy infrastructure, leading to significant losses in energy transmission. The use of outdated technologies in production processes also accounts for the low productivity and the high energy intensity of the economy. In addition, the energy sector is challenged by its significant dependence on imported energy resources and rising energy prices. More than 70 percent of its gross consumption of natural gas, crude oil, and nuclear fuel comes from imports, primarily from Russia.
    The instrument for overcoming these gaps in technology—investing in new equipment, technology and know-how—is not sufficiently intensive in Bulgaria. Both the state and private sectors allocate very little financial resources to research and development, which deepens the problem of technological backwardness. According to the national statistics data, the expenditure on research and development (R&D) in 2016 amounted to BGN 734 million (€375 million) which, in terms of R&D intensity, represents 0.78 percent of GDP. This is a considerable decrease compared to 2015 when R&D expenditure showed a relative peak of 0.96 percent of GDP. In 2010, Bulgaria adopted, for the first time, a national target to spend up to 1.5 percent of GDP on R&D by 2020. It is still below the current EU average of 2.03 percent, and far from the EU 2020 standards, under which total expenditure on R&D is to reach at least 3 percent of GDP.
Monitoring and Reporting under the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy 2019-2030 (NAS) and its Action Plan should be a participatory process, which enables capacity building and understanding, as well as applying lessons learned from the activities’ experience. It will be performed in accordance with the recently approved Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union , which incorporates the respective provisions of the existing Climate Monitoring Mechanism Regulation and harmonizes them with those of the Paris Climate Agreement.

The monitoring and reporting process shall serve several purposes, as follows:
    Facilitating timely identification and resolution of problems;
    Enhancing the performance of the planned activities;
    Providing the basis for technical and financial accountability;
    Building institutional and local capacity to implement and manage the planned actions successfully; and
    Promoting the identification and dissemination of lessons learned by participants themselves.

Monitoring involves the collection and analysis of data about implemented activities. The data should be easy to understand and will be incorporated in the reports. The monitoring should allow stakeholders to keep track of the activities, to determine whether the objectives are being achieved and to make whatever changes are necessary to improve the performance (an outline of the requirements of performance indicators is given in Section 6.2).
    Projections - Scientific projections indicate that global temperature will rise between 1.8°C and 4°C by 2100, with the temperature increase in Europe expected to be even higher than the estimated global average.
    Research conducted by the Department of Meteorology, National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS), projects an increase in annual air temperature in Bulgaria of 0.7°C to 1.8°C by 2020. Even warmer temperatures are expected by 2050 and 2080, with projected increases of 1.6°C to 3.1°C and 2.9°C to 4.1°C, respectively Generally, the temperature increase is expected to be more significant during the summer season (from July to September).
    In terms of the expected changes in rainfall patterns, a reduction in precipitation is likely, leading to a significant reduction of the total water reserves in the country. In this regard, projections suggest a decrease in precipitation by approximately 10 percent by 2020, 15 percent by 2050, and up to 30 percent to 40 percent by 2080 In most climate change scenarios, rainfall during the winter months is likely to increase by the end of the century, but significant decrease in rainfall during the summer months is expected to offset this increase.
    According to the available climate change scenarios for Bulgaria, there is a trend toward increased frequency of extreme events and disasters, as demonstrated by frequent occurrences of heavy rainfalls, heat and cold waves, floods and droughts, hurricane winds, forest fires, and landslides.
    Biodiversity, land and aquatic ecosystems, as well as water resources, agriculture, and forestry sectors are expected to be affected by the anticipated changes. These changes would furthermore affect society and its citizens as well as the economy as a whole.
    Climate change impacts do not affect all people and territories equally due to different levels of exposure, existing vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacities to cope. The risk is greater for the segments of the society and businesses that are less prepared and more vulnerable.
This National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy fills in a gap in the Bulgarian climate change policy by mapping out the country’s approach for adapting key sectors of the economy to a changing climate. It is the reference document outlining the strategic framework and priorities with regard to climate change adaptation up to 2030. The Strategy is supported by in-depth vulnerability and risk assessments and highlights key priority areas for action on this basis. It is complemented by an Action Plan setting goals and priorities for improving capacity to adapt, formulating climate change adaptation measures per sector, providing a timeline for implementation of these measures, and pointing out the necessary resources and responsible institutions.
    The adaptation action will aim at building resilience of the society and businesses which are able to make timely and well-informed decisions to address challenges and opportunities presented by a changing climate. The vision for such a society has driven the set of general objectives in the Strategy and the choice of adaptation actions related to awareness rising, institutional and capacity building, and mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into the sectoral policies.
    The overall strategy of the climate change adaptation process follows and accepts the mission statements of all involved ministries. The long-term objective of the NAS is to proactively pursue long-term high-impact economic, social, and ecological resilience and sustainability, to allow Bulgaria’s citizens, private sector, and public institutions to adequately prepare and protect themselves against vulnerabilities deriving from climate change’
    Raising awareness and general education on climate change is, among others, an essential pre-condition for good adaptation. The sectoral analyses performed showed that in Bulgaria the degree of awareness and its implications on the economy is still very low. Overall, people recognize that adaptation to climate change is an urgent matter. However, they have very little knowledge on the implications of changing local microclimates and the measures that could be taken. Generally, local citizens are not aware of what is climate adaptation and why is it so important for the economy and for their cities in the longer term. They also do not have a clear view of how they are contributing to the problem and what they can do to reduce their own impact on the living environment. Therefore, further efforts are needed to improve the degree of awareness among local communities. This is closely linked to the need of providing better education in natural sciences, as well as introducing climate change issues in the curricula at all scholar levels.
    Sharing information is an essential tool for building adaptation awareness. Information on climate change, impacts, and possible adaptation actions should be formulated in a user-oriented way to reach different audiences. Various formats for communication exist and have proven to be useful in other countries, such as personal consultations, Internet communication/platforms, and mass media to spread information on climate change, impacts, and possible adaptation actions.
    A national web portal gathering tailored information on climate change, including on adaptation of various sectors, could be an excellent tool for disseminating relevant information. Such platform should be connected with other existing portals on sectoral policies (for example, water, biodiversity, forestry) and disaster risk prevention/management. A public repository of data, tools and analyses developed for this Strategy (MCA, CBA, and so on) could be created to serve both the decision-making process and further capacity building in climate change adaptation.
    This approach would be fully in line with one of the main priority pillars of the NDP BG2020 which outlines a broad package of measures for the development of e-governance (including achieving an “inter-connected administration”, optimization of information and communication resources through remote access to shared sources, building and maintenance of a National Information Centre, public repositories and so on).

Inter-institutional coordination
    Currently in Bulgaria, in addition to the MoEW, a large number of ministries and other institutions, and municipalities, have responsibilities in relation to climate change adaptation. Respective capacity building measures should be envisaged to enable effective communication throughout the Strategy implementation process. Establishing a national portal with reliable climate-related data and information, as well as a repository of tools, analyses and reports developed under this Strategy would in this respect be instrumental
    The complexity and cross-cutting nature of climate change adaptation requires that continued and enhanced attention is paid to ensuring efficient communication and coordination within and between the organizations involved if adaptation is to be carried out as effectively as possible. According to the CCMA, the MoEW is responsible for the facilitation of coordinative action, with other public institutions responsible for full and constructive cooperation in this adaptation coordination process.
    The MoEW will be supported in this endeavor by the National Expert Council on Climate Change. Sector-specific working groups (WGs) may be established to coordinate implementation of concrete adaptation actions. The Coordination Council on Climate Change is the best placed platform to build on cooperation at the decision-making level.
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and types
Precipitation hydrological variability
Solid massAcuteAvalanche
Landslide
ChronicSoil erosion
Sol degradation
TemperatureAcuteHeat wave
Wildfire
ChronicChanging temperature
Temperature variability
WindAcute
Chronic
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtevolution uncertain or unknown
Floodevolution uncertain or unknown
Heavy precipitationevolution uncertain or unknown
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and typesevolution uncertain or unknown
Precipitation hydrological variabilityevolution uncertain or unknown
Water scarcityevolution uncertain or unknown
Solid massAcuteAvalanche Futureevolution uncertain or unknown
Landslide Futureevolution uncertain or unknown
ChronicSoil erosionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sol degradationevolution uncertain or unknown
TemperatureAcuteHeat waveevolution uncertain or unknown
Wildfireevolution uncertain or unknown
ChronicChanging temperaturewithout significant change
Temperature variabilityevolution uncertain or unknown
WindAcute
Chronic
The main vulnerabilities to climate change are at the different levels of BD&ES. In Bulgaria are summarized as follows:
    Loss of genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is subject to threats posed directly by climate change on vulnerable/endangered species (including endemic species with a limited range and opportunities for migration) that may be lost forever. There are also indirect climate change induced effects due to competition for resources between biodiversity and human activities that cause an increase of other pressures (such as water extraction, overexploitation of rare species by vulnerable population groups, land-use change, and fragmentation by infrastructure).
    Disruption of species lifecycles and phenological phases. Climate change can affect the life cycles and breeding periods of species, within ecosystems, to affect populations and processes in the ecosystem (food chains and competition for resources), including by invasion of invasive species which compete with native species and replace them from traditional niches, therefore, changing the ecosystem’s integrity. Invasive species may also bring opportunities for climate change adaptation (CCA) if used as an indicator in an early warning mechanism or if they are commercially important and contribute to providing ecosystem services.
    Deterioration of habitats. The possible consequence of climate change is the deterioration of habitats in the categories of critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable, and nearly threatened as included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria, Habitats (BAS 2011). In particular, high-altitude habitats are vulnerable to these changes.
    The energy sector will be among the sectors in Bulgaria that will be affected by climate change. Bulgaria is already exposed to a variety of natural hazards, including floods, droughts, forest fires, earthquakes, and landslides. Increased temperatures, reduced precipitation, changes in river flows and ecosystems and extreme events have caused some damage and disruption to the energy sector. In recent years, extreme weather events have caused some damage and disruption to the energy sector, which has knock-on consequences for other sectors. However, these events have not significantly affected energy infrastructure to date and have mostly led to damages in the electricity grid and temporary power cuts. An increase in the frequency and intensity of such weather events is likely to pose challenges to the sector in the future. Energy infrastructure is vulnerable to a range of climate stressors, including temperature, precipitation, sea-level rise, and extreme events. Specifically, climate change is expected to change the intensity, frequency, and distribution of extreme heat, precipitation, and storms, exacerbating the vulnerability of energy infrastructure. Climate change risks and vulnerabilities for each of the elements of the energy system in Bulgaria are identified in the energy sector assessment report.
    There are a wide range of likely interlinked impacts in urban areas from future climate events. These include damage to buildings and urban infrastructures, health effects, endangered key services including food supply and electricity, reduced mobility and accessibility and water stress, as well as increased financial pressures on municipalities for maintenance of infrastructure and on emergency aid facilities and staff. Overall, climate change will have a larger-scale impact in big cities. More vulnerable to extreme weather events will be their central urban areas with higher density, intensive traffic, reduced green and open spaces, and old infrastructure with limited capacity. Extreme weather events will also affect more significantly vulnerable groups including those living below the poverty line, in poor standard housing, the homeless, the elderly, and the sick.

