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Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2023-03-15

Greece has a total area of 131,957 km2 and occupies the southernmost extension of the Balkan Peninsula. The mainland accounts for 80% of the land area, with the remaining 20% divided among nearly 3,000 islands. The Greek landscape, with its extensive coastline, exceeding 15,000 km in length, is closely linked with the sea, since only a small region in the northwest is further than 80 km from the sea. Approximately 25% of it is lowland, particularly the coastal plains along the seashore of the country. Forest land, divided into Forests (high and coppice forests) and Other Wooded Lands (branchy dwarf trees and scrubs), covers 26.2% of the total area of the country. Grassland, rangeland and pasture with vegetation that falls below the threshold of forest definition, covers 40.3% of the total area of the country. Agricultural land, including fallow land, account for 25.1% of the total area. Settlements, developed land including transport infrastructure and human settlements of any size, account for 4.1% of the total area. Finally, wetlands, land that is covered or saturated by water for all or the greatest part of the year, and other land, areas that do not fall into any of other land-use categories (e.g. rocky areas, bare soil, mine and quarry land), account for 2.3 % and 2.1 %, respectively.

Situated at the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula (Aemos Peninsula), Greece has a complex topography which, together with the prevailing weather systems, accounts for a strong spatial variability of climate conditions. As a result, the climate can vary from Mediterranean to alpine within just a few dozen kilometres. Another predominant feature is Greece’s extensive coastline, which along with the topography influences a number of local climate characteristics, sometimes causing significant differences from what is considered a typical Mediterranean climate. Three facts worth mentioning at this stage are the average altitude of the Greek mainland (close to 600 m), the gradient in elevation (typically between 100 m and 200 m per km), and ?as mentioned? the impressively lengthy total coastline (15,021 km, i.e. more than a third of the Earth’s equatorial circumference).

Greece has one of the richest biodiversities in Europe and the Mediterranean on account of combined multiple factors, which include the country’s climatic variety, geographical location (at the junction of three continents), complex geologic history, and great topographic diversity (pronounced relief, land discontinuity, large number of caves, gulfs and seas, and until recently only moderate human intervention), all of which have fostered the development and support of a wide variety of plants, animals, ecosystems and landscapes. An important characteristic of Greek biodiversity is the high endemism observed in most animal and plant groups. Many endemic species have a very small distribution area (limited e.g. to one islet or one mountain) and are thus vulnerable to disturbance.

Greece has a Mediterranean climate, with mild and wet winters in the southern lowland and island regions and cold winters with strong snowfalls in the mountainous areas in the central and northern regions and hot, dry summers. The mean temperature during summer (April to September) is approximately 24°C in Athens and Southern Greece, while lower in the North. Generally, temperatures are higher in the southern part of the country. Except for a few thunderstorms, rainfall is rare from June to August, where sunny and dry days are mainly observed. The dry, hot weather is often relieved by a system of seasonal breezes. The mean annual temperature for the period 2001 – 2015, as measured at selected meteorological stations of the country, is higher in most of the stations compared to the mean annual temperature of the period 1991 – 2000 while the mean annual temperature for the period 1991 – 2000 is higher compared to these of the period 1961 – 1990. Studies of the effects of climate change on extreme weather events have concluded that the climate of the Mediterranean basin will become significantly warmer, with prolonged heat waves, less rainfall, but also more intense extreme rainfall events.

Sources:
7th National Communication of Greece. https://unfccc.int/documents/198255

Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, “The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change”, June 2011. Link: https://www.bankofgreece.gr/[…]/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf
In 2021, the total permanent population of Greece was 10,432 million inhabitants, according to provisional data of the 2021 Census performed by the Hellenic Statistical Authority. The total population in 2021 decreased by 3.5% compared to the 2011 Census results, with 25% of total population living in the greater Athens area. Apart from the South Aegean Region, the population in all Greek regions has been decreased between 2011 and 2021, due to a reduced fertility rate and, until 2015, negative net migration. During the years 2015-2019 the incoming immigrants were around 542,000 and the outgoing around 517,000. Greece is the main entry point to Europe for refugees and migrants travelling on the eastern Mediterranean route. Illegal border crossings soared from an annual average of 45,000 over 2008-2014 to 885,000 in 2015, subsequently dropping to 42,000 in 2017. In 2019 the net immigration was estimated to about 34,000 people while in 2020 this number decreased to 6,400 people (values estimated through regression modeling, excluding the impact of immigrant crisis).

According to the Hellenic Statistical Authority, the age structure of the population in 2020 is estimated as follows: 14.1% 0-14 years, 63.3% 15-64 years and 22.6% 65+ years. The old-age dependency ratio is expected to continue to rise from an already high rate of 33% in 2016 to 71% in 2050, though the public ageing cost is expected to decline as a result of pension reforms.

The average household size decreased from 2.80 persons per household according to the 2001 population census, to 2.55 persons per household, according to the 2011 population census Population density in Greece is estimated at 84.03 inhabitants/km2. Although the majority of people live in cities of more than 50,000, the share of population in rural regions is higher than the OECD average (84.9% is urban). The Athens and Thessaloniki metropolitan areas account for 43% of the population and 56% of GDP. While the crisis affected all regions, disparities among them have significantly widened in the past decade.

The unemployment rate in the third quarter of 2022 was 11.6.%. About the financial situation of the households, 14.5%, 6.2% and 2.3% of population live in relatively bad, bad and very bad financial situation, respectively. In 2021, 19.6% of the Greek population lived under the risk of poverty.

Sources:
7th National Communication of Greece. https://unfccc.int/documents/198255

Hellenic Statistical Authority, www.statistics.gr

Population and Residence 2021 Census provisional results, Hellenic Statistical Authority, 2022, https://www.statistics.gr/el/2021-census-res-pop-results

Hellenic Statistical Authority Press release on estimated population and immigrant flow, 2020, https://www.statistics.gr/[…]/-.

OECD Environmental Performance Review of Greece https://www.oecd.org/greece[…]greece-2020-cec20289-en.htm
Greece is a member of the EU since 1981 and member of the Eurozone since 2001. The euro is the monetary unit of the country since 1st of 2002. Greece has a small, service-based economy. In 2020, services (mostly trade, transport and storage, accommodation and food service, information and communication, financial and insurance activities, repair of vehicles, public administration, defence, education, health and social work activities, arts and entertainment and real estate activities) contributed 70% of total value added. Tourism is a vital driver of the Greek economy. In 2018, it directly accounted for 12% of GDP, while its direct and indirect contribution was estimated at between 26% and 31% of GDP. Agriculture is also more important than in most other OECD countries, accounting for 4% of value added and 12% of employment. The share of industry in value added rose from 11% to 15% over 2010-17, driven by increasing contributions from food product manufacturing and basic metals. Meanwhile, construction’s share fell by half, to 2%. The economy is becoming more open, although exports, at 36% of GDP in 2018, remained below the EU average of 46%. Goods, especially oil products, account for an increasing share of total exports. Within service exports, the share of tourism (52% in 2017) has exceeded that of transport (32%, mainly shipping) since the mid-2010s.

After the accession, the Greek economy was developed with high rates, while its capacity to cope with structural problems both in public and in private sector was increased. However, since 2009 the Greek economy experiences its most-severe economic crisis recording six consecutive year recession up to 2013. In 2014 about 0.7% growth was noted while for years 2015 and 2016 a small recession was shown from 0.2 to 0.3%. As a consequence, Greece has received financial and technical assistance from the other Eurozone countries and the IMF in the framework of the first Memorandum of Understanding (May, 2010), the second one (January, 2012) and the third one (August, 2015) in order to deal with its high deficit and Government debt. The implementation of the Memorandums of Understanding was accompanied by the adoption of numerous economic and structural changes of Greece influencing significantly the living standards of Greek citizens. The implementation of the Memorandums of Understanding was accompanied by the adoption of numerous economic and structural changes of Greece significantly influencing the living standards of Greek citizens. The third Memorandum of Understanding was completed by the August of 2018. In period 2014-2016 no significant change on GDP was noticed while for years 2017, 2018 and 2019 approximately 1.08%, 1.64% and 1.77% growth, respectively, were noted. Nevertheless, this upward trend did not continue in 2020 due to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, where a recession of 9.9% was observed.

According to the OECD, the COVID-19 crisis added urgency to addressing Greece’s long-standing challenge of boosting investment and productivity to diversify the economy and improve job creation. Although in 2022 the growth rate was reported at 6.7% as a result of the rebound in tourism and continued fiscal support, consumption is projected to slow in 2023 as real incomes shrink and uncertainty remains elevated following Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine and surging energy prices.

The energy supply system in Greece is based on (a) primary lignite production, (b) refineries, (c) transport and distribution of natural gas and (d) electricity generation. Lignite is a significant domestic energy source. Production comes from opencast mines under operation in Peloponnese (Southern Greece) and Macedonia (Northern Greece). Most of the lignite is used in the power sector. The Greek market of oil and petroleum products comprises four refineries, approximately 50 companies active in the marketing of petroleum products and a large number of retailers and gas stations. The decision for the introduction of natural gas into the Greek energy system was taken to ensure the modernisation and improvement of the energy balance, as well as the diversification of the country's energy sources. Natural gas is becoming an increasingly important fuel in Greece, rising to a share of 30% in power generation and 15% in the total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2020, and more than doubling its share in total final consumption over the last decade. The basic infrastructure of the Greek system for the transportation, storage and distribution of natural gas refers to a main pipeline, transmission branches, the terminal station of the which includes two storage tanks and a low pressure network of 6,500 km to cover the needs of major Greek cities. The total installed electricity generating capacity of Greece is 18452 MW in 2020 (4337 MW lignite, 4982 MW NG, 3171 MW hydro and RES 5962). The National Climate Law 4936/2022 enforces the end of coal-fired power generation by 2028 and the gradual replacement of all fossil fuels from RES and thus drives a fundamental transformation of the national energy system.

Transport infrastructure refers to road, shipping, railway and air transport. The road infrastructure network of the country is considered dense in comparison to other EU countries, however the sector is considered incomplete in terms of connectivity and competition and scores low in CO2 emissions, road safety, accessibility of people of restricted mobility and quality of service. Sea transport is also very important to the country. The dense network of more than 900 ports, fishing facilities and similar infrastructure demonstrate the island character and the close connection of the country to the sea and ensuring accessibility to sea facilities is considered a priority especially since ports play a key role in the economic and regional development. On the other hand, the national railway system is considered sparse, also due to the geomorphological characteristics of the country; it’s use is rather limited with a low railway transport capacity, insufficient market development and lack of connection to the main national and international stations. Finally, air transport is very important for Greece due to its geographic position, the number of islands and the scarcity of the national railway system. In addition, the fact that Greece is an important touristic destination creates increased passenger demand following a rather seasonal pattern.

With respect to the building sector, according to the ‘Environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change in Greece’ assessment of 2011, some 65% of the country’s buildings were constructed prior to 1980, with practically no thermal protection systems, such as insulation, double glazing, etc. Meanwhile, the strong increase in living space per person and the high penetration of air-conditioning use in recent years have also contributed to increase the energy demand per person, increased the absolute consumption levels of the building sector and the country’s peak electrical power loads. The upgrade of energy efficiency for buildings for households, firms and the public sector remain a key investment priority while the increase in energy prices as a result of Russia’s invasion to Ukraine are expected to change this pattern in the future.

Sources:
8th National Communication of Greece. https://unfccc.int/documents/624637

Hellenic Statistical Authority, www.statistics.gr

OECD Economic forecast http://www.oecd.org/economy/greece-economic-snapshot/

INSETE statistics, https://insete.gr/statistika-deltia/

Strategic Environmental Assessment ‘Transport 2021-2027’, June 2022 , SMPE_METAFORES_mh_texniki_perilipsi.pdf (ymeperaa.gr)
Climate monitoring

Observation systems are in place to monitor climate change, extreme climate events and their impacts.

The Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) operates a network of ninety-nine land surface and three upper air measurement stations, as well as a fully automated network of meteorological radars. HNMS represents Greece in the European organization for the exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and participates in the Copernicus programme of the European Space Agency. A digital climatic atlas of Greece (http://climatlas.hnms.gr/) based on a homogeneous time series for the period 1971-2000 is available from the HNMS, while annual reports about significant weather events are also available. (http://www.emy.gr/emy/en/climatology/climatology_extreme).

The National Observatory of Athens (NOA) holds the oldest, most complete and uninterrupted climatic records for Greece, spanning an approximately 170-year period. Nowadays it operates two 1st class meteorological stations in Athens and a large network of almost 500 automated meteorological stations throughout the country (https://www.meteo.gr/climatic.cfm).

The Ministry of Rural Development and Food and the Ministry of Environment and Energy operate a large network of more than 250 rain gages and 1,000 snow gages. The National Agricultural Research Foundation operates a network of 21 additional meteorological stations in forest areas. Several universities and research centers operate meteorological stations as well.

Greece's marine observation is highly developed. The Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR) runs the POSEIDON system (https://poseidon.hcmr.gr/) for the monitoring and forecasting of information on marine environmental conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean. The system records continuously the physical, biological and chemical parameters of the Greek seas. HRMC also participates in the EURO-ARGO network that measures important environmental sea variables and in the EMSO European Research Infrastructure that monitors interactions between the geosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere, including natural hazards and climate change impacts. In addition, the Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service (HNHS) collects, analyses and uses data and information from the sea waters in the fields of hydrography, oceanography, cartography and navigation. The HNHS maintains a network of permanent sea level recorders (tide gauges) (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). The stations enable the recording of any change to sea level, around the clock. The data are also recorded digitally at selected stations and transmitted to the International Oceanographic Organization virtually in real time.

Further information on the observation systems in place and Greece’s contribution to the Global Climate Observing Systems can be found in the 8th National Communication submitted to the UNFCCC.

Moreover, article 25 of the National Climate Law establishes a National Adaptation Observatory to provide reliable information and data for past, present and future climate in Greece and monitor and project climate change related hazards and impacts.

Climate modelling, projections and scenarios

With respect to modelling, the NAS was based upon a national multi-sectoral climate impact and vulnerability assessment developed by the Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece (CCISC) in 2011. Model simulation datasets for four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, B2 and B1), developed by the Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology of the Academy of Athens, were used in the report to estimate variation in the mean seasonal and annual values of six climate parameters for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Extreme weather events and their impacts were also assessed.

A regional climate model (ENSEMBLES) was used to project changes in maximum summer and minimum winter temperatures, number of warm days and nights, number of days with precipitation and dry days, number of frost days and growing seasons. The degree-days method was used to assess changes in energy demand for heating and cooling, the Forest Fire Weather Index to assess the wildland fire potential, and the Humidex to estimate the number of days with high thermal discomfort. Moreover, the ECHAM5 and the HadCM3 models were used to assess changes in the intensity and distribution of landslides and floods. The economic cost of climate change was estimated using the GEM-E3 general equilibrium model (estimations per climate scenario and per sector). Priority sectors were identified based on the climate change costs per sector. The results per sector were further downscaled to a regional level in the NAS report, based on the mix and intensity of economic activities in each region.

Pursuant to Article 5 of the Greek Climate Law (Law 4936/2022), multi-sectoral climate impact and vulnerability assessments will be an integral part of the NAS in the future. In particular, the NAS will include projections of future climate trends for various GHG emissions scenarios, climate vulnerability analyses of various sectors and activities, and climate impact assessments of the most vulnerable sectors/activities and of the natural environment and infrastructure sustainability primarily at national level with a parallel initial identification of the economic impacts. Priority sectors for action will be identified based on vulnerability analyses and impact assessments and will include at a minimum health, tourism, agriculture, forestry, energy, insurance, infrastructure and transport, the built environment, protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, of water resources, and of coastal zones as well as the protection of cultural heritage.

In addition, detailed regional climate impact and vulnerability assessments have been undertaken as part of the RAAPs (Ministerial Decision 11258/2017, Art. 6 of the National Climate Law 4936/2022). The RAAPs include: projections of future climate trends and sea-level rise for multiple GHG scenarios and three time periods (e.g. short-term, 2050, 2100); climate vulnerability analyses for specific sectors and geographical areas within the region; climate impact assessments of the most vulnerable sectors and geographical areas considering probability, magnitude, intensity, complexity, timing, reversibility, cross-border and cross-sectoral aspects. Many RAAPs have produced their own climate projections based on IPCC emission scenarios (i.e. RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5).

Under the integrated LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, state-of-the-art Regional Climate Models (RCMs) have been used in order to produce future climate projections and to study climate change impacts in Greece. The climatic data of the RCMs cover the period from 1971 to 2100, while future projections are based on three (3) IPCC emission scenarios i.e. RCP2.6 (ambitious mitigation policies), RCP4.5 (moderately ambitious mitigation policies) and RCP8.5 (unambitious mitigation policies).

As already mentioned, the National Adaptation Observatory established by article 25 of the National Climate Law aims to provide reliable information and data for future climate in Greece and monitor and project climate change related hazards and impacts.

Sources:
8th National Communication of Greece. https://unfccc.int/documents/624637

Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, “The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change”, June 2011. https://www.bankofgreece.gr/[…]/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf

Greek Climate Law 4936/2022, https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105
As mentioned above, the NAS was based upon a national multi-sectoral climate impact and vulnerability assessment developed by the CCISC in 2011. The assessment used model simulation datasets for four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, B2 and B1), developed by the Research Centre for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology of the Academy of Athens, to estimate variation in the mean seasonal and annual values of six climate parameters (air temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover, total incident short-wave radiation, wind speed) for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Extreme weather events and their impacts were also assessed. A regional climate model (ENSEMBLES) was used to project changes in maximum summer and minimum winter temperatures, number of warm days and nights, number of days with precipitation and dry days, number of frost days and growing seasons. The degree-days method was used to assess changes in energy demand for heating and cooling, the Forest Fire Weather Index (FFWI) to assess the wildland fire potential, and the Humidex to estimate the number of days with high thermal discomfort. Moreover, the ECHAM5 and the HadCM3 models were used to assess changes in the intensity and distribution of landslides and floods. In addition, changes in mean sea level and its impact on Greece’s shoreline were assessed.

The methodology used under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project for the production of future climate projections is based on daily output from 7 selected coupled Global and Regional Climate Models (RCMs) developed within the CORDEX initiative (http://www.cordex.org) with a spatial resolution of 0.11 ° (approx. 12 km).

CORDEX and its European and Mediterranean components (EURO-CORDEX and MED-CORDEX) in particular, is a unique framework where research community makes combined use of regional atmospheric, land surface, river and oceanic climate models and coupled regional climate system models for increasing the reliability of past and future regional climate information for understanding the processes that are responsible for the European and Mediterranean climate variability and trends. Nine (9) state-of-the-art Regional Climate Models (RCMs) developed within the framework of EURO-CORDEX initiative were retrieved and extensively evaluated against gridded observational data. According to the analysis seven (7) of them were found to adequately reproduce the climatic conditions of the Greek territory thus they were finally chosen to be used in LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. The climatic data of the RCMs cover the period from 1971 to 2100, while future projections are based on three (3) IPCC emission scenarios i.e., RCP2.6 (ambitious mitigation policies), RCP4.5 (moderately ambitious mitigation policies) and RCP8.5 (unambitious mitigation policies). The use of seven (7) models for three emissions scenarios significantly contributed to decreasing uncertainty of projections.

Computing routines for the extraction of raw climatic data, indices calculation and visualization have been produced for the 2031-2060 and 2071-2100 future periods and the 1971-2000 reference period both by the National Observatory of Athens and the Academy of Athens who participate in the project. The complete datasets (climate parameters and indices) and maps (for current, future periods and/or their differences for 3 emission scenarios) for Greece and each of the 13 Regions of the country (resolution of about 12km) have been produced.