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentAgriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors of the Bulgarian economy. The agriculture sector is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, as a provider of adequate food, pillar for economic growth, deliverer of ecosystem services, and provider of a safe living environment for rural communities. Bulgarian agriculture is inextricably tied to climate, as three-quarters of agricultural outputs is derived from crops. Agricultural land occupies one-third of Bulgaria’s total area, from which 86 percent of the utilized agricultural area (UUA) is used mainly to grow cereals and industrial crops. The impact of extreme weather events and anomalies on agricultural productivity and the overall economy was best witnessed in the drought year 2007: the share of agriculture to the gross domestic product (GDP) dropped to 4.7 percent compared to 2006 (6.2 percent) and 2008 (6.0 percent). The crops that experience the most severe impacts are typically rain-fed crops grown in the traditional summer season, such as maize, sunflower, fruits, and vegetables.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe vulnerability to climate change is worsened by insufficient agricultural extension services and inadequate information flows from results of research, policy, and market developments related to the farming community. While individual sectors of agriculture are represented at the national level by associations and despite a relatively large network of research institutes, the missing agriculture extension services lead to knowledge gaps among the farming community about the vulnerabilities and options to improve resilience to climate change. Bulgaria is missing a risk management framework for agriculture. The insurance sector lags the EU-28 average, with the participation rate of 2.1 percent per capita income compared to 7.6 percent in case of most European countries. Bulgarian agriculture insurance is limited to hail, while losses from drought and floods are not covered. Given the lack of access to credit, smallholders try to diversify their production to reduce revenue variability, rather than purchase insurance.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentMost climate models simulate an increase in air temperature in Bulgaria from 2°C to 5°C by the end of the century. The projected changes in temperature and precipitation, as well as potential related climate extremes in AR5 (IPCC 2013) show, that depending on the scenario, the average air temperature will increase by 2081–2100, compared to the norm from 1961 to 1990 by 2°C (RCP2.6) to 7°C (RCP8.5), or by 3°C (RCP4.5) to 4°C (RCP6). Winters classified as cold under the current climate will occur less often in the 2020s and will probably disappear by 2080s. In contrast, hot summers will occur more often and almost every summer is expected to be unusually hot in the 2080s. In 2014, the Department of Meteorology of the NIMH-BAS conducted a research that projects an increase in annual air temperature in Bulgaria of 1.6°C–3.1°C by 2050 and of 2.9°C–4.1°C by 2080. In most climate change scenarios, rainfall during the winter months is likely to increase by the end of the century. However, significant decrease in rainfall during the summer months is expected to offset this increase. The projected changes in precipitation in AR5 (IPCC 2013) show fluctuations in annual rainfall averages within 10 percent and 10–20 percent. All climate models predict that after 2065 and until the end of the century rainfall in the summer will decrease by 10–20 percent and according to RCP8.5 until 2081–2100 it can reach 30–40 percent. The results from the studies of water resources in Bulgaria, based on current trends of air temperature and precipitation as well as on simulation models and climate scenarios show that the overall annual river runoff is likely to decrease during this century. Climate change scenarios for Bulgaria indicate an increased frequency of extreme events and disasters, such as droughts, heat waves, heavy rainfalls, and floods. The analysis of the expected extreme weather events, based on the use of temperature and precipitation indexes in AR5, shows that the number and intensity of dry and hot periods in summer will increase in the country, droughts and floods will occur with greater frequency, and torrential rainfall and dangerous natural phenomena and processes associated with these changes will occur. The northeast, southeast, and Thrace regions will be the most affected from these events.
Key affected sector(s)biodiversity (including ecosystembased approaches)
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentAccording to climate projections, droughts and extreme climate-related phenomena (storms, floods, landslides, winds, hailstorms, and so on) can be expected in the medium term, along with an increase of the vegetation period. Along with seasonal extreme temperature differences, large temperature differences on a daily basis can cause temperature shocks for species in the country. As a result, in the short term, adverse effects can be expected at all levels of ecosystems. Genetic diversity may be reduced due to the disappearance of endangered species—specialists and endemic species with a limited range and opportunities for migration. Climate change can also affect the life cycles and breeding cycles of species, within ecosystems, to affect populations and processes in the ecosystem (food chains and competition for resources), including by invasion of invasive species. These numerous manifestations of climate change are expected to have different impacts on different types of ecosystems and affect biodiversity and ecosystem services in a range of ways including in an abrupt and even catastrophic manner. On the other hand, the projected annual increase in average temperatures may help the adaptation by extending the vegetation periods and allowing for the migration of species in natural ecosystems or the controlled introduction of species for agriculture, green infrastructure, or other adaptation purposes.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentPolicies such as improving air quality; reducing nitrate pollution, waste, noise, and stress for biodiversity; and avoiding overexploitation of resources will enhance the adaptive capacity of BD&ES to climate change. To this end, we identify two adaptation options: Assessment of the carrying capacity of ecosystems (the limits of all pressures in each location that would not impair ecosystem functioning) and the ecosystems’ capacity to produce ecosystem services; and Use of regional/local data for local projections and effectively tracking pressures. Using the ‘invisible ecosystems’ for adaptation and human benefit. Healthy ecosystems provide more ecosystem services to society. Protecting biodiversity in synergy with the other options outlined above, allows the efficient use of undervalued ecosystem services—both regulatory and cultural. They have the potential to reduce the adaptation costs and support the development of the local economy, including in the priority tourism sector. This group consists of four adaptation options: (1) the use of genetic resources for adaptation; (2) increasing the role of cultural ecosystem services for recreation and tourism; (3) the long-term business opportunities arising from ecosystem restoration projects; and (4) the benefits to local communities from local ‘production’ of ecosystem services that provides both employment and welfare.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentScientific projections indicate that global temperature will rise between 1.8°C and 4°C by 2100, with the temperature increase in Europe expected to be even higher than the estimated global average. Research conducted by the Department of Meteorology, National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) projects an increase in annual air temperature in Bulgaria of between 0.7°C and 1.8°C by 2020. Even warmer temperatures are expected by 2050 and 2080, with projected increases of between 1.6°C and 3.1°C and between 2.9°C and 4.1°C, respectively. Generally, the temperature increase is expected to be more significant during the summer season (from July to September). In terms of the expected changes in rainfall patterns, a reduction in precipitation is likely, leading to a significant reduction of the total water reserves in the country. In this regard, projections suggest a decrease in precipitation by approximately 10 percent by 2020, 15 percent 2050, and up to 30–40 percent by 2080. In most climate change scenarios, rainfall during the winter months is likely to increase by the end of the century, but significant decrease in rainfall during the summer months is expected to offset this increase. According to the available climate change scenarios for Bulgaria, there is a trend toward increased frequency of extreme events and disasters, as demonstrated in more often occurrences of heavy rainfalls, heat and cold waves, floods and droughts, hurricane winds, forest fires, and landslides. Biodiversity, land and aquatic ecosystems, as well as water resources, agriculture, and forestry sectors are expected to be affected by anticipated changes. These changes would furthermore affect society and its citizens, as well as the economy. Climate change impacts do not affect all people and territories equally due to different levels of exposure, existing vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacities to cope.
Key affected sector(s)energy
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentClimate change is of significant importance for energy security not only because floods and natural disasters can damage power plants and power lines, disrupt the supply of fuels to electricity generation facilities and destroy renewable energy infrastructure, but also because they have a strong impact on food security and health. Energy plays a major role in maintaining all aspects of modern life. The smooth functioning of social and political systems, as well as economic growth and sustainable development, is essential. Ensuring a reliable energy supply, which will also be able to meet demand in the face of a changing climate, will become a growing challenge in the future The energy sector shall face numerous threats from climate change, in particular extreme weather events and increasing pressure on water resources. Greater resilience to the impacts of climate change will therefore be essential for the technical viability of the energy sector and its ability to meet energy demand in a cost-effective way. Energy stakeholders, including governments, regulators, energy companies and financial institutions, will need to identify the challenges of resilience to climate change and adaptation and identify the actions needed to address these challenges
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe vulnerability and risk analysis shows that the energy sector will be among the sectors in Bulgaria that will be affected by climate change. Bulgaria is already exposed to a variety of natural hazards, including floods, droughts, forest fires, earthquakes, and landslides. Increased temperatures, reduced precipitation, changes in river flows and ecosystems, and extreme events have caused some damage and disruption to the energy sector. Fortunately, extreme weather events have not significantly affected the energy infrastructure to-date and have mostly led to damages in the electricity grid and temporary power cuts. However, given the importance of energy infrastructure and supply to other sectors, through their use of energy, even minor outages can have cascading consequences and amplify the initial impact. An increase in the frequency and intensity of such weather events is likely to pose challenges to the sector in the future. Therefore, the challenges that Bulgaria must meet are immense and colored with uncertainty. To reduce the vulnerability of the sector, there is a need to direct efforts to reducing energy intensity and energy dependence of the country while at the same time improving its energy security.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentClimate change is a substantial energy security concern not only because direct flooding and natural disasters can damage power plants and transmission lines, disrupt the delivery of fuels to power generation facilities, and destroy renewable energy infrastructure but also because it has severe impacts on food security and health. Energy plays a fundamental role in supporting all aspects of modern life. It is essential to the smooth running of social and political systems as well as to economic growth and sustainable development. Ensuring a reliable energy supply, which will also be able to satisfy the demand in a changing climate, will become a growing challenge in the future. The energy sector faces multiple threats from climate change, in particular from extreme weather events and increasing stress on water resources. Greater resilience to climate change impacts will therefore be essential to the technical viability of the energy sector and its ability to cost-effectively meet the energy demand. Energy sector stakeholders, including governments, regulators, energy companies, and financial institutions will need to define climate change resilience and adaptation challenges and identify actions needed to address these challenges.
Key affected sector(s)forestry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentAccording to the Sixth National Communication on Climate Change (2013), in the years between 1988 and 2011, the Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF) sector of Bulgaria compensated about 12 percent of the total GHG emissions of Bulgaria. There was a highly varying share mostly due to strong reduction of GHG emissions in the country which dropped from 105 million tons CO2 equivalent in 1990 to 55 million tons CO2 equivalent in 2014 (EUROSTAT report). The highest share for the absorption of GHGs was forests, which accounted for 93 to 95 percent under the LULUCF emissions assessment. The total estimated carbon stock of Bulgarian forests is 202 million tons, which together with the accumulation in the soils and forest floor litter amounts to 733 million tons (Raev et al. 2011). Following the Paris 2015 Agreement, that was ratified by Bulgaria, the role of forests for the absorption of GHGs has to increase in the next few decades. In the agreement the forest sector was accorded prominence, through a specific clause (Article 5) dedicated to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. At present, deforestation is not a problem in Bulgaria. The potential beneficial role of the forest sector is high, because forests are among the most important carbon sinks in the agreement. Governments and forest sector stakeholders should reach an understanding on the role of forests and land-use planning and management in meeting their national long-term climate change mitigation and adaptation goals.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThere are several groups of vulnerabilities in the context of climate change. •High uncertainties for species-specific responses to modified climate conditions; •Large areas with coniferous plantations at too low elevations and related to this, the potential for growth decline and various health problems; •Increased probabilities of large fires and other disturbances such as windthrows, damages from wet snow and ice, attacks from insects; •Improved conditions for invasive species with high potential for considerable damages to forests; and •High prevalence of firewood as a timber product that contributes little economic value to the economic sustainability of the sector and its ability to self-fund resilience actions and sequester carbon. Bulgaria engages in several adaptation measures. These include the following: Conducting research, education, capacity building, and knowledge extension to provide a solid foundation for informed decision-making process and adaptive management. Building resilience in regenerating, expanding, and strengthening forest resources to increase resilience of forests and meet challenges in recovery operations and higher demand of wood; Building and maintaining systems to cover national rapid forest fire detection, long-term disturbance monitoring, and forest resource monitoring and in this way minimizing the losses from disturbances and enabling proper management planning and adaptation of forests in areas with the highest risks: Improving the potential for long-term use of higher-valued wood products and in this way, raising the revenues from wood-processing industries.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentFor Bulgaria, scientific projections indicate that climate change will be associated with increase in temperature, warmer winters and more summer droughts. At the same time, the number and magnitude of extreme climate events such as prolonged or short-lived periods of intense heat or cold, severe storms, wet snow, and ice accumulation are expected to increase. This will reduce forest health and tree growth, increase attacks from insects and fungi, including invasive species and cause serious losses due to fires and storm-related damages. This could contribute to very high economic losses, degradation of the ability of forests to sequester carbon and affect the quality of life in Bulgaria by reducing the delivery of valued ecosystem services. According to one study (Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture [ECHOES]), wood growth could be reduced by up to 3.5 million m3 per year. This is equivalent to 42 percent of the annual harvest and would have a devastating effect on the primary production of forest products and the rural economy. Impact of a similar scale could be expected on the forests’ ability to protect drinking water supplies, attenuate extreme rainfall and flooding, stabilize vulnerable soils and slopes, facilitate a growing recreation and tourism sector, capture carbon, and support a rich resource of natural biodiversity. Probably the most important effect of continuous dry and warm periods is the increase of fire risk. The fire statistics of the EFA revealed almost 14,000 forest fires for 1970–2014, with a dramatic increase after 1990. The number of fires that occurred annually in forests peaked at more than 1,000 in several years with dry summers in the last decades (n=1,150 with 10,147 hectares burnt area in 1993; n=1,700 with 58,000 hectares burnt area in 2000 and n=1,400 with 43,000 hectares burnt area in 2007) causing huge economic losses. A recent analysis of historical data (Panayotov et al. 2017) revealed that, although most forest fires were located in the lowlands, in the mountain coniferous forests, there were also extensive fires with burnt territories of more than 500 hectares (up to 10,000 ha) and many of them also occurred in dry years.
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentClimate change in Bulgaria is manifested by an increase in the average annual air and water temperatures, an increase in over-warming and over-cold rushes, a change in the annual rainfall, an increase in heavy rainfalls, an increase in dry periods, wind, thunder, and snow storms, contrast shifts of weather, river floods, as well as droughts, and UV radiation. These changes affect the bio-status of man and his health in a complex and individual way, depending on various climatic, socioeconomic, health, personal, and other factors. The numerous, health-influencing factors of the changing climate in Bulgaria can generally be attributed to two broad groups: sudden (such as storms, floods, fires) and gradual, emerging (as changes in heat-humidity, precipitation, and solar conditions). The health effects of these climate change phenomena can be extremely varied, and in general they can be differentiated as primary and secondary. Primary effects directly affect human health such as, for example, heat waves and cold spells, ultraviolet radiation, and floods. Secondary effects indirectly affect human health through other climatic-influenced factors such as pollen, vector-carriers of diseases (ticks, mosquitoes and phlebotomies), fires, contaminated food, water and air, and compromised crops. The primary and secondary health effects of climate change can be differentiated into the following groups: heat-related morbidity and mortality, extreme weather-related morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular diseases, including Strokes, asthma, respiratory allergies and airway diseases, cancer, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, foodborne diseases and nutrition factors, waterborne diseases, mental health and stress-related disorders, and neurological diseases and disorders.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentIn addition to the research needs identified in the individual research categories, there are crosscutting issues relevant to preventing or avoiding many of the potential health impacts of climate change including identifying susceptible, vulnerable, and displaced populations; enhancing public health and health care infrastructure; developing capacities and skills in modeling and prediction; and improving risk communication and public health education. Such research will lead to more effective early warning systems and greater public awareness of an individual’s or community’s health risk from climate change, which should translate into more successful mitigation and adaptation strategies. For example, health communications research is needed to properly implement health alert warning systems for extreme heat events and air pollution that especially affects people with existing conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Such a risk communication pilot project might demonstrate communication practices that are effective in multiple areas and contribute to a comprehensive strategy for addressing multiple health risks simultaneously. Other tools are needed and should be applied across multiple categories to close the knowledge gaps, including predictive models to improve forecasting and prevention, evaluations of the vulnerability of health care and public health systems and infrastructure, and health impact assessments (HIAs).
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentIn Bulgaria, the number of individuals age 65 years and older (who are more susceptible to heat effects) is expected to increase from 12.4 percent in 2000 to 20 percent in 2060. A standardized definition and methodology for identifying heat-related health outcomes is needed for surveillance and to evaluate temperature-related illness and death. Based on numerous studies from all over the world, the general conclusions about the expected health consequences of projected temperature changes are the following (Mihaylova 2014): • A 40 to 60 percent increase in the number of deaths from cardiovascular diseases and strokes in the big cities in summer due to heatwaves and the urban heat island effect; • A 10 to 30 percent rise in vector-borne morbidity, owing to the vectors' longer vegetation cycle, and particularly that of the I. Ricinus ticks, which transmit the Borrelia burgdorferi; • A 50 to 100 percent increase in the incidence of salmonella infections due to the longer growing period and more favorable conditions; • A 10 to 100 percent surge in campylobacteriosis infections due to the longer growing period and more favorable conditions. The campylobacteriosis morbidity risk grows further when compounded with higher temperatures and humidity; • A 10 to 30 percent increase and exacerbation of respiratory diseases due to the higher concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), dust, and PM in the air; and • A 10 to 30 percent rise in the number of allergic diseases due to earlier flowering and increased concentration of pollen, spores, and other allergens in the air.
Key affected sector(s)tourism
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentClimate change is a reality and already affects tourism. In Bulgaria, this includes weather extremes, declining snow reliability, and storms, with repercussions for tourist arrivals and behavior, and holiday satisfaction. It is important that more stakeholders become aware of the challenges implied in climate change, as well as adaptation risks and opportunities. The mainstreaming of information about climate change vulnerabilities and the sector’s contribution to climate change is of great significance to increase the overall level of preparedness.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThere is considerable growth potential for tourism in Bulgaria as illustrated by important tourism indicators forecasts. However, the sector’s current mainstays, beach and winter tourism, are increasingly questioned by climate change. Summer tourism faces a prospect of temperatures increasing beyond optimum levels, as well as heat waves and other extreme weather events such as intense periods of rainfall with associated flooding and landslides. Winter tourism is already suffering from higher temperatures and there is a risk that it will become increasingly unviable in the future. To reduce the vulnerability of the sector, there is thus a need to diversify the tourism sector while simultaneously reducing its energy intensity and resource dependency. New tourism products may, for instance, include culinary, wine, wellness, or cultural tourism. Tourism businesses can also expect an extended summer season, with opportunities to attract visitors particularly in early summer and early autumn. Management for reduced resource use, technological innovations, and legislation for new tourist sites and infrastructure can make a major contribution to reducing vulnerabilities related to mitigation and future climate change. To achieve this, the Bulgarian tourism industry, as a whole, and the individual economic units within it must develop strategies and implement legislation. The main risks related to expected climate change and extreme weather events faced by the Bulgarian tourism sector can be summarized as Lower number of tourists; Shorter winter season; Shorter average stay; Health problems with tourists; Poorer conditions for outdoor recreation; Damage of tourist infrastructure and superstructure; and Poorer access to tourist destinations.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentIt is important to note that Bulgaria tends to attract lower-middle-income and older visitors. In 2016, the median age of the Bulgarian population was 42.4 years and the age of domestic tourists is tending to rise in the future. Anecdotal evidence suggests that international tourists are tending to get even older. This is caused mainly by the fact that the Bulgarian tourist product is predominantly lower cost and attracts both pensioners and people from the lower-than-average socio-economic status. All this is making visitors more vulnerable to climate related risks (high summer temperatures and extremely warm days are not comfortable for elderly people) (Gössling et al. 2012). Budget tourists are also more susceptible to cost changes, which can be expected because of mitigation policies (taxes or duties on fossil fuels) (Scott et al. 2016). For the most part, tourism is unlikely to develop ‘differently’ because of climate change until 2030, unless there are heat waves or other extreme weather events, which affect short-term behavior (mostly day tourism, which paradoxically may increase beach tourism, for cooling down in the sea). However, there may be daily changes, more tourists in the morning and evening, fewer in the middle of the day. Air-conditioning requirements in hotels may increase. In the longer-term future, after periods of consecutive ‘hot’ summers (exceeding 35°C for prolonged periods of time), it is possible that a considerable share of elderly travelers reconsiders their destination choice or timing of the visit
Key affected sector(s)transport
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentA general review of the climate dynamics is made by Alexandrov et al. (2010) who summarize the main changes to climate in recent years in Bulgaria. Some of the factors, which potentially affect the transport sector are as follows: • since the 1990’s the average annual temperatures have increased; • since the middle of the 1990’s the annual volumes of rainfall have increased in most regions of the country; • the frequency of extreme weather events has increased; • the notable increase of the average number of days with rainfall of more than 100 mm; • the number of registered cases of extreme rainfall has increased; • the frequency of storms and hails between April and September has increased.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
Assessment• Extreme heat affects asphalt concrete pavements by softening their binding component – bitumen. This decreases the bearing capacity of the pavement and, combined with the load from the vehicles, may lead to its deformation and the formation of ruts. Furthermore, the combination of high heat and sunlight results in increased oxidation of bitumen, which makes it less elastic. • Extreme cold also has an adverse effect on asphalt concrete pavements, as it makes bitumen less elastic, resulting in the formation of surface cracks. Extreme cold negatively affects the vehicle fleet. Mainly, it reduces the output of car batteries and may result in them becoming unable to start vehicle engines. And even bigger problem is that extreme cold may cause failures to traffic management equipment that is part of the transport infrastructure. • Regarding railway infrastructure, extreme heat is known to cause rail buckling. Regarding extreme heat, the RVA from 2014 notes that the adaptation costs for dealing with thermal stress for both roads and railways will be substantial. • Railway signaling, and telecommunication equipment is particularly vulnerable to cold – most notably the railway switches, which are prone to freezing. For this reason, heaters are installed to keep the switches at temperatures above freezing. Even in this case, however, freezing is possible at locations where the traffic is high and chunks of ice fall from passing trains on the switches. The list of adaptation options identified is long, and could nevertheless be further extended, especially after collecting historical data and carrying out mode-specific studies. However, in the short term, most important seems to be to focus the efforts on adaptation options that aim at building adaptive capacity. The reason is that on the one hand these are relatively easy to implement, and on the other hand provide a suitable basis for development and implementation any other adaptation options.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentDirect consequences of a lack of systematic studies on the longer-term impacts of climate change, specifically in the Bulgarian transport sector, are not only the relatively low climate change interest among transport sector stakeholders, but also a stronger focus on short term actions as a response to emergencies rather than developing strategies and long-term action plans to address future problems. This results in a relatively low adaptive capacity of the sector. The lack of availability and quality of statistical data over a longer period, required to support the planning process, is another barrier for setting sound programs that can address the challenges that the transport sector faces and is expected to further and increasingly face. Although a positive trend was observed, much remains to be done in pursuing a more systematic approach and understanding of Climate Change issues and their importance by stakeholders.
Key affected sector(s)urban
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe ‘Risk and Vulnerability Analysis and Assessment of the Bulgarian Economic Sectors to Climate Change’ (2014) implements six types of urban environment components in terms of their functions and type of buildings by height: (a) Areas with high-rise buildings, complex type; (b) Areas with medium height buildings; (c) Areas with low-rise buildings; (d) Industrial zones; (e) Green and recreational areas; and (f) Areas for public services. For the purposes of the current assessment, these components are further developed to determine potential climate impact and vulnerability of different functional zones, public services, transport, and technical infrastructure and buildings.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentUnder the conditions of climate change, the urban environment in Bulgaria is vulnerable and at considerable risk. The data supporting such conclusion include the obsolete and often inadequate infrastructure in the big and small settlements alike and the large proportion of aging population, predominantly with low income and below the poverty line. These could be considered ‘objective’ factors, reflecting the demography and the relatively low level of economic development and living standards in the country, which is the poorest in the EU. In addition, there is a very important ‘subjective’ factor, namely the poor level of awareness of the problems under consideration, of their causes, possible prevention and management, among both the decision makers and the general public. The analysis also suggests that the policies and initiatives addressing the adaptation to climate change should be oriented in two directions—toward the big cities, where there is a concentration of a considerable part of the population and which enjoy considerably more potential and expertise, and toward the smaller cities and the villages in the periphery, with less numerable but much more vulnerable population, keeping in mind the specifics of each region and settlement Reducing the risk of disasters calls for a solid institutional basis, which should be strengthened by building capacity, good governance, promotion of appropriate policies, facilitating the flow of information, adoption of effective coordination mechanisms, and appropriate education. All these can contribute to the effectiveness of municipal adaptation actions.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentIn future, the most important issue resulting from higher temperatures and longer drought periods will be linked to fresh water supply. A baseline scenario is used to evaluate the development trend of the performance indicators under the +2°C and +4°C temperature rise scenarios. The baseline scenario reflects a continuation of current policies and plans, that is, a future in which no new measures are taken to address climate change. The results of the analysis of past and present weather events show that in the future, Bulgarian cities will be affected most by extreme temperatures and increased precipitations intensity and frequency. The consequences of the latter—floods and landslides—will be among the priorities of the government, municipalities, and population in the next 20 years.
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentBulgaria has four river basin directorates (RBD): Danube River Basin Directorate (DRBD), Black Sea River Basin Directoratte (BSRBD), East Agean River Basin Directorate (EARBD) and West Agean River Basin Directorate (WARBD). The overall Freshwater Exploitation Index shows that since 1990 there has been no stress on the Bulgarian aquatic ecosystem. Compared to other European countries, Bulgaria has relatively significant freshwater resources, both in absolute terms as well as on per capita basis (MoEW and EEA 2016). However, the water resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country and by season. If broken down by river basin district, it becomes apparent that the renewable water resources are unevenly distributed. Two-thirds of surface water resources are generated in the East Aegean and Danube River Basin District, with 36 percent being generated in the East Aegean and some 33 percent in the Danube River Basin District. With nearly 19 percent, a significant portion of total runoff is generated in the West Aegean River Basin District, while the Black Sea rivers contribute just slightly over 10 percent. Regarding the quality of the water resources, only nearly a third of surface water bodies meets the objective of a ‘good ecological’ water status (River Basin Management Plans [RBMPs] 2016–2021). Again, the Black Sea River Basin has the lowest rate – 5 percent. Groundwater bodies perform better than surface water bodies. At the national level 63 percent (106 of total 169) meet the objective of ‘good status’ (described in Article 4 of the WFD and in Section 5 of the RBMPs).
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentRegions most vulnerable regions to drought risks: • Black Sea River Basin Vulnerability • Overwhelmed, aging, poorly maintained infrastructure, and therefore highly vulnerable and most probably inadequate to cope with climate change • Population and operators of infrastructure lack historical experience and good practices with floods and droughts, and therefore, are highly vulnerable • Hydropower production systems – vulnerable to operation during droughts • Water services – vulnerable during droughts Major risks to managed systems • Risks to infrastructure and services – damage, improper operation, and low-level or insufficient services • Risks to hydroelectric - generation from low or high river flows Major risks to natural systems • Impaired biodiversity The long-term strategic objective for the water sector is formulated in the Water Sector Strategy as “Sustainable use of water resources, providing to the optimal extent the present and future needs of the country's population and economy as well as of the water ecosystems”. There are four specific objectives and two of them relate to climate change: • Objective 1: Guaranteed provision of water to the population and businesses in times of climate change leading to drought. • Objective 4: Reduce the risk of flood damage. For two of the subsectors, specific strategies have been prepared. The Strategy for Development and Management of the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in the Republic of Bulgaria 2014–2023 was approved in 2014 The key sector issues include the following: • Water supply services largely meet standards, but water losses are high and investments in water supply are far below the level needed to sustain good quality and uninterrupted service in the long run. • Wastewater services fall short of standards.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2014) notes that risks arise from interaction of climate hazards with exposure and vulnerability to impacts. Two climate hazards are identified as most relevant to the water sector – floods and droughts. Floods cannot be predicted based on location, time and intensity; therefore, this hazard concerns flood-prone areas in the entire country. Droughts create higher risk in regions with water scarcity. The report suggests a simplistic approach to identify the regions with water scacity risk. Projections show that climate change will not affect groundwater availability. This fact, together with the projected decline of Bulgaria’s population and slow growth of industrial and agricultural activities, results in high likelihood for low scarcity risk in regions which use groundwater. However, if for example, water supply systems continue wasting more than 50 percent of the water produced, the risk might increase. The risk will also increase if water thirsty industries and crops are situated in this region. High scarcity risk is likely to appear in regions supplied with surface water and having high touristic activities, which are projected to increase. The Black Sea region appears to be the most vulnerable to scarcity risk because it uses surface water and is the most visited by tourists. Poor condition of the infrastructure in this region adds another dimension toward increasing the risk. Based on the analyzes, the report identifies and discusses three major types of risks: risk to infrastructure, risk to services, and risk to natural water systems.
Key affected sector(s)other
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentBulgaria is exposed to a range of natural hazards, such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, wildfires, droughts, strong winds, heavy snowfalls, extreme temperatures, and hail – the first three are the most prominent events in the country. Disasters caused by these events have adverse social and economic impacts on the country. According to the National Statistical Institute (NSI) of Bulgaria, from 2010 to 2016, natural disasters and fires caused damages of almost US$1 billion. During this period, over US$600 million was spent on recovery and over US$100 million was spent on rescue and emergency works. Disaster risks that the country faces are further expected to grow with the increasing urbanization and industrial development and climate change. Because of this, disaster risk management (DRM) plays an important role in the sustainable development of the country and is among the priorities of the government of Bulgaria. According to the International Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), since 1977, 45 major disasters were recorded in Bulgaria with more than 85 percent of these events related to weather. These disasters resulted in over US$1.4 billion of direct damage.2 Flood and extreme temperature were most frequent, with flood responsible for the greatest direct damage and affected population.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentIn support of the government’s efforts to reform the Disaster risk management system, a thorough peer-review of the disaster response capacity in Bulgaria was carried out in 2015 (European Commission 2015). It found that there was a well-established civil protection or emergency and disaster response system which has clear roles and responsibilities under the Unified Rescue System, excellent cooperation with the EU on civil protection, exercises and training, and integration with the Bulgarian Red Cross and civil society for disaster response. Therefore, this aspect is not reviewed further in this document. However, the peer review report clearly pointed out areas that need improvements and gave concrete recommendations to move towards a system that places equal value on prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. To put in place this new concept, Bulgaria amended the Disaster Protection Act with the aim to: • Enact priorities from the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction • Establish Councils for Disaster Risk Reduction to the Council of Ministers, Regional Governors and Mayors which serve as platforms for disaster risk reduction • Enact disaster risk reduction planning at national, district and municipal level • Provide guidelines for development and subsequent implementation of the planning documents • Create possibilities for prioritizing the disaster risk reduction activities Following the adoption of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in 2015 and in response to recommendations from the 2015 peer review, Bulgaria drafted a new National Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy for the period 2018–2030 which recently passed public consultations.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentDuring the past two decades, climate-related events such as floods, storms, heatwaves, snowfalls, and drought have accounted for about 90 percent of major disasters. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of weather-related hazards, significantly affecting economic and social development, with cascading impacts on poverty, the supply of food and water, urban systems, the spread of disease, people movements and conflicts. With regard to agricultural land use, no relation is established to climate change risk evaluation and management and crop insurance from climatic impacts is largely avoided by insurance companies and producers as there are few who buy such policies. There is a need for updated risk evaluation and mapping and then evaluation of needed measures, investments, and long-term planning. To develop effective risk reduction instruments, it is necessary to establish homogenous, unified, and up-to-date baseline assessment for Disaster Risk Rreduction/Disaster Risk Management and CCA at the national level, including the identified gaps in historical data and the quantified costs of previous disasters. Drawing on a regional-scale climate models or disaster risk modeling is crucial for creating the national risk profile.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The specific challenges due to climate change faced by sectors in Bulgaria are analyzed in detail in Bulgaria’s sector assessment reports (available separately as appendices to this strategy) that were developed in 2017 for agriculture, biodiversity, and ecosystems, energy, forestry, human health, transport, tourism, urban environment, and water management. These reports use the terms and definitions of risk, vulnerability, and adaptation options as introduced by WGII Assessment Report 5. Risk of climate-related impacts results from the interaction of climate-related hazards with the vulnerability and exposure. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes including adaptation and mitigation are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability. This understanding reveals the importance of the adaptation options. Vulnerability, hazard, and/or exposure will be reduced, and thus the risk will be mitigated when adaptation options are properly identified and timely implemented.
By identifying and integrating the relevant adaptation and mitigation aspects at all levels of respective sectoral planning, budgeting, program and project cycles, there is a tangible potential to scale up and mainstream more synergy into the climate policies, including streamlining into the available funding.