The climate projections produced by the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project have been fed into the Geospatial Information Portal of the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The Portal provides open geospatial data and maps for 22 selected climate indices, enabling the user to explore the current climate during the reference period (1971-2000) and changes between the near (2031-2060) or distant (2071-2100) future period and the reference period. The horizontal spatial resolution of the simulations is 0.11 °. The analysis of the maps is at 500m after the application of spatial interpolation methods in the initial data.

In addition, the Greek Adaptation Hub (https://geo.adaptivegreecehub.gr/), also developed under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, includes the same projections on 24 climatic parameters as well timeseries of historic and projected emissions for the capitals of the Greek Regions. The climate projections are presented through an interactive tool.

Sources:

Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, “The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change”, June 2011. https://www.bankofgreece.gr/[…]/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (2021). User manual for the geospatial climate projection database. Project deliverable ?4.D2 (LIFE17 IPC/GR/000006). http://mapsportal.ypen.gr/
With respect to the assessments of future climate hazards reported, please note:
- The assessment on cyclones depends on whether the reference is made to low pressure systems, which are projected to decrease in the future, or to tropical cyclones which are not common in Greece.
- With respect to storms, to the current knowledge there are no studies or modelling so the evolution of the hazard in the future is considered uncertain/unknown.
- On heavy precipitation the projected hazard is considered unknown; the estimation here depends on the threshold set. If a relatively low threshold is set, for example >20mm, the hazard is projected to decrease. On the other hand, the absolute daily precipitation per year is projected to increase.
- Finally, on the changing precipitation patterns and types (rain, hail, snow/ice) the changes projected are noted as significant, but the type of change (increase/decrease) depends on the type of the precipitation under examination.
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
Snow and ice load
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and types
Precipitation hydrological variability
Saline intrusion
Sea level rise
Water scarcity
Solid massAcuteLandslide
ChronicCoastal_erosion
Soil erosion
Sol degradation
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frost
Heat wave
Wildfire
ChronicChanging temperature
Temperature variability
WindAcuteCyclone
Storm
Chronic
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtsignificantly increasing
Floodsignificantly increasing
Heavy precipitationevolution uncertain or unknown
Snow and ice loadsignificantly decreasing
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and typesevolution uncertain or unknown
Precipitation hydrological variabilitysignificantly increasing
Saline intrusionsignificantly increasing
Sea level risesignificantly increasing
Water scarcitysignificantly increasing
Solid massAcuteLandslide Futuresignificantly increasing
ChronicCoastal erosionsignificantly increasing
Soil erosionsignificantly increasing
Sol degradationsignificantly increasing
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frostsignificantly decreasing
Heat wavesignificantly increasing
Wildfiresignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging temperaturesignificantly increasing
Temperature variabilitysignificantly increasing
WindAcuteCycloneevolution uncertain or unknown
Stormevolution uncertain or unknown
Chronic
According to the Annual Bulletins on the Climate in Greece of years 2014-2021 of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, the main climate extremes refer to heat waves, high precipitation and flooding events, cyclones, sandstorms and landslides, while in February 2021 the extreme snowfall caused important problems in transport and electricity due to the fall of trees over the network. The extreme heat waves have negative consequences on public health. The impacts of the climate extremes have been quite apparent leading to losses of human lives and property. Extreme heat waves are quite common in Greece, although in 2021 they were reported over an extended period of 8-11 days. Temperature increase and rainfall decrease make forest areas of the country drier, and therefore more vulnerable to forest fires. The wildfires of July 2018 are characterized as the most devastating in the history of modern Greece and the 2nd most devastating in the world for the 21st century causing the deaths to 100 people and injuries to 164, including 23 children. In August 2021 as a result of the high temperatures an important number of fires was reported at the same time in different regions of the country, resulting in a loss of 108,602 hectares. Heavy precipitation events reached historical levels in Northern Greece in February 2021, while the combination of high precipitation and intense winds caused many disasters, including landslides, floods, problems in transport and property losses, especially in the Ionian islands, Western Greece and Crete. In general flooding events have been quite common in the recent years, often causing catastrophes in the electricity, communication and water networks, agricultural crops, infrastructure and transport network as well as to private property. On the other hand, in 2020 a complete absence of rainfall in January was reported in many Greek areas. The decrease of average rainfall affects agriculture production and cause water supply problems.

Sources:

Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS), Annual Bulletins on the Climate in Greece, years 2014-2021, http://www.hnms.gr/emy/el/climatology/climatology_extreme
Minimum winter temperature in all Greek regions will be ~2.5 ?C higher in 2031-2060 and ~3.5 ?C higher in 2071-2100, than in the reference period (1971-2000) for the RCP4.5 scenario. Moreover, minimum winter temperatures in all of Greece’s regions will be ~3.5 ?C higher in 2031-2060 and ~5.5 ?C higher in 2071-2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. The increase in this parameter is likely to have an impact on forests, presently adapted to colder weather conditions. If the conditions become prohibitive, certain categories of forests (e.g. fir) would shift to higher altitudes.

The increase in mean maximum summer temperatures in the period 2031-2050 will be greater than that of the winter minimums, exceeding 2 ?C and in some cases 2.8 ? C. In the period 2071-2100, the increase in mean maximum summer temperatures may reach 3.6 ?C. The projected variation in the number of warm days (max. temperature above 35 ?C) is expected to have significant impact on human discomfort, especially in urban areas of the mainland; the number of hot days countrywide is projected to increase. The annual number of tropical nights, a parameter closely associated to human health, is going to increase almost everywhere in Greece, but substantially more in the coastal & island regions than in the continental mainland.

The temperature increase will deteriorate the urban heat island effect and cause increased energy demand for cooling, especially in the regions of Thessaly & Central Macedonia. The increase in temperature and the decrease in rainfall (prolongation of periods of no rainfall) will affect agriculture production. The increase in dry days is more intense in the Western parts of the country and in the mainland in the 2031-2060 period, but it will become very intense for the whole of Greece in the 2071-2100 period under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Tourism will be affected by the increase of heatwave periods also because of the need for more energy for cooling, while many areas (mainly islands) will face water supply problems. All ski resorts of the country will face greater pressure, especially those located at low altitudes and in the south.

The frequency of flash flooding is expected to increase. Together with the projected decrease in total annual rainfall, this means extreme precipitation events will increase in intensity, raising the flood risk. Projections regarding the variation in the maximum duration of dry spells, i.e. consecutive dry days indicate clearly that they will increase.

Frost days is an important for agricultural regions, especially those that grow frost-sensitive crops, e.g. citrus fruit. Frost days per year are projected to decrease mostly in Western Macedonia, and high-altitude areas of Thessaly, Sterea Ellada and Peloponnese. The observed lengthening of the growing season is due to the earlier occurrence of the last spring frost and to the later occurrence of the first autumn frost.

To estimate future energy demand for heating and cooling, the degree-days method was used. One major impact is that the electricity demand for cooling will increase in summer. This can lead to more frequent network overloads and power disruptions, questioning the ability to meet demand. Energy needs for heating in winter are expected to decline especially in the distant future (2071-2100).

With regards to forest fires, in all of Eastern Greece, from Thrace down to the Peloponnese, extreme fire danger days are likely to increase. Smaller increases are projected for Western Greece, due to the higher humidity conditions. Apart from forest regions, this parameter is important in agricultural and tourist areas.

Interestingly, the coastal and island regions were found to be mostly affected by days with increased thermal discomfort, contrary to the findings for heat wave occurrences which showed the continental regions to be most vulnerable. In the coastal regions of the Ionian and the Dodecanese islands, the period with humidex>38 ?C is projected to be about 30 days longer in 2031-2060 and more than 40 days longer in 2071-2100 for the RCP 4.5 scenario, with obvious repercussions on human discomfort and, ultimately, health. In the low-lying continental regions and in Crete, the period with humidex>38 ?C is projected to be 16-32 days longer in 2031-2060 and 32-48 days longer in 2071-2100 under the RCP 4.5 scenario, whereas the mountainous regions will not experience significant changes.

The total coastline length presenting medium to high vulnerability to sea level rise amounts to 3,360 km (21% of Greece’s total shoreline). The rising sea levels will cause material damage of infrastructure and other constructions close to the coastline and affect tourist industry.

Sources:

Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, “The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change”, June 2011. https://www.bankofgreece.gr/[…]/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf
https://geo.adaptivegreecehub.gr/