To achieve an adequate level of adaptation to climate change, the Bulgarian Government will apply a number of leading and overarching guiding principles in the implementation of this adaptation strategy. These principles are straightforward and will provide clear direction and benefits to the country. They are inspired by and highly coincide with those included in the EC’s ‘Guidelines on developing adaptation strategies’
    Principles (based on Adger and Vincent 2005; Brown et al. 2011; Prutsch et al. 2010; UKCIP 2005) that have internationally been recognized as key factors for good adaptation and that the Government of Bulgaria (GoB) herewith makes her own, are the following:
- Any adaptation action undertaken should be sustainable.
- Carry out adaptation in partnershipEvidence-based adaptation is the preferred approach. Latest research, data, and practical experience should be applied in support of robust decision making. Closing of data gaps is a priority.
- Apply a balanced approach.
- Address risks associated with past and current climate variability and weather extremes.
- Adaptive action should be prioritized.
- Adaptation must be tailored to the scale required by the climate change challenge.
- Adaptation should be flexible.
- Adaptation needs to be transparent.
- Continuously review the effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and legitimacy of adaptation decisions.
    Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the Action Plan requires deciding which information provides the best measure of progress and performance. Guidance on M&E is given in a number of sources including EC . Arrangements to monitor and evaluate progress can focus on processes and outcomes of implemented actions in meeting objectives and should also be able to capture unintended maladaptive consequences.
    Identifying appropriate indicators should take account of the following:
- Existing indicators and datasets, which may already measure the required outcomes or can be adjusted for the purposes of the action plan. To the extent feasible, indicators from the Eurostat database should be used, as well as from the information system for monitoring the government program and for implementation of the annual objectives of the administration of the CoM (Council for Administrative Reform 2010).
- Other influences on the indicator parameters, which may partly account for progress (or lack of progress) toward objectives. This includes autonomous adaptation which may occur alongside planned actions.
- The cost of collecting the information for the indicator which should not be more than the value of the information for M&E purposes.
    Each of the activities listed in the Action Plan includes a proposed indicator or set of indicators for monitoring performance. To the extent possible, current and expected outcomes have been given. Further agreement and development of these indicators will be needed in consultation with implementing institutions.
The development of this Strategy and Action Plan has followed, to the extent possible, the principles and methodology for strategic planning in the Republic of Bulgaria. This document builds on the National Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability Assessment of the Bulgarian Economic Sectors and draws extensively on the information, analyses, and recommendations of the nine sector assessment reports, the Disaster Risk Management Assessment report, and the report on the ‘Macroeconomic Implications of Climate.
The activities for population protection in case of emergency or disasters are carried out by the Unified Rescue System according to Disaster Protection Plans. The Unified Rescue System includes ministries and agencies, municipalities, commercial companies and sole entrepreneurs, emergency medical care centers, other medical and health care establishments, nonprofit organizations, including voluntary formations under Article 41 of the Disaster Protection Act, and armed forces. A Disaster Risk Reduction Council was created as a permanent body to the CoM to ensure coordination and cooperation in the implementation of state policy in the field of disaster protection. The Council performs the functions of a national DRR platform in implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.
Information about both climate change and ecosystems as a complex system is not communicated easily. Furthermore, data gaps in climate and biodiversity models mean that national projections are not sufficiently detailed.
    As a focal point for environmental data collection and reporting (National Environmental Monitoring System), the Executive Environment Agency is expected to play a key role in provision of data on CCA and biodiversity and in introducing ecosystems-based monitoring.
    Generating knowledge and information at the local level will require additional data collection and research and longer-term observations. The most important challenge for Bulgaria is seen in the sector report as information exchange and knowledge communication if the required synergy in climate change mitigation and adaptation is to be achieved.
Activities which are assessed as priorities to start in the short term will be, in many cases, measures which enable and support following adaptation actions. This means that many of these priority actions across all sectors are soft measures (assessed as no cost or low cost) supporting the strategic and operational objectives related to (a) building institutional capacity (including through addressing knowledge gaps), (b) mainstreaming and integrating CCA into existing national and sectoral plans and programs, and (c) raising awareness. These will provide the foundation for medium- and longer-term practical actions for building climate change resilience including through the management of infrastructure and assets, and the protection and enhancement of natural capital.
• Awareness-raising and communication. This refers to the need for effective communication of relevant information on CCA
• Institutional capacity. This refers to internal organizational/administrative capacity and expert capacity among organizations responsible for CCA policy and actions. Identified specific gaps and barriers are as follows:
o The scope and quality of coordination between institutions related to CCA (ministries, state agencies, and so on).
o Insufficient professional training, including specialized occupational training and knowledge-sharing activities related to CCA, as well as dedicated university programs.
o The level of awareness among some decision makers and preparedness of staff to integrate this knowledge into the planning and management process.
o Data collection and monitoring. This refers to the extent to which relevant information is available and used for informed decision making regarding CCA at all levels.
o Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity. Effective implementation of CCA polices requires a process of M&E to be put in place. For example, the health sector is at an early stage of policy development and requires further development of appropriate tools and mechanisms for this.
• Knowledge and data gaps. This includes uncertainties with climate projections and associated risks, costs and benefits of adaptation, vulnerabilities at the local level, and the availability of data for M&E purposes
• Policy and legal framework. This refers in particular to changing or developing regulations, standards, codes, plans, policy or programs to integrate, and risks from climate change, and mainstream CCA responses. Key specific issues are the following:
o The need for improved policy coherence and coordination of CCA initiatives across sectors.
o The need for implementation arrangements to have clear allocation of responsibilities and mandates to different entities.
o A specific gap is the need to simplify and accelerate decision making by implementing to the extent possible a single pool of environmental data for the use of decision makers and developing tools for analyzing tradeoffs in decisions.
• Limitation in financial and human resources. Lack of financial resources for CCA actions is a common theme across sectors. Currently, there is high dependence on EU funding, especially for large investment projects. Key issues are the following:
o Competing priorities.
o Lack of information on the financial resources necessary for adaptation to climate change, such as in the case of buildings and facilities in the urban environment.
o Limited CCA dedicated human resources both in number and in expertise in key institutions are identified by a number of sector assessments
Agriculture
• Water management and the development of good irrigation practices are recommended for immediate attention. In particular, promotion of sustainable use of natural resources and arable land and reduction of the vulnerability of agricultural crops to climate change impacts that may lead to decrease in crop yields, loss of profits, and loss of competitiveness. Recommendations also include improving soil structure maintenance and restoration and increasing the soil’s infiltration capacity to minimize erosion.
• Adjusting livestock breeding to address the adverse effect of climate change on livestock production.
• Investment in CCA measures and risk management tools by the private sector, NGOs, and government and local communities.
• Targeting eco-innovations and the development and introduction of more selective fishing equipment, facilities, and resource-efficient technologies.
• Information dissemination. Develop a database of information and online portal for exchange of information. Availability of innovation research will allow its use by different stakeholders including farmers and public institution.