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe CCVIA does not refer to existing observed impacts of key hazards. With respect to future impacts, Scenario B2 appears to be most favourable to crop production. The impacts become increasingly ‘less negative to positive’ the further one moves north and east: Eastern Macedonia-Thrace and Western-Central Macedonia are the zones that will benefit the most or suffer the least depending on the crop/case. The most vulnerable arable crop was shown to be wheat, while cotton production is projected to decrease the most in Central- Eastern Greece. The impact of climate change on tree crop production by mid-century will range from neutral to positive but will become increasingly negative by 2100, especially in the country’s southern and island regions. Vegetable crops will move northward and the growing season, longer than it is today due to milder-warmer winters, will result in increased production. As regards the effect of invasive pests, diseases and weeds on crop production, the prevailing view is that warmer climatic conditions will generally favour the proliferation of pests. Warmer winters will allow crop-threatening insects to survive the winter in places where this is not possible today (Gutierrez et al., 2009). Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, June 2011. Gutierrez, A.P., L. Ponti and Q.A. Cossu (2009),”Effects of climate warming on olive and olive fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin) in California and Italy”, Climatic Change, 95, 195-217.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe effects of climate change alone, excluding desertification, were found to have an immediate positive effect on farmer income until 2050, a turning point, after which the economic impacts (for 2051-2100) worsen, relative to 2041-2050. The economic impact of all 3 scenarios on farmer income (excluding desertification) remains positive throughout the period 2010-2100. As is well-established, desertification negatively impacts agricultural production and farmer income. With respect to efforts for increasing adaptive capacity theural Development Programme (RDP, 2014-2020) has sought to promote water efficiency; upgrading of irrigation infrastructure and networks; organic farming; the conservation, sustainable use and development of genetic resources; and biodiversity in agriculture. The National CAP Strategic Plan 2023-2017 foresees measures to promote climate resilient and adaptive crops; adaptive cultivation and production practices; precision agriculture; organic farming; conservation of genetic resources; as well as measures to increase resilience of agricultural holdings to climate-induced extreme events and disaster risks. Conservation of plant genetic resources is carried out by the Greek Gene Bank. A new National Committee to Combat Desertification has been established in 2021 and mandated to review and revise the National Action Plan for Combating Desertification. Ref. Rural Development’ Programme 2014-2020 Summary of National CAP Strategic Plan 2023-2017
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe National Adaptation Strategy provides an estimation of the climate risk of potential future impacts at the level of sectors and regions. The economic damage and losses for the agricultural sector are ranked among the highest, closely linked to losses in the farmers’ production. Refernce: National Adaptation Strategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)
Key affected sector(s)tourism
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe CCVIA does not refer to existing observed impacts of key hazards. High temperatures, extreme weather events, change in precipitation patterns affecting the availability of water resources and the sea level rise are some of the natural impacts of climate change that are expected to affect significantly tourism (Climate Change Impacts for Tourism (BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee 2014). The analysis of climate projections reveals that the use of aggregate national and annual data masks significant regional and seasonal differences in climate characteristics and tourist demand.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe projected impact of climate change on Greek tourism by 2100 is considered important as the seasonal & geographical patterns of tourist arrivals will be affected. Tourism is a crucial source of revenue for Greece. The CCIVA (BoG, 2011) report suggests that long-term strategic planning is needed to increase its resilience. The reduction of seasonality and dispersion of touristic product to the wider Greek territory is key for increasing the adaptive capacity of the sector. These objectives can be reached by highlighting the natural characteristics of different Greek regions, promoting alternative & attracting new types of tourists and limiting the environmental impacts of touristic facilities. The increase in the operational cost of hotel facilities for adapting needs to be considered too. Towards this direction, the adopted Law 4582/2018 ‘Thematic Tourism - Special Forms of Tourism etc.’ promotes new tourist products and destinations that could combat seasonality iand subsequently mitigate adverse impacts of climate change. The Operational Programme Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship & Innovation (2014-2020) has supported measures to promote eco and cultural tourism and to improve energy performance and comfort conditions of tourist accommodation buildings. Similar investment priorities in the 2021-2027 OP will continue to support upgrading tourism towards less seasonal & more differentiated touristic services increasing the overall adaptive capacity of the sector.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe National Adaptation Strategy provides an estimation of the risk of potential future impacts of climate change at the level of sectors and regions. The economic damage and losses for tourism are ranked among the second highest, mainly due to the dependency of the Greek economy on the touristic product. Reference: National Adaptation Streategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe impacts of climatic change on water systems (mainly underground water systems) can be summarised as follows: 1. An overall decrease in aquifer infiltration and recharge, as a result of decreased rainfall and higher evapotranspiration. 2. Increased salinity of coastal and subsea aquifers, particularly karstic ones, as a result of the advance of the sea-water intrusion farther inland due to the decline of groundwater levels caused by lower inflow and overpumping. 3. Higher pollutant load concentrations in coastal water bodies and the sea, due to decreased dilution. 4. Faster degradation of deltaic regions, in cases where degradation has already begun as a result of transversal dam construction upstream (reduced drainage and sediment discharge) and parallel levee construction in the flat zone of the deltas (debris channelled to a single outlet). 5. Contamination or drainage of coastal wetlands. 6. Amplification of the desertification phenomenon as a result of water deficits and soil changes (compaction, sealing, etc.). References: National Adaptation Streategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf) BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC), The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change in Greece, 2011 https://www.bankofgreece.gr/publications/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentClimate change is expected to result in increased evaporation and transpiration, increased needs for irrigation and, perhaps, tourism, and increased pollution. Evapotranspiration rates in Greece are high, particularly in the drier eastern regions. The distribution of dryness in Greece underlines the severity of the drought situation in the SE regions and the Aegean islands. The most vulnerable climate zones for which the heaviest cost estimates was recorded were found to be Central, Eastern and Western Greece and, Central Macedonia. However, there appears to be considerable leeway for adaptation measures. Greece incorporated the EU Water Framework Directive (60/2000/EC) in 2003 (Law 3199/2003), while the framework for Integrated Water Resource Management was established in 2007 (Pres. Decree 51/2007). The River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs) 2016-2021 (2nd policy cycle) were instutionalised in 2017. Regarding Flood Risks, Greece has transposed the EU Directive 2007/60/EC in 2010 (Gov.Gazette 1108/B/21.07.2010). Flood risk management plans (FRMPs) institutionalised in 2018. The FRMPs apply very-low probability rainfall scenarios to address climate change adaptation issues. The revision of RBMPs and FRMPs has begun. The revised preliminary flood risk assessment (MEEN, 2019) has used climate projections from the SWICCA project of Copernicus to map areas at high risk of flooding. Ref. BoG, CCISC (2011). http://wfdver.ypeka.gr/en/home/; https://floods.ypeka.gr/
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe National Adaptation Strategy provides an estimation of the climate risk of potential future impacts at the level of sectors and regions. The economic damage and losses for water supply are ranked third highest, while the risks can be particularly high for some regions and specific small-scale instances (i.e. certain islands or a sector such as tourism). Reference: NAS (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)
Key affected sector(s)coastal areas
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentOne major problem of the Greek coastal zone is the high rate of coastline erosion: > 20% of the total coastline is currently under threat, making Greece the 4th most vulnerable country of the 22 coastal EU Member States. The main reasons for the increased erosion are the particularly strong winds and storm surges in the Aegean Sea, anthropogenic interventions e.g. dams that reduce sediment discharge - and the geomorphology of the coastline substrate: 2,400 km (15% of the total shoreline) correspond to non-consolidated sediment deposits, while 960 km (6% of the total shoreline) correspond to coastal deltaic areas. Erosion is expected to increase in the immediate future, due to a) the anticipated rise in mean sea level; b) the intensification of extreme wave phenomena; and c) the further reduction of river sediment discharge as a result of variations in rainfall and the construction of river management works. Ref: EUROSION (2004), ‘Living with coastal erosion in Europe’, Final report, DG Environment, European Commission. http://www.eurosion.org/reports-online/reports.html Llasat, M.C., M. Llasat-Botija, M.A. Prat, F. Porc, C. Price, A. Mugnai, K. Lagouvardos, V. Kotroni, D. Katsanos, S. Michaelides, Y. Yair, K. Savvidou and K. Nicolaides (2010), ‘High-impact floods and flash floods in Mediterranean countries: the FLASH preliminary database’, Adv. Geosci, 23, 1-9. https://adgeo.copernicus.org/articles/23/47/2010/ Velegrakis, A.F. (2010), ‘Coastal systems’, unpublished paper.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe CCIVA [1] identifies three categories of Greece’s coastal areas in term of SLR vulnerability: 1) Deltaic coastal areas, 2) Coastal areas consisting of non-consolidated sediments of Neogene and Quaternary age, 3) Rocky coastal areas. An estimation of the length of these three types of coastal areas showed that 960 km correspond to deltaic areas of high vulnerability, 2,400 km correspond to non-consolidated sediments of medium vulnerability, with the remaining corresponding to rocky coastal areas of low vulnerability. The total length of coastline presenting ‘medium to high’ vulnerability to SLR therefore roughly amounts to 3,360 km (21% of Greece’s total shoreline). The Greek framework for maritime spatial planning (Law 4546/2018) clearly sets resilience to climate change impacts (Art. 4) as a strategic objective. Law 2971/2001 defines seashore (aegialos) and beach (paralia), and places buildings and private properties on land right after the outer boundary of the beach. Seashore and beach together comprise a public buffer zone that could play a significant role in protecting coastal assets and infrastructure from climate-induced storm surges etc. Pursuant to art.12 of Law 2971/2001 (as amended by Law 4607/2019), the Beach and Shore Definition Committee shall consider, inter alia, the RAAPs to grant an official permission for construction of coastal works to mitigate erosion. References: [1] BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC), 2011
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentOn the basis of the resulting impacts of Sea Level Rise, as well as of the storm surges-waves storms to other sectors, the risk of environmental, economic and social impacts associated to the sea level rise is considered to be high. Reference: Consultation with national experts on climate hazards
Key affected sector(s)biodiversity (including ecosystembased approaches)
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentAccording to the CCIVA, the effects of climate change on biodiversity are multifaceted. Biodiversity can be affected by a combination of: (a) direct impacts on organisms (e.g. the effects of temperature on survival rates, reproductive success, distribution and behavioural patterns); (b) impacts through biotic interactions (e.g. conferral of competitive advantage); and (c) impacts through changes in abiotic factors (e.g. inundation, shifts in ocean currents). The assessment mentions some observed impacts for certain species and habitats. Reference: Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, “The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change”, June 2011. https://www.bankofgreece.gr/publications/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentSpecies abundance is expected to decrease, while species distribution/migration will depend on habitat suitability. Islands, under specific conditions, may lose up to 100% of their current species abundance. The endemic species appear more vulnerable to climate change than other species, mainly due to their more limited distribution (Schwartz et al., 2006). Kazakis et al. (2007) correlated the vascular plants of Crete’s White Mountains (Lefka Ori) with climate data. Under a scenario of temperature increase, southern exposures are likely to be invaded first by thermophilous species, while northern exposures are likely to be more resistant to changes. The seagrass meadows of endemic Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica seem to be highly vulnerable (Bombace, 2001). Greece currently has 446 sites listed under the Natura 2000 network, representing 28% of the country’s terrestrial and 20% of its marine territory. The Natura 2000 network could help to safeguard Greece’s major habitats and endangered species against climate change. Ref.: Bombace, G. (2001), ‘Influence of climatic changes on stocks, fish species and marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea’, Archives of Oceanography and Limnology, 22, 67-72. Kazakis, ? D., ? I. N. Ghosn, ? V. P. Vogiatzakis and V. Papanastasis (2007), ‘Vascular plant diversity and climate change in the alpine zone of the Lefka Ori, Crete’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 1603-15. https://edozoume.gr/en/what-is-natura-2000/
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe risk of potential future impacts for biodiversity and ecosystems is considered to be high. Reference: LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (2022). ?????s? t?? ?f?st?µe??? ?at?stas?? ??a t?? p??sa?µ??? t?? t?µ?a t?? ???p??????t?ta? ?a? t?? ????s?st?µ?t?? st?? ???µat??? a??a??. ?a?ad?t?? ????? (??d. LIFE17 IPC/GR/000006).
Key affected sector(s)marine and fisheries
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThere is no information on observed impacts in the Greek CCIVA. According to the CCIVA, the main factors of climate change that will affect the goods and services provided by the country’s fisheries and aquaculture sector are related, first, to the expected rise in temperature and in CO2 dissolved in various water bodies, and, secondarily, to rising sea levels. The impacts of changing climate on the physico-chemical and biological properties of water bodies (rivers, lakes, lagoons, seas) are expected to have different repercussions in each case on output potential and uses. Rainfall and river runoff into the sea typically increase an area’s productivity due to the transfer of nutrients (with a lag of one or two years). The analysis of catch trends in correlation with rainfall showed that 20% less rainfall (based on the climatic simulations of Scenario ?1?) would lead to a small decrease in the production of cephalopods and malacostraca, in the order of 2%. Lower rainfall was not shown to have an impact on the production of other species. Reference: Climate Change Impacts Study Committee of Bank of Greece, “The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change”, June 2011. https://www.bankofgreece.gr/publications/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe rise in temperature, combined with lower precipitation levels, can lead to unexpected fluctuations in river flows and unpredictable ecological degradation downstream, as competition for water reduces water availability. The rise in sea temperatures is likely to accelerate the growth rate of poikilothermal aquatic animals. It is difficult to predict whether this could translate into higher fisheries production. The temperature rise will in addition to a sea level rise bring changes in biodiversity, fishing ground characteristics (biological, physical, chemical and hydrological) and available stocks of commercial importance. The total area of wetlands, which provide important spawning and nursery grounds, would be diminished. The rise in temperature would also affect the migration of fish. With respect to aquaculture, the CCIVA indicates that future climate projections can lead to decreased production and need for reallocation. Climate adaptation is considered a key parameter for the sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture. The Operational Programme for Fisheries and the Sea 2014-2020 included measures that contribute to conservation of fish stocks and maritime ecosystems. In the 2021-2027 period, the respective Programme specifically refers to measures for better understanding the impacts of climate change, as well as for tackling specific threads (e.g. management of invasive alien species). Ref: BoG,CCISC (2011) EMFF- OP for GR 2014-2022 EMFF- OP for GR 2021-2027
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentAccording to the CCIVA, future impacts are linked to the loss of domestic biodiversity (as a result of the spread of invasive alien thermophilic species) and the loss of income for the human populations employed in fisheries activities (as a result of fishery resource depletion) (Greek Biotope/Wetland Center, 2010). The fact, however, should not be overlooked that the settlement of stocks of a higher economic value, associated with higher water temperatures, is likely to increase fishermen income or at least to limit income loss. The National Adaptation Strategy provides an estimation of the climate risk of potential future impacts at the level of sectors and regions. In comparison to the other sectors, the economic damage and losses for fisheries and aquaculture are estimated to be low. However, in cases where coastal cages used in intensive fish farming units will need to be relocated on account of excessive pollution and changes in sea current circulation, the relocation costs are expected to be significant and still need to be accurately estimated. Sources: BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC), The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change in Greece, 2011. https://www.bankofgreece.gr/publications/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf ???????? ???t?? ???t?p??-????t?p??, ???? (2010), “? ß??p??????t?ta t?? ????da?: ?at?stas? ?a? t?se??”, te???? ???es? t?µ?a ß??p??????a?, ?p?t??p? µe??t?? ep?pt?se?? ???µat???? a??a???. http://repository.biodiversity-info.gr/bitstream/11340/1959/1/1701.pdf National Adaptation Strategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)
Key affected sector(s)forestry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentForest production depends primarily on environmental factors, such as temperature, solar radiation, soil water and nutrients, but is also affected by synecological factors, such as interand intra- competition, interactions with animals and microorganisms, as well as wildfires (Johnsen et al., 2001). A small rise in temperature and decrease in precipitation was recorded in the course of the 20th century, a trend expected to continue in the 21st century as well (Zerefos, 2009), with precipitation projected to decrease in Greece : Scenario ?2 (-35 mm), Scenario ?2 (-84 mm). In the recent years several wildfires have been recorded in the country. As noted above, the wildfires of July 2018 are characterized as the most devastating in the history of modern Greece and the 2nd most devastating in the world for the 21st century causing the deaths to 100 people and injuries to 164, including 23 children (HNMS). References: Johnsen, K., L. Samuelson, R. Teskey, S. MvNulty and T. Fox (2001), “Process models as tools in forestry research and management”, Forest Science, 47, 2-8. ?e?ef??, ?. (2009), “??af??? p???d?? ?µ?da? ???µat??”, ?p?t??p? µe??t?? ep?pt?se?? ???µat???? a??a???, ???µß????. Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Climate Bulletin 2017, http://www.hnms.gr/emy/el/climatology/climatology_extreme , accessed on 28.02.2021
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentAccording to CCIVA, precipitation is expected to decrease in continental Greece (location of the country’s productive forests), but to increase in the Aegean islands (except Crete). Forest will suffer from the combined effect of reduced precipitation and increased temperatures during the hot and dry period, while facing a higher risk of devastation from wildfires [1]. The impacts on forest ecosystems by 2100 refer to a spatial redistribution of the country’s forests and a decrease in total canopy cover. Based on the projected rise in CO2 and temperature, the growing season will be longer [2]), affecting the forest and rangeland production. The higher productivity is likely to be moderated by the decrease in precipitation and the increased frequency/intensity of extreme weather events. As a result of changes in forest structure and the increased severity of weather extremes, surface runoff and erosion are expected to increase. The temperature rise is also expected to increase the presence of pathogens, insects and diseases in forests. [1] Giannakopoulos, C., P. Le Sager, M. Bindi, M. Moriondo, E. Kostopoulou and C. M. Goodes (2009), “Climatic changes and associated impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2 °C global warming”, Global and Planetary change (in press), doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.06.001 [2] Chmielewski, F.-M. and T. Rötzer (2001), “Response of tree phenology to climate change across Europe”, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 108, 101-12
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe risk of potential future impacts to forests is characterized as high on the basis of both the economical losses/damages indicated in the NAS, but also the inevitability of impacts, due to the high time span needed for the management of forests (NAS, 2016). It should be mentioned that efforts are being made so as this risk becomes more limited in the next year. The recently published National Forest Strategy (Gov. Gazette, 5351/B’/28.11.2018) signals the adaptation of forests to climate change as a priority and promotes concrete adaptation actions. The technical specifications for forest and forest area studies have been recently revised (Ministerial Decision 166780/1619/ 19.04.2018, Gov. Gazette, 1420/?'/25.04.208) to include inter alia climate risk provisions. The national RDP 2014-2020 have supported investments in the development of forest areas and the improvement of forest sustainability. In addition, the 13 Regional Operational Programmes 2014-2020 have promoted forest fire protection measures. Similar measures are foreseen for the new programming period 2021-2027. It is also foreseen a dedicated programme for civil protection aiming to improve capacity and equipment to manage and reduce disaster risks, including wildfire risks. References: National Adaptation Strategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf) ESIF 2024-2020 (https://2014-2020.espa.gr/el/Pages/default.aspx) ESIF 2021-2027 (https://www.espa.gr/el/Pages/default.aspx) ‘Rural Development’ Programme 2014-2020 (http://agrotikianaptixi.gr/el) Summary of National CAP Strategic Plan 2023-2017 (https://www.minagric.gr/images/stories/docs/agrotis/KAP2023_2027/synoptiko_keimeno_egkekrimenoy_ss_kap_2023_2027.pdf) Operational Programme ‘Civil Protection 2021-2027' (https://www.ymeperaa.gr/images/POLPRO/sfc2021-PRG-2021EL16RFPR001-1.3.pdf)
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentObserved impacts of climate change to health mentioned in the CCIVA include: - increased mortality due to the temperature rise; - greater frequency of infectious disease epidemics due to floods and extreme weather events; - substantial impacts on human health due to the relocation of populations in response to rising sea levels and the increased frequency of extreme weather events (WHO, 2003). Reference: BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC), The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change in Greece, 2011: https://www.bankofgreece.gr/publications/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe populations particularly at risk from these climate change-related diseases are: - the elderly; - children; - people with pre-existing chronic medical conditions; - poor people with poor nutrition or suffering from malnutrition, living in low-income areas and with difficult access to healthcare services; - the populations of islands and mountainous regions at risk of water and food shortages; and - undocumented immigrants, at the fringe of society, faced with labour market, social and healthcare exclusion. In terms of improving the adaptive capacity, it should be mentioned that the Ministry of Health issues circular instructions on public health measures to be adopted in the event of extreme weather (e.g.floods,forest fires), as well as instructions to protect public health and reduce harm from severe heat and heat waves. Moreover, free access to cooler spaces is given during severe heat and heat waves, while the majority Greek households are equipped with air-condition or other cooling devices. The Ministry of Health also issues regulations and circular instructions to face growing threats of disease outbreaks, as rising temperatures linked to climate change increase infectious disease occurrence and spread (e.g. West Nile virus). The lessons learned from the response to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak have helped Greece prepare for future climate-induced infectious disease epidemics. Ref.: National Adaptation Strategy Ministry of Health (https://www.moh.gov.gr)
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentAccording to the CCVIA, of all the presented categories of natural disasters with an impact on human populations, climate change is expected to affect the frequency of low and high temperature extremes, floods, storms and fires. In more detail, the results of future climate model simulations point to a sharp increase in the frequency of heat waves and forest fires and, conversely, to a decrease in the frequency of cold waves by 2100. As for heavy rainfall and flooding events, their frequency in most of the country (including Athens, where more than 50% of the total national population is concentrated) is expected to rise. The implies that the number of deaths due to climate change related extreme weather events in the course of the 21st century will gradually increase, not only in Athens, but in other large cities as well. The National Adaptation Strategy provides an estimation of the climate risk of potential future impacts at the level of sectors and regions. The economic damage and losses for health are estimated to be low to medium in comparison to other sectors. The social impacts are expected to be higher for vulnerable groups such the elderly and people with existing cardiovascular and respiratory problems. References: BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC), The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change in Greece, 2011: https://www.bankofgreece.gr/publications/ClimateChange_FullReport_bm.pdf National Adaptation Strategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)
Key affected sector(s)buildings
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThere is no information on observed impacts in the Greek Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability Assessment for Greece (CCIVA, [1]). According to the CCIVA, the likely physical impacts of climate change on the building sector involve, first, changes in the energy consumption of climate-controlled buildings and, second, changes in the indoor conditions of buildings unequipped with climate control systems. Warmer climate conditions will obviously lead to a significant reduction in buildings’ winter energy requirements. In summer, however, warmer temperatures will lead to a significant increase in energy requirements for air-conditioning, while also seriously decreasing thermal comfort in non air-conditioned buildings. It should be mentioned that in the CCVIA, it is mainly the energy-related, economic and social implications of the likely climate change for the built environment that are explored. [1] BoG, Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC), The environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change in Greece, 2011.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatenot applicable
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentIn the CCVIA of 2011, the insufficient protection of existing buildings from their surrounding environment, mass housing and commercial building construction with disregard to the environment and local climatological conditions, phenomena such as the urban heat island and aging buildings are mentioned as key parameters when estimating their vulnerability. Indeed, more than half of the country’s buildings were built before 1980 (before the first Regulation for Buildings Insulation) and are particularly vulnerable to future climate conditions, while 42.7% were built in the period 1980-2010 (partial implementation of heat insulation systems) and only a few have applied the Regulation on the Energy Performance of Buildings (endorsed in 2010, revised in 2017) [1]. The Energy Efficiency National Action Plan includes measures for improving the thermal behaviour of residential sector buildings and promoting energy efficiency appliances & heating equipment. Such actions have received support through a series of ‘Housing Saving Programmes’, the most recent of which was launched in 2021 and funded by the Recovery and Resilience Fund [2]. Moreover, measures for improving the energy performance of private (focus on economic and socially vulnerable households) and public buildings are promoted in the ‘Energy and Environment 2021-2027’ Operational Programme. [1]Long-term Innovation Strategy 2021 (Gov. Gazette 974/B/12.03.2021) [2] https://greece20.gov.gr/en/ [3] https://ymeperaa.gr
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe National Adaptation Strategy provides an estimation of the climate risk of potential future impacts at the level of sectors and regions. The economic damage and losses for the built environment are estimated to be medium, also supported by the promotion of energy consumption of buildings, energy-saving technologies and renewable energy sources. The social impacts are expected to be higher for vulnerable groups such as poor households, social minority groups and immigrants, as their ability to implement energy-saving measures in their households, purchase advanced technology equipment and pay more for cleaner energy may be more limited. However, one should mention that under the promoting measures regarding the Housing Saving Programmes priority is provided to such vulnerable groups. Reference: National Adaptation Strategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/legacy/Files/Klimatiki%20Allagi/Prosarmogi/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