Biodivercity and ecosystems
• Development and adoption of the new Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan and a new Green Infrastructure Strategy on ecosystem-based management, conservation, restoration and NAS
• Review and amendment of legislation and by-laws in the environment and related sectors
• Operationalizing ecosystem-based environmental impact monitoring and assessment
• Revision of sector strategies/legislation
• Communication and tools for informed prioritization of research and action
• Sustainable use of genetic resources for climate resilience
• Ecosystem restoration - a long-term business opportunity

Energy
• Building institutional capacity, knowledge and use of data for adaptation through building knowledge networks
• Interpretation of monitoring, forecasting and weather data for the energy sector
• Interpretation of monitoring, forecasting and weather data for the energy sector
• Integrating climate change considerations into policies, plans and financing mechanisms in the energy sector
• Incorporating climate change resilience considerations into energy sector investment plans by defining climate risks in terms of their likelihood and consequences
• Mainstreaming climate change resilience and improving contingency planning in infrastructure management that supports the energy sector
• Development of financial mechanisms to achieve sustainability
    A number of activities and initiatives in the sector mainly dealing with mitigation efforts provide synergies with adaptation. These include the following:
• NATIONAL ENERGY AND CLIMATE PLAN 2021-2030
• LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION STRATEGY 2050
• NATIONAL RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE PLAN
• STRATEGIC VISION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR

Human health

Individually, the sector representatives take part in a number of activities at the local, national, and international level, relevant to CCA. This includes participation in the process of policy making, educational activity, research activity, information provision, and public communication.

Transport
• Building institutional capacity and knowledge base in the transport sector
• Review and improvement of operation and maintenance
• Development and implementation of a program to strengthen the resilience of the road network to extreme weather events
• Specific climate change-related issues have been identified by stakeholders who have sometimes attempted to resolve them on a case-by-case basis. Examples of CCA actions taken in the various transport subsectors include increased use of polymer modified bitumen, stopping of heavy vehicles during hot weather (by the Traffic Police based on an ordinance issued by the RIA), and revision of the road design norms (commissioned by the MRDPW).

Urban environment
• Related specific ongoing and foreseen actions are mainly focused on the response of other sectors to the extreme weather events and their consequences. These relate to action for extreme temperatures, floods, landslides, fires, droughts (water resources), and DRM. At the municipal level, ongoing actions most directly related to adaptation of the urban environment are their CCA strategies. All municipal councils have adopted rules and procedures aimed at reducing the risk of natural disasters.

Water
• Water utilities are participating in various projects and initiatives, including benchmarking projects.
• The study of all possibilities for improving the efficiency of the use of water resources on a global scale, at the expense of increasing water supply, is outlined as a necessity
• Increase their resilience, especially in terms of increasing the efficiency of water supply systems, reducing leakages, and unbilled consumption.
Agriculture
- Horizontal adaptation options

Develop climate change training

Develop knowledge dissemination actions

Develop insurance and risk management programs

Develop water management innovations

Improve the CCA legal framework
- Vertical adaptation options

Improve water management practices

Adjust the timing of farm operations

Improve the soil structure maintenance and increase the soil’s organic matter reserves and soil cultivation technologies

Eliminate secondary salinization conditions and conditions for anthropogenic soil acidification

Maintain and improve existing aquaculture habitat
       Biodiversity and ecosystem services
(a)Develop and adopt the new Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan and a new Green Infrastructure Strategy with regard to ecosystem-based management, conservation, restoration and CCA
     Review and amend legislation and secondary legislation in the environment sector and related sectors to reflect the new Biodiversity Strategy and Green Infrastructure Strategy
(b)Set up interdisciplinary teams and centers of excellence
(c)Operationalize ecosystem-based monitoring and strategic/environment impact assessment
(d)Open data for public use

Establish communication and provide tools for informed prioritization of research and practical action

Enable volunteer sharing
(e)Adjust regional and local adaptation strategies to the amended CCMA and the strategic documents and legislation on BD&ES services
 Stimulate local development and equitable access to ecosystems services
(f) Link decision making, resources, and funding to efficient assessment of improved ecosystem conditions
(g) Identify regional/local ‘red lines’ to prevent decrease or irreversible loss of ecosystem services vital for CCA

Develop regional/local programs to conserve and restore biodiversity to increase the delivery of ecosystems services
(h)Carry out ecosystems restoration—a long-term business opportunity
 Implement new training programs at all educational levels and in informal/non-formal education
(i) Create carbon environmental accounts
 Develop cultural ecosystems services for recreation and education
 Use genetic resources for resilience
(j) Collection folk customs and traditional knowledge in a targeted manner
     Energy

Advance efforts to motivate end users of energy to implement energy-saving measures, especially in households

Review costs and benefits of incorporating climate resilience into the design of new power plants

The MoEW is to ensure that climate resilience is integrated into water resources management and associated decisions affecting the operation of large HPPs

Undertake an inventory of strategies, policies, plans, standards, site selection, energy infrastructure design norms and other, to identify those where climate resilience should be incorporated

When the new Energy Strategy is developed, ensure climate resilience is mainstreamed into it
    Forestry

Establish a research and development coordination body

Design and implement a research program

Promote management strategies, which ensure high species and structural diversity and natural regeneration

Execute the NFI

Establish a national system for early warning and awareness at regional and local level

Establish and maintain a national disturbance monitoring system

Develop a wood specifiers guide and promote wood use
     Human health

Monitor and collect data; develop warning system about dangerous for health climate change phenomena

Carry out public education and awareness outreach

Work in partnership and cooperation: intra- and intersectoral (local, national, and international)

Carry out research/raise knowledge-base
     Tourism

Vertical options

Develop a NAS for CCA in the Tourism Sector

Develop a system of monitoring indicators and indicators monitoring

Raise and develop the tourism industry’s adaptive capacity and awareness

Develop four seasons’ tourism across the country

Develop and implement new market segmentation and new marketing strategies

Horizontal options

Improve the CCA legal framework

Develop and improve an M&E system

Develop a national database (online portal) containing CCA-specific information

Create cross-sectoral policy frameworks and improve coordination among responsible government and public institution

Introduce subsidies, grants, and other financial programs
    Transport

Review the institutional settings

Assign CCA responsibilities in the statute and internal procedures of the relevant stakeholders and train the staff

Introduce and/or improve CCA relevant data collection practices

Update the design norms (with specific focus on road and railway bridges and culverts) and continue the updating of these codes

Develop a common guideline for all beneficiaries to take CCA into consideration and embed it in the project preparation process
     Urban environment

Policy - Mainstream CCA into the policy of regional and urban development, including housing and construction; Adaptation option - incorporate CCA into the National Housing Strategy (2017–2030);

Legislation - Revise and amend legislative documents to transpose CCA issues (after RIA when applicable and necessary); Adaptation option - mainstream CCA requirements in all related legislative documents, relevant to regional and spatial/urban planning and environmental protection (Spatial Planning Act, Regional Development Act, Regulations No. 4, 7, and, 8, Regulation for Spatial Development Documents for EIA and SEA);

Information - Secure institutionally regulated exchange of information and data according to INSPIRE Directive obligations; Adaptation option - create common standards for the type, structure, scope, and format of metadata and data, harmonized with the EU at the city level;

Research - Provide a common long-term vision and objectives in the urban environment CCA research through amendment of the National Scientific Research Development Strategy 2020; Adaptation option - identify priority scientific topics, linked with the city, open and green spaces, buildings, infrastructure, construction materials, and human health;

Education - ‘Train the trainers’ for CCA; Adaptation option - organize appropriate education and training formats for all levels—from politicians to the general public

Finance - Change financial, social, and insurance policy; Adaptation option - revise the existing financial instruments and design new ones for CCA and DRM, including for energy renovation.
     Water

Adapt the legal framework to make it instrumental for addressing climate change impacts

Establish dynamic publicly available GIS database supporting climate change decision making

Maximize the use of research and education institutions

Operate water infrastructure to increase resilience to climate change for all users and sectors

Strengthen adaptation capacity: CCA awareness raising campaigns, education, and training
- The Regional Development Program 2021-2027 has been developed in accordance with the UN Sustainable Development Goal No. 13 "Combating Climate Change" The Regional Development Program 2021-2027 has been developed in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal of the UN No. 13 "Combating climate change", as about 30% of the planned resource for Priorities 1 and 2 of the RDP is a contribution to mitigating climate change - such are the measures for energy efficiency of buildings and for the development of sustainable mobility. In addition, the housing measures provided for in Priority 1 and 2 of the RDP also pay special attention to climate change adaptation and mitigation.
- National program for energy efficiency of multi-family residential buildings - The benefits of the Program are indisputable from the point of view of improving the energy characteristics and the overall condition of the housing stock, while at the same time it contributes to the protection of air purity, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and acts as a catalyst for a purposeful long-term housing policy.

As of 31.12.2022, 1,953 buildings with a total built-up area of ??11,044,019 m2 have been completed and put into operation under the NPEEMZHS, and the expected reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from the energy-saving measures implemented so far under the Program is estimated at approximately 319 ktCO2/year.
-Sub-measure "Support for sustainable energy renovation of the residential building stock" from the National Plan for Recovery and Sustainability of the Republic of Bulgaria - In the implementation decision of the Council ST 8091/22 of 04.05.2022 approved by the Council Implementation Decision approving the assessment of the Recovery and Sustainability Plan of the Republic of Bulgaria, prepared according to the Recovery and Sustainability Mechanism, funding is provided for the renovation of multi-family residential buildings through sub-measure "Support for sustainable energy renovation of the residential building stock" within investment C4.I1 "Support for renovation of the building stock". The focus of the investment sub-measure is on multi-family residential buildings throughout the country, and its implementation is expected to achieve the following results:
- 3,688,900 square meters of improved built-up area in multi-family residential buildings;
- 405 GWh/year. lowering the consumption of primary energy;
- 79 ktCO2/year. reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (kilotons of CO2 eq);
- Achieving a minimum of 30% primary energy savings for each building in compliance with the "do no significant harm principle" (2021/C58/01 within the meaning of Article 17 of Regulation (EU) 2020/852);
- Achieving energy consumption class "B" or a higher class for each building subject to intervention after implementing energy-saving measures;
- Contribution to the implementation of the goals of the Long-term national strategy to support the renovation of the national building stock of residential and non-residential buildings by 2050 - by 2030;
- Ensuring better air quality, living conditions and working environment in accordance with the criteria for sustainable development;
- Improving performance to extend the life cycle of buildings.

Activities under the investment sub-measure are expected to be completed and reported by June 30, 2026.
- The Innovation Strategy for Intelligent Specialization of the Republic of Bulgaria (ISIS) 2021 - 2027 is a strategic framework for sustainable development based on scientific research and innovation, the territorial capacity and ambitions of the regions and the broad participation of interested parties. The strategy was developed in accordance with the sustainable development goals of the United Nations, the priorities of the European Commission (EC) for the period 2019-2024. It gives a new focus to the entire innovation policy, reflected in the updated ISIS, which is oriented towards achieving socially relevant results by realizing the priorities of the European Commission with a strong emphasis on digital and green transformation of the economy and society. Innovation Strategy for Smart Specialization (ISIS) 2021-2027 defines five thematic areas in which Bulgaria has a competitive advantage and capacity for smart specialization and should direct its efforts to their accelerated development.

ISIS 2021-2027 thematic areas are:
^ Thematic area "Informatics and ICT";
> Thematic area "Mechatronics and microelectronics";
> Thematic area "Industries for a healthy life, bioeconomy and biotechnologies";
> Thematic area "New technologies in creative and recreational industries";
^ Thematic area "Clean technologies, circular and low-carbon economy".

Within the thematic area "Clean technologies, circular and low-carbon economy", the following sub-areas are prioritized:
> Innovations in the field of production, storage, saving, efficient distribution and consumption of energy, incl. from various renewable energy sources;

Creation of modern information complexes for autonomous energy systems;
> Hydrogen - based technologies: production of hydrogen with an emphasis on green hydrogen, storage, transport and use of hydrogen in industry, energy, transport and household;

Development and implementation of technologies related to sustainable mobility (battery and hydrogen), based on hydrogen and other alternative fuels, related infrastructure and eco-mobility;
> Technologies for efficient use of resources, to reduce the content of hazardous substances, to use alternative raw materials and materials, to extend the life of products and their use in other productions;
> Waste-free technologies and methods for incorporating waste products and materials from production into other productions;
> Capture and utilization of C02 from the atmosphere;
^ Development of digital solutions to implement approaches related to the circular economy.

Thematic area Clean technologies, circular and low carbon economy will be a priority area of ??smart specialization in all 28 regions of the country at NUTs III level.

 Support program for the development of industrial zones and parks and improvement of their infrastructure connectivity in order to attract investments (AttractlnvestBG)

The purpose of the current project (program) is to stimulate industrial, climate and digital investments and create favorable conditions for carrying out economic activity and creating jobs.
> Specific goals
> Specific objective 1. Attracting and retaining strategic investors to help the reindustrialization of Bulgaria with the aspect of innovative and/or green industry;
> Specific objective 2. Modernization and creation of industrial zones and parks with the necessary infrastructure, connectivity and services, to shorten supply chains in the EU, as well as competitiveness on an international scale;
> Specific objective 3. Ensuring the necessary prerequisites for the development of R&D, innovation and technology transfer for job creation, human capital development and economic activities with high added value.

In line with the principles of NextGenerationEU, in this project we envisage:
> A minimum of 30% of the electricity used is from RES for the newly allocated parks, as well as a minimum of 30% of the electricity used is from RES for the newly constructed productions in the existing parks;
> Installation of photovoltaics for own consumption;
> Building connectivity between industrial productions, which allows them to trade in real time with excess energy from RES;
> Water recycling using modern methods to reduce pollution - 100% for the newly allocated and 100% for all newly constructed productions in the existing parks; d Creation of charging stations for electric vehicles.

Economic Transformation Program (ETP)

The specific actions that the economic transformation program includes:
- Providing support for the recovery and growth of enterprises
- Providing support to encourage SMEs to introduce new digital technologies and solutions
- Improving energy and resource efficiency, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and improving the capacity of SMEs in connection with the transition to a circular and low-carbon economy

The program consists of three funds:

Fund 1 - Growth and Innovation;

Fund 2 - Green transition and circular economy;

Fund 3 - Investments in climate neutrality and digital transformation.

Program "Competitiveness and innovations in enterprises" for the period 2021-2027 (PKIP 2021-2027)

The "Competitiveness and Innovations in Enterprises" program for the period 2021-2027 (PKIP 2021-2027) is directly aimed at achieving intelligent and sustainable growth of the Bulgarian economy, as well as the implementation of industrial and digital transformation.

The program is structured in two priorities: Priority 1 "Innovation and growth" and Priority 2 "Circular economy", each of which is aimed at addressing challenges in specific areas that are key to the development of the economy and in which the country follows to make an effort.

Program "Scientific research, innovation and digitization for intelligent transformation" 2021-2027 - A leading horizontal priority is the transition to a green, blue and circular economy, as well as the digital transition.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported
Monitoring and Reporting under the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy 2019-2030 (NAS) and its Action Plan should be a participatory process, which enables capacity building and understanding, as well as applying lessons learned from the activities’ experience. It will be performed in accordance with the recently approved Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union , which incorporates the respective provisions of the existing Climate Monitoring Mechanism Regulation and harmonizes them with those of the Paris Climate Agreement.

The monitoring and reporting process shall serve several purposes, as follows:
? Facilitating timely identification and resolution of problems;
? Enhancing the performance of the planned activities;
? Providing the basis for technical and financial accountability;
? Building institutional and local capacity to implement and manage the planned actions successfully; and
? Promoting the identification and dissemination of lessons learned by participants themselves.

Monitoring involves the collection and analysis of data about implemented activities. The data should be easy to understand and will be incorporated in the reports. The monitoring should allow stakeholders to keep track of the activities, to determine whether the objectives are being achieved and to make whatever changes are necessary to improve the performance (an outline of the requirements of performance indicators is given in Section 6.2).

Pursuant to the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union, reporting on the national adaptation actions will be performed every 2 years, starting in 2021. Progress in implementation of measures envisaged in the Action Plan under the Strategy will be assessed in one mid-term and one final official report, to be drafted and presented to the Council of Ministers respectively in 2025 and in 2031. Implementation of the short-term measures of highest priority, as identified in Chapter 5.3 of this Strategy and highlighted in green in the sectoral Action Plans, will be assessed in the initial report to be developed in 2021. The performance will be strengthened and further refined on the basis of experience gained from implemented activities.
    Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the Action Plan requires deciding which information provides the best measure of progress and performance. Guidance on M&E is given in a number of sources including EC (2013b). Arrangements to monitor and evaluate progress can focus on processes and outcomes of implemented actions in meeting objectives and should also be able to capture unintended maladaptive consequences.
    Each of the activities listed in the Action Plan includes a proposed indicator or set of indicators for monitoring performance. To the extent possible, current and expected outcomes have been given. Further agreement and development of these indicators will be needed in consultation with implementing institutions.
The range of actions for each sector set out in this Action Plan provides a firm basis for implementation of the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the period up to 2030. The Action Plan should, however, be treated as an evolving document in that the range and detail of actions supporting each strategic objective will need to be fine-tuned and improved over time, as envisaged in the Monitoring and Reporting arrangements outlined above. A key role is to be played by the MoEW in leading and coordinating adaptation actions at the national level in cooperation with involved ministries and other institutions in line with this Strategy and Action Plan.
    A number of high priority actions have been identified that should be the focus of implementation in the short term, since they provide an essential foundation for enabling other subsequent medium and long-term actions. These priority actions focus, in particular, on soft measures to raise awareness and promote education on climate change adaptation and build adaptation capacity and knowledge. In general, these high priority short-term actions have been assessed as no cost or low cost.
    Since mid- and long- term priorities are more investment intensive (for example, related to infrastructure improvement) this will allow time in the shorter term to assess and develop available and potential financial resources to support these actions. This should include exploring climate financing options in the post-2020 Multiannual Financial Framework.
- Within the framework of the current program period, in the field of "Mitigation and adaptation to climate change", a contract was concluded with NDEF under Predefined project No. 3 "Implementation of innovative measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in municipalities in Bulgaria" worth 5,448,362 BGN .63 under Result 4: "Increasing the ability of local municipalities to reduce emissions and adapt to climate change". The project is aimed at improving the capacity of local authorities for planning, monitoring and implementing specific measures to mitigate the impact and adapt to climate change.
- Open Call No. 3 "Enhancing the capacity of local communities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to a changing climate" aims to launch a process of increasing the capacity of local municipalities to evaluate their strategic plans and programs in terms of planned and implemented actions resulting in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to the expected adverse effects of climate change.
- Project "GoGreenLocal - active policies at the local level for adaptation and mitigation of climate change" with the beneficiary Municipality of Pernik in the amount of BGN 987,727.00.

The overall goal of the project is to increase the capacity of the municipalities of Pernik and Bobov dol for the development and implementation of active policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation and mitigation of climate change.
- Project "Integration of measures and activities for adaptation to climate change" with the beneficiary Municipality of Dobrich in the amount of BGN 708,278.78.

The project proposal envisages the conduct of a three-day training for a minimum of 20 units. municipal officials, representatives of the partners to increase their competence in the field of planning measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Representatives from Norway relevant to adaptation and climate change will be keynote speakers at the training. It is also planned to carry out a three-day visit to 6 pcs. municipal experts in Norway to exchange experience and good practices in the field of climate change. Within the framework of the visit, training forums will be held and various sites will be visited in which adaptation and prevention measures to climate change are integrated.
- Project "Sustainable solutions for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in small municipalities" of the Municipality of Chelopech worth BGN 884,883.70.

The aim of the project is to increase the capacity of the four municipalities from Bulgaria, by developing the knowledge, skills, experience and qualifications necessary to support the planning and design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of their strategic plans and programs in terms of action leading as a result to the reduction of GHG emissions and adaptation to the expected adverse effects of climate change.
- Project "Transition to climate-resistant communities" with the beneficiary Municipality of Haskovo in the amount of BGN 914,591.72.

The general objective of the project is to increase the capacity at the municipal level for the evaluation of strategic plans and programs, through the improvement of strategic planning processes, monitoring of the implementation and implementation of innovative measures and activities for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation and adaptation to adverse effects of climate change.
- Project "Implementation of measures for successful adaptation to climate change" of Blagoevgrad Municipality worth BGN 792,597.61.

Increasing the capacity of the municipalities of Blagoevgrad, Simitli, Kocherinovo and Boboshevo for sustainable implementation of innovative measures and technologies at the municipal level in the waste and energy sector and adaptation of strategic plans and programs with a view to overcoming the adverse consequences of climate change.
- Project "Partnership for Adaptation to Climate Change" with the beneficiary Municipality of Smolyan in the amount of BGN 940,266.60.

The project is aimed at the needs of the municipalities for training and increasing the capacity of employees and implementing measures for the production of electricity and heat energy from renewable sources and carrying out surveys for energy efficiency laid down in the EE programs of the partner municipalities.
- Project "Introduction of adaptation measures to the changing climate in the municipalities of Galabovo, Gorna Oryahovitsa and Stambolovo" with the beneficiary municipality of Galabovo in the amount of BGN 734,408.34.

The project envisages the implementation of activities related to improving the competence of municipal employees in the field of planning measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change
- Project "Development and implementation of measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate changes in the Municipality of Straldza" with the beneficiary Municipality of Straldza in the amount of BGN 682,609.97.