On the basis of Articles 5 and 6 of the National Climate Law, the climate vulnerability and risk assessment forms part of the National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) and the Regional Adaptation Action Plans (RAAPs). As such, they fall under the responsibility of the Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection and the 13 Regional Authorities of Greece, respectively.

It should be noted that the 1st RAAPs include actions to produce dedicated climate vulnerability and risk assessments for specific sectors, species, ecosystems, crops, infrastructure, geographical areas etc, to cover knowledge gaps, identify priorities and specify effective “non-regret” adaptation measures.
The institutional arrangements are provided in the National Climate Law as referred below.

The National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) suggests alternative adaptation options for specific priority sectors (Art.5). The NAS outlines Greece's strategic orientation aimed at providing guidelines, but it does not analyse in depth the required sectoral policies, nor does it judge the feasibility/ranking of individual adaptation measures at local/regional level. Such issues fall within the scope of Regional Adaptation Action Plans (RAAPs).

The 13 Regional Authorities of Greece are responsible for the development and implementation of the RAAPs. Art. 6 sets the minimum technical specifications for RAAPs' content.

Finally, a mandate is provided to all central government departments for integrating adaptation into sectoral strategies and plans (article 9.2).

The Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection (MCCCP) and the Environment & Spatial Planning Directorates of the 13 Regional Authorities are driving the implementation of NAS and RAAPs. The National Climate Law further foresees the possibility to adopt policies and measures to increase resilience in all sectors of economy, natural environment and biodiversity, as specified in Article 10.3. Adaptation actions are primarily financed by National & EU funds.

The National Climate Change Adaptation Committee (NCCAC) acts as the formal advisory body of the competent authority (MCCCP) at national level for the coordination, monitoring and evaluation of adaptation actions. The NCCAC was established under the Law 4416/2014 and its role is maintained through Art. 28 of the National Climate Law.

Pursuant to the Art. 25, the National Adaptation Observatory (NAO) is established in MCCCP. The NAO supports the national policy and contributes to the monitoring and evaluation of the country’s resilience to climate change, the provision of reliable data and awareness raising activities.

Under Art.27, the MEEN, in cooperation with the MCCCP and the National Environment & Climate Change Agency (NECCA) prepares an annual climate change progress report, which refers, among others, to the progress of sectoral adaptation actions and the investment needed for adaptation actions.

Finally, each RAAP contains a section regarding the monitoring of progress to its implementation (Art. 6). An integrated climate change adaptation monitoring & evaluation (M&E) framework has been developed under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. The framework will be the basis of the M&E component of NAO.

Pursuant to Art. 5, the NAS and the RAAPs are subject to review every five years by MCCCP and the 13 Regional Authorities. When required, the NAS and the RAAPs are revised. For the revision of the NAS, the NCCAC opinion is requested by the MCCCP. An evidence-based review and revision of the 1st NAS and ToRs for the review of 1st RAAPs are foreseen under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project.
The transposition of the revised EIA directive is completed (Joint Ministerial Decisions 1915/24.01.2018 & 5688/ 12.03.2018, [1]), taking all necessary provisions into account [2]. Further, the National Climate Law strengthens the climate considerations in the Environment Assessment Process (Art. 18): As of January 2024, the EIAs will consider the vulnerability of the project to climate change, associated hazards, impacts & risks and measures for increasing its climate resilience. The experience gained through the application of the climate-proofing guidance (Provisional Framework for Climate Resilience Assessment), provided to ESIF managing authorities & beneficiaries for infrastructure investments by the Ministry of Development & Investments in cooperation with the MEEN and the Ministry of Transport & Infrastructure in early 2023, is expected to contribute in developing the process to follow under EIA.

Climate adaptation is not explicitly mentioned in the national legislation for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, MEEN has given its opinion on draft plans (e.g. RBMPs, FRMPs) and their SEA reports before their adoption, through the existing official SEA information and consultation process. The opinion giving on adaptation aspects of plans through the SEA process is expected to continue by the MCCCP.

[1] Government Gazette:
304/B/2018 https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20180200304 &
988/B/2018 https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20180200988
[2] personal communication with MS contact.
[3] ‘Climate Resilience Assessment’, 2023, https://adaptivegreecehub.gr/[…]/
The MCCCP, established by the Presidential Decree 70/2021 (Gov. Gazette 161/A/09.09.2021), constitutes the national competent authority for coordination of all actions for prevention, preparedness, response & recovery concerning natural and manmade disasters & climate adaptation issues. The MCCCP receives EU technical support to enhance integration of adaptation into disaster risk management (Project: TSI 2022 Capacity building to the MCCCP: Coordinating Emergency preparedness, response and Climate Change adaptation actions).

Long-term climate risk prevention is integrated into the RAAPs.

Source:
https://reform-support.ec.e[…]-environmental-disasters_en
Climate projection data produced under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project are open data and have integrated and made publicly available at the MEEN National Geoportal (https://mapsportal.ypen.gr/thema_climatechange) and at the National Adaptation Hub (https://geo.adaptivegreecehub.gr).
The NAS identifies the following core objectives:
(i) the systematization and improvement of short- and long-term decision making for Climate Change Adaptation (CCA);
(ii) the linking of CCA with a sustainable development model through Regional and Local Action Plans;
(iii) the promotion of actions and adaptation policies in all sectors, and particularly the most vulnerable ones;
(iv) the establishment of a monitoring mechanism for the evaluation and review of adaptation policies and actions; and
(v) the strengthening of the adaptive capacity of the Greek society through awareness and dissemination actions.
Under LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, a series of semi-constructed interviews with key stakeholders involved in the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation measures was implemented in 2020. The target audience included executives from Ministries, Regions, Decentralized Administration, Chambers, Utilities, Research Centers, Universities, NGOs, Agencies,etc. Respondents highlighted the need for synergies between the NAS and other existing national strategies and action plans, as well as between the scientific committees-advisory bodies for climate change and any other advisory scientific committees, such as the Committee on Biodiversity. The unclarity of roles and responsibilities at the various levels of public administration was also mentioned as a barrier, causing delays in the integration of the NAS in the respective activities. With respect to the administrative structure, it was highlighted that it is rather due to the lack of staff that the public administration bodies may not have sufficient capacity to utilize the financial resources that are available for the implementation of adaptation policies. Finally, various knowledge gaps have been indicated, such as access to climate projections at higher resolution, description and analysis of climate change impacts and vulnerabilities, adaptation options and good practices, methodologies and indicators for the monitoring and evaluation of CCA impacts and actions.

Moreover, the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project has been analyzing the baseline situation on adaptation mainstreaming across the sectors considered in the NAS. The analysis for the biodiversity & ecosystems sector has been completed, while it will be soon complete for Forestry, Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the 13 RAAPs is ongoing. The sectoral and regional analyses will provide useful insights into challenges, gaps and barriers to adaptation and will support sectoral and regional adaptation efforts.
The Greek NAS includes potential adaptation actions for all sectors that are likely to be significantly affected by climate change in Greece. These actions can be classified as follows:

Actions in relation to NAS objective 1:
- Improving knowledge of climate change impacts and adaptation;
- Improving access and sharing of information on climate change impacts and adaptation;
- Enhancement of the institutional capacity to plan and implement adaptation policies and measures;
- Enhancement of organizational structures;
- Enhancement of coordination and collaboration;
- Availability of financial means for the implementation of climate adaptation polices and measures;

Actions in relation to NAS Objective 2:
- Development of multisectoral regional and local action plans for climate change adaptation;
- Mainstreaming adaptation to the development planning at regional/local level

Actions in relation to NAS Objective 3:
- Adaptation of the sectoral legal and regulatory framework;
- Adaptation of the sectoral strategic and operational planning;
- Studies for the specification of sectoral climate change adaptation measures;
- Implementation of sectoral climate change adaptation measures;

Actions in relation to NAS Objective 4:
- Development of new or upgrading of existing monitoring systems;
- Improvement of organizational structures for monitoring;
- Improving sharing of monitoring results;
- Development of new or upgrading of existing systems for the evaluation of actions and policies;

Actions in relation to NAS Objective 5:
- Information and awareness raising of students ;
- Education of future scientists and professionals (university students);
- Information and capacity building of professional groups working in climate vulnerable sectors;
- Information and awareness raising of citizens;
- Voluntarism;
- Improvement of access to financial resources.

The NAS has a time horizon of minimum 10 years. It is implemented through RAAPs and sectoral policies. The main financial sources for its implementation include:
- European structural and investment funds (ESIF) 2021-2027: Regional Operational Programmes, Sectoral Operational Programmes (e.g. Environment & Climate Change, Civil Protection Fisheries and Sea, Transport), Research and Innovation Strategy for Smart Specialization (RIS3), etc.;
- 2023-2027 CAP Strategic Plan;
- Other EU programmes 2021-2027: LIFE Programme, Horizon Europe Programme, Interreg Programme;
- The National Recovery and Resilience Plan “Greece 2.0” (Next Generation EU);
- National funds: Green Fund (of Greece), National Programme for the Development of Local Government Organisations (“Antonis Tritsis” Programme).
The Law 4414/2016 foresaw the implementation of the NAS through 13 RAAPs. However, it soon become evident that the absence of a convenient national framework, in terms of sectoral legislation, strategies and plans, could impede the adaptation efforts at regional level. The need for action across sectors at national level is reflected in the National Climate Law. The National Climate Law mandates (art.9.2) central government departments to integrate adaptation into sectoral strategies and plans, while allows implementing policies and measures to increase climate resilience and reduce vulnerability across sectors.

Sectoral adaptation in RAAPs

The NAS suggests potential adaptation actions for all sectors that are likely to be significantly affected by climate change in Greece. In that context, RAAPs has examined the actions included in the NAS based on the particular regional circumstances, priorities and needs and has developed regional action plans. The RAAPs include specific actions per sector and wherever there is a case per sub-regional area.

Mainstreaming of adaptation

Inclusion of adaptation provisions in sectoral strategies and legislation; strengthening horizontal coordination; effective use of European and national funds; and promotion of climate adaptation at regional and local levels are the main instruments to mainstream adaptation across the NAS priority sectors:

a. Adaptation in sectoral strategies and legislation: Mainstreaming occurs either as part of compliance and harmonisation with European sectoral strategies and legislation or as part of national efforts to forge Greece against climate-induced risks. To this end, as already mentioned the National Climate Law under Article 9 mandates the Greek central government departments to integrate adaptation into sectoral strategies and plans. The EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change is the main mainstreaming instrument at European level. According to a recent evaluation of the Strategy, adaptation was successfully mainstreamed into a wide range of policies.
b. Strengthening horizontal coordination: In the National Climate Change Adaptation Committee (NCCAC) representatives of all relevant Ministries participate. The NCCAC strengthens horizontal coordination and thus enables adaptation mainstreaming in sectoral policies and strategies.
c. Effective use of European and national funds: A Complementary Funds Committee (CFC) has been established in the framework of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, to mobilise, prioritise and monitor the use of EU and national funding for adaptation projects and investments.
d. Promotion of climate adaptation at regional and local level: The RAAPs analyse the synergies of proposed adaptation actions with other existing national policies, such as biodiversity, disaster risk management and infrastructure-related policies, and suggest ways of integrating adaptation. They also investigate their own complementarity and compatibility with other regional plans (e.g. spatial plans, flood risk management plans), in order to inform these plans and to include adaptation considerations. Furthermore, an increasing number of local authorities start developing local adaptation plans.
e. Transfer of adaptation responsibilities to the Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection (MCCCP) to strengthen the link between climate change adaptation and disaster risk management strategies.

The main legislation, policies and initiatives to integrate adaptation considerations in the sectors addressed in the NAS are summarized in the description of key affected sectors. Examples of sectoral strategies that embed adaptation-related actions include the the Maritime Spatial Planning Law [1], the National Biodiversity Strategy, the National Strategy for Forests, and the National Plan for Energy & Climate [3]. With respect to planning, the 1st revision of flood risk assessments for Greece takes into account the impact of climate change on the occurrence of flooding through the consideration of climate projections from SWICCA Copernicus project (changes on 24h precipitation intensity for 2050 and 2080 and effects of climate change for return period T=50 and T=100).

Finally, the MCCCP seeks ways to advance the coordination of actions for responding to emergencies and adapting to climate change through dedicated projects. This includes the EU Commission (DG Reform) technical support project “TSI 2022 Capacity building to the Ministry for Climate Crisis and Civil Protection: Coordinating Emergency preparedness, response and Climate Change adaptation actions”, as well as initiatives on specific vulnerable sectors, such as the cooperation on the ongoing OECD’s report ‘Adapting to climate change the management of wildfires’, where Greece is selected as a case study.

[1] Law 4546/2018
[2] Adopted by the Governmental Council of Economic Policies on the 23rd December 2019 (Government Gazette Issue B 4893/ 31.12.2019)
The draft NAS was subject to a public consultation prior to its finalisation [1]. Stakeholders who provided feedback included academia, ministries, the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and NGOs [2]. Under Article 5 of the National Climate Law, the NAS needs to undergo a public consultation of at least thirty days before being adopted.

Furthermore, the National Climate Change Adaptation Committee (NCCAC), through its institutional role is an essential instrument for stakeholder engagement at the national level. More specifically, according to the provisions of the National Climate Law, the NCCAC is responsible for: (a) the specification of adaptation policies, on the basis of international and EU policies and agreements; (b) the specification of horizontal policies and actions included in the NAS, especially those concerning awareness, dissemination and capacity building; (c) the opinion-giving on the development and revision/amendements of the NAS and of the RAAPs; (d) the development of recommendations for any matter relating to climate adaptation, as put forward by the Minister of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection.

The creation of an online National Adaptation Hub that pools together adaptation relevant data, information, good practices and approaches can also contribute to reaching out to stakeholders, including stakeholders particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. The National Adaptation Hub has been developed under the LIFE IP AdaptInGR project and become public in October 2022. Pursuant to art.25 of the National Climate Law, the Hub will form of part the National Adaptation Observatory. One of the objectives of the Hub is to raise awareness among different target groups on adaptation, including citizens and promote the sharing of good practice among adaptation stakeholders. The Hub includes an online forum to accommodate discussions and further encourage engagement.

The National Climate Law (art.26) also establishes an online climate forum to allow consulting representatives of municipalities, regions, universities, environmental NGOs, business, professional and trade unions, inter alia, on the annual national climate reports, which include information on adaptation action and progress in each sector as well.

[1] Public consultation was obligatory for the development of future or revised NAS by Law 4414/2016 (Article 42). Individual citizens, public authorities and other stakeholders are able to submit written views and contributions through an open online process.
[2] Personal communication with MS contact.
The Greek NAS includes actions on the awareness and capacity building of professional groups working in climate vulnerable sectors. Such indicative actions refer to (i) awareness of professional groups, (ii) improvement of their access to relevant information; transfer of relevant information, (iii) promotion of cooperation and partnerships, (iv) education and lifelong learning.

In some sectors, such actions are already embedded in existing strategies and plans.

Under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, activities to develop synergies between the private and public sector are planned, which refer mainly to dedicated meetings with key actors of the private sector and the organization of dedicated events aiming at the promotion of best practices for the adaptation-related funding in the banking and private sectors. In addition, the engagement of professional groups at the different administration levels (national, regional, local) is envisaged under the project’s capacity building actions, including the two national events planned towards the end of the project.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported
Under Art. 25 of the National Climate Law (Law 4936/2022), the National Adaptation Observatory (NAO) is established in the Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection (MCCCP). The NAO comprises an open information exchange network among the MCCCP, the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MEEN) (former competent authority on adaptation, actively involved in the long-term adaptation planning), the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS), the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) and other research, academic and public sector organizations. NAO develops and operates the open-access national database of climate data and information, building on the results of ongoing activities & initiatives at a national level. The NAO will offer, several climate services, including monitoring of adaptation policies and measures using an indicator-based system and other suitable methods and tools. The monitoring services will mostly build on the national Monitoring and Evaluation system (M&E) currently developed by the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project.

The LIFE-IP AdaptInGR integrated project was launched in 2019 and is coordinated by MEEN (please refer below for more information). One of the key objectives of the project is to develop a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework that includes both qualitative and quantitative indicators. The focus is primarily on indicators that relate to adaptation processes and outcomes, while climate risk indicators are considered where applicable. More specifically, the M&E framework includes:
i. Climate risks indicators covering a range of factors such as climate hazards, their impacts, exposure to them, and adaptive capacity;
ii. Adaptation processes indicators focusing on the implementation of the National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) and Regional Adaptation Action Plans (RAAPs) as well as the allocation of funds for these activities;
iii. Adaptation outcomes indicators assessing the actual results achieved by the measures included in NAS and RAAPs.