The project proposal is aimed at improving the competence of municipal employees in the municipality of Straldja, improving their skills and expertise at the local level, as well as the identification, development and implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change in the municipality.
To increase the awareness of the population in the field of climate adaptation,fire safety, and disaster risk the following initiatives have been implemented:
• Information and clarification campaigns were conducted among the population for fire safety during the autumn-winter heating season for 2020/2021and 2021/2022 season;
• For the spring-summer season and the related risks of fires in the forest and field territories, as well as fires in agricultural lands in 2020, 2021 and 2022, a number of information and clarification campaigns have been conducted among the population. In connection with the implementation of the summer campaign for the protection of forests from fires, coordination was carried out and joint events were realized with the Executive Agency of Forests under the Ministry of Agriculture.
• To form the necessary behavior in the event of fires, disasters and emergency situations, media appearances, public events and public awareness campaigns have been organized and carried out, as follows: in 2020 – 4,077 units; in 2021 – 2,085 units; in 2022 – 6,200 units;

Another significant part of the events are the demonstration trainings and classes, playing out plans for the evacuation of objects, demonstrating to the public the tactical and technical capabilities of the forces and means of responding to fires and disasters.
• As of 31.12.2022, under the project "Centers for increasing the preparedness of the population for response to floods", trainings were conducted for a total of 91,114 people, divided into the following target groups: students; elderly people of incapacitated age; representatives of local government, regional administrations and teachers; volunteers; NGO and business representatives; representatives of the media.
Projects for adapting to climate change in municipalities

Within the framework of the current program period, in the field of "Mitigation and adaptation to climate change", a contract was concluded with NDEF under Predefined project No. 3 "Implementation of innovative measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in municipalities in Bulgaria" worth 5,448,362 BGN .63 under Result 4: "Increasing the ability of local municipalities to reduce emissions and adapt to climate change". The project is aimed at improving the capacity of local authorities for planning, monitoring and implementing specific measures to mitigate the impact and adapt to climate change.

Publick awareness

Small Grant Scheme No. 4 "Climate" aims to increase the number of educational institutions carrying out activities for raising awareness/education regarding climate change, impact mitigation and adaptation.
- "Time Travelers" project with beneficiary Children's Garden No. 115 "Osmi Mart" worth BGN 175,846.34.

The goal of the project proposal is to create a unique and innovative educational program and campaign, as well as to raise awareness of climate change issues through information campaigns among the general public.
- "We are changing with the climate" project with the beneficiary "Tsvetan Radoslavov" Secondary School worth BGN 385,465.09.

The main goal of the project "We are changing with the climate" is to organize a large-scale campaign to increase the awareness and competences of the Bulgarian public regarding the impact of climate change on human health, the environment and the social and economic life of modern society, as well as the specific climate change mitigation, adaptation and resilience measures to be taken.

Human health
- For the period 2021 - 2022. The Ministry of Health has provided BGN 1,496,000 for the capital expenditure budget for medical institutions, for the improvement of the health infrastructure, incl. provision of alternative power supply through the construction of photovoltaic systems, overhaul and thermal insulation of roofs, overhaul of heating installations for switching from fuel oil to natural gas.

Transport

The implemented activities related to climate change are related to the commissioning in 2021 of the "Project for the extension of the metro in the city of Sofia, Line 3, Stage II. The project was implemented with a grant from Operational programe "Transport and transport infrastructure 2014-2020. The value of the project is BGN 199.4 million without VAT, of which BFP 133.9 million is from OPTTI and BGN 65.5 million is co-financing from the Metropolitan Municipality .

Energy

ECO EAD launched the project "Digital transformation and development of ECO's information systems and real-time systems in the conditions of low-carbon energy", part of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan and co-financed by the Instrument for Recovery and Sustainability of the EC, with a total value of BGN 611 million.

Cultural values

In 2021, the Ministry of Culture financed - 32 sites under the Program for Conservation and Restoration of Immovable Cultural Values ??with a total value of BGN 2,092,304.55, and in 2022 - 53 objects with a total value of BGN 9,087,218.
The open call ? 3 “Increasing the capacity of local communities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to changing climate” launched a process of increasing the capacity of local municipalities to evaluate their strategic plans and programs in relation to planned and actions taken as a result of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the expected adverse effects of climate change. As a result, it will be easier to plan and implement new strategic steps to introduce good practices to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause.
    In the implementation of each of these projects it is set to improve the competence of municipal officials to plan, develop and implement measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change in the field of transport, urban planning and information campaigns and increase public knowledge and commitment to climate change and seeking additional benefits and synergies by taking proactive activities to prevent risk and reduce vulnerability. The activities are expected to be completed by the end of 2023.
    Inclusion of adaptation measures in regional and urban development, the Improvement of the political and legal framework is of great importance
- The Regional Development Program 2021-2027 has been developed in accordance with the UN Sustainable Development Goal No. 13 "Combating Climate Change", with about 30% of the planned resource for contributing to mitigation of climate change.
- National program for energy efficiency of multi-family residential buildings

The implementation of the National Program for Energy Efficiency of Multi-Family Residential Buildings (NPEEMZHS/Program), adopted by Resolution No. 18 of February 2, 2015 of the Council of Ministers, continues. As of 31.12.2022, 1,953 buildings with a total built-up area of ??11,044,019 m2 have been completed and put into operation under the NPEEMZHS, and the expected reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from the energy-saving measures implemented so far under the Program is estimated at approximately 319 ktCO2/year.
The fulfillment of the national target share of energy from renewable sources in the gross final energy consumption by 2030 will be achieved by creating a favorable regulatory and regulatory framework and by increasing the use of energy from renewable sources in the electricity, heat and energy sectors. and energy for cooling and transport. In the transport sector, the entry of new generation biofuels and renewable electricity supplied to the road and rail transport sector. The consumption of these fuels and energy should contribute to achieving the policy objectives of energy diversification and decarbonisation of the transport sector. Implementation of innovative technologies for sustainable energy development Innovations in the energy sector contribute both to the achievement of overall reduction of energy costs and to the imposition of new standards for energy efficiency and the transition to lower and more sustainable energy consumption.

- Water - Regarding the Expansion and upgrading of networks for monitoring precipitation, water resources and water use related to adaptation to water changes, the project "Monitoring the amount of water" is being implemented with the financial support of the operational program "Environment 2014-2020 Mr. The project "Digitalization for complex management, control and efficient use of water" was also approved for implementation with funding under the National Plan for Recovery and Sustainability.

- Energy - Mainstreaming climate change resilience and improving contingency planning in infrastructure management that supports the energy sector:
• Built a complex measuring modular telemetric computer information system for monitoring and prevention of the drainage system, covering the catchment area of ??the company for the notification of emergencies and all other events threatening the normal operation of the plant;
• For the period 2021-2022, had been completed the construction and reconstruction of a total of 366.05 km. power lines.
• ECO EAD also launched the project "Digital transformation and development of ECO's information systems and real-time systems in the conditions of low-carbon energy", part of the NPVU and co-financed by the Instrument for Recovery and Sustainability of the EC, with a total value of BGN 611 million.
• Completing the construction of five large-scale projects, of common interest according to Regulation (EU) 347/2013 with a total length of 367.18 km:

Inovation
-The Innovation Strategy for Intelligent Specialization of the Republic of Bulgaria (ISIS) is a strategic framework for sustainable development based on scientific research and innovation, the territorial capacity and ambitions of the regions and the broad participation of interested parties.

Cultural values
-In 2021, the Ministry of Culture financed - 32 sites under the Program for Conservation and Restoration of Immovable Cultural Values ??with a total value of BGN 2,092,304.55, and in 2022 - 53 objects with a total value of BGN 9,087,218.
Energy saving measures (households and industry)
- Financing and implementation of projects for introduction of energy saving technologies and energy from renewable sources under the Operational Program "Innovation and Competitiveness" 2014-2020;
- Mandatory management of energy efficiency (EE) in enterprises and industrial systems, according to art. 63 of the Energy Efficiency Act (???);
- Energy audits and management systems.
- Check for energy efficiency of heating systems with hot water boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings - In 2021 - in the Industry sector - 256 measures, 152.9 Gwtch/year. energy saved;

In the household sector - 17 renovated properties according to the NPEEMZHS, 8.4 Gwtch/year. energy saved.

For the period 2021-2022, 5 information meetings were held with those obliged under Art. 14a of the ?nergy ?fficiency Law persons for clarification of their obligations and ways of achieving and accounting for the realized energy savings within the framework of the national scheme for obligations, according to Art. 7 of Directive 2012/27/EU.
- The Agency for Sustainable Energy Development regularly conducts ongoing information campaigns, meetings with stakeholders, consultations of obligated persons, etc. in respect of their obligations under the EEA.
    

Work with water sector stakeholders to explore the links between water efficiency (ie system losses) and energy efficiency ":

Water companies in the country also implement a number of EE measures. The most commonly implemented measures are:
• replacement of pumping units for transportation of drinking water and drainage of wastewater;
• introduction of autonomous automated control in water supply systems;
• improving the condition of the building stock.

Transport
     - Improved resilience to climate change of future transport projects - In accordance with the subject of activity State Enterprise Port Infrastructure develops an investment program including sites for repair, rehabilitation and reconstruction of port infrastructure in public transport ports for 2021.
       - Implement the environmental policy, the Integrated Management System (IMS) of DPPI has been functionally and operationally upgraded with an Environmental Management System (EMS) through the implementation in DPPI's practice of the requirements of the ISO 14001:2015 standard.
      - in 2022, the implementation of the project "Modernization and optimization of the rehabilitation activities of the shipping route in the common Bulgarian-Romanian section of the Danube River, through the supply of equipment" was completed

    Agriculture - The Strategic Plan for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is set to start on 1 January 2023, is designed to shape the transition to a sustainable, resilient and modern European agricultural sector.The aim is to support the cultivation of special crops and varieties that have the potential to adapt to climate change.
Biodeversity

With regard to high priorities for improving knowledge management, education and communication for adaptation, which include the implementation of the interoperability of ecosystem data between competent authorities and other actors, the promotion of science with wide participation, facilitating the voluntary exchange of data and information, and implementing new training programs at all educational levels:

The strategy for biological diversity has been developed, it has gone through a public discussion procedure, and the received opinions are yet to be reflected. After the adoption of the strategy, the National Plan for the Protection and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Genetic Resources will undergo public discussion and approval procedures. The plan is currently prepared (draft), the duration of its action is 5 years, after which it is subject to updating (for the next 5-year period), including the measures to achieve the implementation of the national goals defined in the strategy.
to incorporate the provisions of the AIC Strategy for activities related to ecosystem management and maintenance and improvement of the habitats of protected bird species in arable land of ornithological importance, by switching to organic farming in arable land, with a potential carbon sequestration effect dioxide, are set for implementation in measures of the National Framework for Priority Actions for the period 2021-2027.

The main challenge in the climate transition will be the successful implementation of reforms in regions with a carbon-intensive energy sector. A number od strategic dokument related to the energy sector are developed to ensure addressing the barriers to adaptation. In energy sector they are:
• NATIONAL ENERGY AND CLIMATE PLAN 2021-2030
• LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION STRATEGY 2050
• NATIONAL RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE PLAN
• STRATEGIC VISION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR

For Disaster risk reduction - NATIONAL PROGRAM TO REDUCE DISASTER RISK 2021-2025
    Infrastructure and Energy

The implementation of infrastructure projects for electricity and gas is key to achieving the goal of improving energy interconnections between EU Member States and neighboring countries, as well as ensuring adequate balancing of renewable energy capacities due to their growing share. by 2030 and with a horizon of 2050. In this regard, and in order to ensure the energy security of the country, by accelerating the diversification of sources and routes of energy resources, our efforts are focused on building the missing infrastructure to ensure security of energy supply .
According to the Disaster Protection Act (DPA), disaster protection planning is carried out at the municipal, district and national level, and disaster protection plans are prepared for this purpose. The bodies of the central executive power and the constituent parts of the unified rescue system develop disaster protection plans for the implementation of the tasks arising from the National Disaster Protection Plan and the plans at the district and municipal level. To support the performance of this function, a Disaster Risk Reduction Council was established at the Ministry of Defense under Art. 62, para. 3 of the Disaster Protection Act, which is chaired by the Minister of the Interior Affairs. At this stage, a total of 20 regional plans for disaster protection and 5 of central executive authorities have been submitted to the Ministry of Internal Affairs for approval by the Chairman of the Council.

The "Communication and Information Systems" Directorate in the Ministry of Internal Affairs has expressed a desire to participate in the 2021-2027 Environmental Program, priority 4 "Risk and Climate Change". The project is included in the indicative work program for 2023 in Specific objective 2.4. "Promoting adaptation to climate change, disaster risk prevention and resilience, taking into account ecosystems approaches", in item 2 "Completion of the system for early warning and awareness of the population at the district level". The procedure announcement date is the first quarter of 2023.

To increase the culture and awareness of the population in the field of fire safety, the following initiatives have been implemented:

Information and clarification campaigns were conducted among the population on fire safety during the autumn-winter heating season for 2020/2021, and 2021/2022.

To form the necessary behavior in the event of fires, disasters and emergency situations, media appearances, public events and public awareness campaigns have been organized and carried out, as follows: in 2020 – 4,077 units; in 2021 – 2,085 units; in 2022 – 6200 pcs
Biodiversity -With regard to high priorities for improving knowledge management, education and communication for adaptation, which include the implementation of the interoperability of ecosystem data between competent authorities and other actors, the promotion of science with wide participation, facilitating the voluntary exchange of data and information, and implementing new training programs at all educational levels:

The strategy for biological diversity has been developed, it has gone through a public discussion procedure, and the received opinions are yet to be reflected. After the adoption of the strategy, the National Plan for the Protection and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and Genetic Resources will undergo public discussion and approval procedures. The plan is currently prepared (draft), the duration of its action is 5 years, after which it is subject to updating (for the next 5-year period), including the measures to achieve the implementation of the national goals defined in the strategy.

Agriculture -The Strategic Plan for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is set to start on 1 January 2023, is designed to shape the transition to a sustainable, resilient and modern European agricultural sector.The aim is to support the cultivation of special crops and varieties that have the potential to adapt to climate change.
    Healthcare - the rules and conditions for the use of medical assistance for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of diseases, including those arising as a result of the adverse impact of climatic factors, are confirmed and periodically updated by the regulations.
        Strategic documents in energy sector:

NATIONAL ENERGY AND CLIMATE PLAN 2021-2030
• LONG-TERM CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION STRATEGY 2050
• NATIONAL RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE PLAN
• STRATEGIC VISION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR
      - Pursuant to Art. 12, para. 3 of the Law on Financial Management and Control in the Public Sector and instructions of the Minister of Transport and Communications with Reg. No. 10-21-123/17.05.2018, the Director General of the State Enterprise Port Infrastructure, approved a Strategy for the management of risk 2018-2020 and subsequent Risk Management Strategy 2021-2023.
       -For the period 2021-2022, a new Regulation No. RD-02-20-3 of 9.11.2022 on the technical requirements for the energy characteristics of buildings was developed and promulgated
       - Together with the leading department, the Ministry of Energy, in 2022 a new Ordinance No. E-RD-04-2 of December 16, 2022 on energy efficiency survey, certification and assessment of energy savings of buildings was prepared and promulgated
      -Has been prepared a completely new draft of the Ordinance for the design, construction and operation of water supply systems and of the draft Ordinance for amendment. and add. of Ordinance No. RD-02-20-8 of 2013 for the design, construction and operation of sewage systems. It is planned that in 2023 the two projects will be examined and discussed by a working group, which is about to be created in the Ministry of Planning and Development.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Not reported

Cooperation and experience

At this point, Bulgaria still does not have a synergies of adaptation actions with other international frameworks and/or conventions
At this point, Bulgaria still does not have a cooperation with Union Member States, international cooperation, and with regional and international organisations to share information and to strengthen science, institutions and adaptation knowledge.
The National Trust EcoFund (NTEF) started a Project "Bridge between European and Local New Climate Action" (BEACON) in order to achieve sustainability of the measures taken under the Operational Program Environment 2014-2020. On March 31, 2021, within the framework of the "Bridge between European and Local New Climate Action" (BEACON) project, funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of the Republic of Germany, was held a meeting with project partners. The project aims to save energy in school and kindergarten.

Bulgaria is divided into 6 regions for air quality assessment and management. Sofia Municipality falls into a region of excessive particulate matter (PM) air pollution, mainly generated by domestic heating and transport. To comply with national legislation and Directive 2008/50/EC, the municipality developed its Air Quality Programme (AQP), which is updated periodically. Looking at Bulgaria as a whole, air pollution from M smaller than 10 microns (PM10) is the biggest national air quality problem. In areas where monitoring takes place, 88.7% of the population or 3.5 million people is exposed to excessive levels of PM10. For these reasons, the project will include 5 other Bulgarian municipalities, as well as Sofia, in its implementation of municipal Air Quality Programmes. The cities of Burgas, Veliko Tarnovo, Montana, Ruse, and Stara Zagora all face similar air quality problems and, while their AQPs contain certain measures, they lack details and concrete steps. By including these areas, the project will extend its reach to another 2 million people nearly one third of the Bulgarian population.

The LIFE IP CLEAN AIR project will encourage and streamline the efforts of the 6 partner municipalities to decrease air pollution. The projects main objectives are as follows:
•improve the air quality in the municipalities of Sofia, Burgas, Veliko Tarnovo, Montana, Ruse, and Stara Zagora;
•administrative capacity-building in the 6 municipalities so they can: 1. implement the measures foreseen by the Air Quality Programmes (AQP); 2. carry out overall monitoring and control to ensure improvement; 3. make use of different sources of financing, including EU funds, to implement air quality measures;and 4. elaborate AQP for the next programming period on the basis of quality, adequate information
•raising awareness and create a well-informed community of citizens and NGOs who can partner and challenge the administrations and drive change;
•support capacity-building in air quality management for all municipalities which have poor air quality;
•improve the transfer of know-how and experience in the field of air quality through networking with other EU municipalities, institutions, projects and partners.

The integrated project has a duration of 6 years - from October 2018 to October 2024.

The project budget is 16.7 million euros, with the financial contribution from the European Commission being 60%.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

Bulgaria adopts its first "Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan" at the end of 2019. In view of the time horizon that it covers - until 2030 at the moment, Bulgaria still does not have a network or other collaborations on adaptation across national authorities.
With regard to the sub-national adaptation measures taken, we would like to state, that as a central administration the ministry of Environment and water does not require a full report from the minicipalities and reagions regarding their adaptation afforts on a munisipal level.
Strategy for adaptation to climate change for Sofia Municipality in line with the requirements of the Compact of Mayors initiative

In the context of the Strategy of Sofia Municipality, several main directions for adaptation can be identified, on the basis of which specific measures for adaptation by sectors are proposed.

Develop horizontal policies and strategic planning, including planning to build institutional capacity to deal effectively with climate change. This direction also includes preparation of new and change of existing policies, strategies, legislative framework, standards for adequate adaptation to the changes; preparation of risk management plans for specific climate events; cost-benefit analyzes of the planned measures

Increasing the institutional capacity in the municipality for adaptation to climate change, incl. coordination and cooperation of the municipality with other responsible institutions, not only at regional but also at national level, and active work with stakeholders;

Carrying out targeted research and monitoring to increase knowledge and data collection for adequate and effective planning and implementation of adaptation measures; performing targeted analyzes to reduce vulnerability
    Conducting information campaigns and increasing the knowledge and commitment of society to climate change
     Effective communication of the implementation of the Strategy by holding regular meetings with stakeholders and creating an active dialogue;
    Seeking additional benefits and synergies - carrying out proactive activities to prevent risk and reduce vulnerability by turning the challenges of climate change into opportunities for positive change - improving the quality of life, developing the local economy, implementing effective solutions and good practices.
- In the Vision for Development of the Municipality of Burgas in the period 2021-2027 is set the development of a Strategy for adaptation to climate change, which will be implemented and set integrated measures for energy efficiency, tourism, urban environment, water;
- Between 2-4 November, the National Trust Ecofund organizes special training for representatives of municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria to participate in a three-day training on the topic "Implementation of innovative measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in municipalities in Bulgaria". The training takes place within the framework of the project "Implementation of innovative measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in municipalities in Bulgaria", financed by the "Environmental Protection and Climate Change" Program of the EEA Financial Mechanism. The donor partner is the Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) in Norway in cooperation with the Western Norwegian Research Institute. The partners in Bulgaria are eight municipalities: Burgas, Varna, Kardjali, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sliven, Stara Zagora and Sofia - city.
- The National Trust EcoFund (NTEF) started a Project "Bridge between European and Local New Climate Action" (BEACON) in order to achieve sustainability of the measures taken under the Operational Program Environment 2014-2020. On March 31, 2021, within the framework of the "Bridge between European and Local New Climate Action" (BEACON) project, funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of the Republic of Germany, was held a meeting with project partners. The project aims to save energy in school and kindergarten.
- The National Trust EcoFund (NTEF) project - Municipal energy management systems ( - MEMS) in partnership with EnEffect and the support of European climate initiative (EUKI) of the German Federal ministry of Environment. The project has as goal to develop a model for municipal energz management in Bulgaria, which should server as ground for development and implementation of a new tool for financing energz efficiency projects, supporting local authorities.
- On the 29th of September 2020, the National Trust Ecofund hosted a digital working meeting of the Triple A project stakeholders. The Triple A project is implemented by a consortium of eight European countries under the Horizon 2020 program. Triple A project (Assess, Agree, Assign) on Horizon 2020 Program (12 partners from 10 countries, September 2019 – August 2022) introduces the innovative assessment model for energy efficiency projects to the stakeholders. The assessment through the model would provide them access to financing.
With regard to the sub-national adaptation measures taken, we would like to state, that as a central administration the ministry of Environment and water does not require a full report from the minicipalities regarding their adaptation afforts on a munisipal level.
With regard to the sub-national adaptation measures taken, we would like to state, that as a central administration the ministry of Environment and water does not require a full report from the minicipalities regarding their adaptation afforts on a munisipal level.
The Ministry of Environment and Water is the national coordinator of the European Commission's European Mobility Week campaign, which is held annually from 16 to 22 September.

The campaign seeks to encourage the participation of municipalities, schools, non-governmental and business organizations, as well as to involve citizens themselves in initiatives related to sustainable urban mobility, leading to the reduction of air pollution, noise pollution, congestion, road accidents and health problems. problems, reducing environmental pressures and taking into account climate change.

The aim is to increase the knowledge and interest of citizens in alternative ways to move in cities. The campaign calls for a change in behavior and aims to make progress in developing more sustainable transport strategies and better air quality in cities, limiting the effects of heavy traffic and concomitant climate change.

The MoEW, through its regional offices throughout the country, traditionally participates in the celebrations of the European Mobility Week by conducting various thematic initiatives involving hundreds of children and young people, helping municipalities to promote the campaign and build an environmentally responsible society.
    In 2020, the Zero emission mobility for all campaign was launched, encouraging citizens to choose environmentally friendly ways to move around in their daily lives - on foot, by bicycle, by public transport or by combining these options, replacing traveling by car.
- Between 2-4 November, the National Trust Ecofund organizes special training for representatives of municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria to participate in a three-day training on the topic "Implementation of innovative measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in municipalities in Bulgaria". The training takes place within the framework of the project "Implementation of innovative measures for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in municipalities in Bulgaria", financed by the "Environmental Protection and Climate Change" Program of the EEA Financial Mechanism. The donor partner is the Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) in Norway in cooperation with the Western Norwegian Research Institute. The partners in Bulgaria are eight municipalities: Burgas, Varna, Kardjali, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sliven, Stara Zagora and Sofia - city.
- The National Trust EcoFund (NTEF) project - Municipal energy management systems ( - MEMS) in partnership with EnEffect and the support of European climate initiative (EUKI) of the German Federal ministry of Environment. The project has as goal to develop a model for municipal energz management in Bulgaria, which should server as ground for development and implementation of a new tool for financing energz efficiency projects, supporting local authorities.
- On the 29th of September 2020, the National Trust Ecofund hosted a digital working meeting of the Triple A project stakeholders. The Triple A project is implemented by a consortium of eight European countries under the Horizon 2020 program. Triple A project (Assess, Agree, Assign) on Horizon 2020 Program (12 partners from 10 countries, September 2019 – August 2022) introduces the innovative assessment model for energy efficiency projects to the stakeholders. The assessment through the model would provide them access to financing.

Ministry of Environment and Water

Climate Change Policy Directorate
Coordinating adaptation policies and responsible for reporting
Svetlana Tusheva
Lead reporter
[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'