The M&E framework aims to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of Greece’s adaptation efforts and make informed decisions to improve national strategies in response to changing climate conditions.

Currently in the framework of the project, the proposed M&E system explores the potential of using existing sets of indicators already monitored by competent authorities at the different levels of public administration. Consultations with sectoral authorities are ongoing and the set of adequate indicators per sector is being fine-tuned.

References:

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project (www.adaptivegreece.gr)

Communication with the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project coordinating beneficiary (MEEN- Climate Change Department)
As already mentioned, pursuant to the National Climate Law (Art. 28), the NCCAC will regularly monitor NAS implementation and propose changes to political, legislative or other means and arrangements necessary to promote action. Pursuant to the art. 43 of Law 4414/2016 (abolished on 27-05-2021) and the Min. Decision 11258/2017 (Art. 2, Para.11), an indicator-based system has been developed for each RAAP, which will be used to monitor the progress and effectiveness of their implementation. The timeline and the periodicity of monitoring is not indicated.

An integrated adaptation monitoring and evaluation framework to allow monitoring and evaluating progress in terms of adaptation policy implementation and to provide the basis for the reviews and revisions of the NAS and RAAPs is developed through the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. The objective of the framework is to collect and provide information that will improve the decision-making procedures regarding the planning, implementation, revision and update of processes and actions that aim at the enhancement of resilience and the adaptative capacity of Greece, in collaboration with the competent authorities. The M&E framework will be further improved, refined and fine-tuned through two M&E implementation cycles.

Under Art.27 of the National Climate Law, MEEN is responsible for an annual reporting regarding the progress to mitigation and adaptation. For e adaptation the report foresees a section on the description and progress of sectoral adaptation actions, an estimation of adaptation investments per climate zone and per sector, as well as potential proposals for alternative/corrective actions. For this reporting MEEN will cooperate with the MCCCP and the National Environment and Climate Change Agency (NECCA). The exact structure of the report is not yet specified but the M&E process is expected to provide useful data and information.

References:

National Climate Law 4936/2022

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR coordinator (MEEN)
Adaptation actions are primarily financed by EU funds. At a national level, the Operational Programme on ‘Transport Infrastructure, Environment and Sustainable Development’ 2014-2020 included specific budget and measures under the Thematic Objective 5 ‘Climate Change Adaptation & Disaster Risk Management’. The actions financed were directed towards the 1st revision of the flood risk management plans and the development and implementation of flood-risk management measures. In addition, Programme included actions for increasing the adaptivity of forests and forestial areas. This instrument, together with the Rural Development Programme (RDP), have been the main source of EU funding for adaptation actions nationally and in the 13 regions until 2020. With respect to the RDP, the main investment refers to the improvements of water irrigation systems, as well as the prevention and restoration of climate impacts to forests (including prevention/restoration of damages from diseases, parasites and fires).

Although information on adaptation funding is not collected officially in the country, some relevant information is collected in the context of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. On the basis of 1st LIFE-IP AdaptInGR report on complementary funding, then budget approved for the implementation of adaptation actions (or adaptation-related actions) in the programming period 2014-2020 and in specific sectors includes:
- About 600 M€ for CCA actions for the management of water resources (mainly infrastructure projects);
- About 577 M€ a for CCA actions in the agricultural sector;
- About 118 M€ for CCA actions in the forestry sector;
- About 88.9 M€ for CCA actions in support of the civil protection (mainly referring to acquisition of operations’ equipment);
- About 29 M€ for the protection of coastal zones; and
- About 10 M€ for CCA actions in other sectors.

It needs to be highlighted that the above-mentioned amounts do not refer to all available funding dedicated for adaptation actions.

In the programming-period 2021-2027, adaptation actions at national level are primarily financed through the Operational Progarmme ‘Environment and Climate Change’. Flood-protection infrastructure projects, coastal protection works, green infrastructure projects and fire prevention/management are among the priorities identified, while actions for the support of coordination, planning and awareness tools (elaboration of strategies, plans, observatories and platforms) have also been included. Moreover, the Programme of ‘Civil Protection’ includes action to increase preparedness and enhance response to climate-induced disasters (e.g. databases, equipment, training). The CAP Strategic Plan 2021-2027 contains adaptation measures for increasing the resilience of agriculture and has taken into consideration the NAS and the RAAPs in the specification of measures. Finally, in Recovery and Resilience Plan includes priorities that are related to adaptation actions.

At a national level, the main adaptation-related funds have been directed towards to the improvement of knowledge, information and awareness on climate change impacts and adaptation (linked to NAS objectives 1 and 5) as well as for adaptation actions in cities and municipalities and in forest areas (NAS objective 3). Such measures are mainly financed by the Public Investment Programme and the Green Fund (GRFU), a public financing body supervised by the Ministry of Environment and Energy through the launch of dedicated calls.

Among its activities and programmes, the GRFU finances projects related to climate adaptation. More specifically, in the context of its calls and funding programmes, the GRFU finances Greek Municipalities to acquire and create green spaces for public use. With respect to the forests, and in the frame of the Forest Protection and Restoration programme, support is given to fire prevention, flood control and anti-corrosive measures. Also, as of 2018, the GRFU launches calls addressed to specific actors, such as non-governmental organizations and research/academic bodies that include priorities in relation to increasing the dissemination of information and awareness on climate change adaptation of the Greek society and to covering existing knowledge gaps with respect to vulnerability and adaptation respectively. Finally, the GRFU supports the national contribution of LIFE projects related to adaptation.

References:
https://ymeperaa.gr/[…]/programma-anatheoriseis
http://agrotikianaptixi.gr/el
https://ymeperaa.gr/[…]/1189-ep-perivallon-energeia-klimatiki-allagi
https://greece20.gov.gr/to-plires-sxedio
https://www.ymeperaa.gr/[…]/sfc2021-PRG-2021EL16RFPR001-1.3.pdf
https://www.minagric.gr/ima[…]imenoy_ss_kap_2023_2027.pdf

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (2023). 1st report on complementary funding. F3.D3. LIFE17 IPC/GR/000006
Adaptation actions are primarily financed by EU funds.

The ‘Transport Infrastructure, Environment & Sustainable Development (TIESD)’, the ‘Rural Development ’, the ‘ Fisheries & Sea’ and the ‘Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship & Innovation’ 2014-2020 Operational programmes (OP) were the main sources of EU funding for adaptation until 2020.

The 'TIESD' Programme included actions referring to the elaboration of studies for triggering the implementation of plans and/or measures across Greece. In total 115,8 M€ were earmarked for adaptation. The 13 Regional OPs 2014-2020 earmarked adaptation-related spending of about 253 M€.

At present there is no overview of the specifications planned in the Sectoral and Regional OPs for the Programming Period 2021-2027, so there is no clarity on the amounts earmarked for adaptation.

For the GRFU, the spending is being earmarked on an annual basis & defined by priorities set by its Management Board and agreed with MEEN. Adaptation is mainstreamed in different GRFU’s financing programmes & there is no information on the exact amounts earmarked.
 

Finally, the strategic LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, coordinated by MEEN, receives funding by the EU LIFE Programme (total budget=14,189,548 €, EC co-funding: 58.7%). The MPPPC also implements projects aiming to identify specific bottlenecks regarding the disaster risk reduction & adaptation.

References: LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (2023). 1st report on complementary funding. F3.D3. LIFE17 IPC/GR/000006
As mentioned above, the main sources of adaptation funding considered are linked to EU funds. Currently there is no official financial monitoring system of the NAS and the RAAPS, therefore it is difficult to provide information on the share of spending to support adaptation in each sector.

In the context of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project a financial monitoring regarding the progress of adaptation actions related to the NAS and achieved through specific funds (Structural Investment Funds, Rural Development Programme, national funds) is being implemented. According to the information available on the basis of this, the main adaptation sectors of intervention relevant to actions financed through the Sectoral Operational Programme on ‘Transport Infrastructure, Environment and Sustainable Development’ in the period 2014-2020, include the protection from floods; the prevention, protection and response to forest fires and the protection/restoration of coastal zones. In some cases, links with the cultural heritage were also made. Adaptation actions in relation to the agriculture and forestry sectors considered during the reporting period have been mainly financed by the Rural Development Programme. Moreover, the sectoral reports prepared by MEEN under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, include thorough mapping of available adaptation or adaptation-related funding for each sector, which may facilitate monitoring the share of spending used to support climate adaptation in each sector in the future.

The Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) is the country’s main insurance carrier for plant production and livestock capital. It compensates farmers for plant and livestock capital loss caused by extreme weather conditions (e.g. floods, hail, and frost).

The Greek state, also, provides compensation and emergency allowances to relief and support the victims of natural disasters (e.g. floods in Mandra and wildfires in Mati). In addition, the European Union Solidarity Fund (EUSF) responds to major natural disasters and expresses European solidarity to disaster-stricken regions within Europe. It covers a range of different catastrophic events including floods, forest fires, storms and drought.

Reference:

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (2023). 1st report on complementary funding. F3.D3. LIFE17 IPC/GR/000006

Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organization (https://www.elga.gr)

Greek state support scheme (https://arogi.gov.gr/events)

European Union Solidarity Fund (https://ec.europa.eu/[…]/solidarity-fund_en)
As of March 2023, no monitoring reports have been published, therefore there is no official estimation of the progress towards reducing impacts, vulnerabilities and risks. Information about the progress achieved will be provided in due course, through the annual national reporting system established by the National Climate Law 4936/2022 (art.27), as well as on the basis of the results of the Monitoring and Evaluation cycles planned under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project.

Reference:

MEEN, Climate Change Department, LIFE-IP AdaptInGR Coordinating Beneficiary
As of March 2023, no monitoring reports have been published, therefore there is no official estimation of the progress towards increasing adaptive capacity. Information about the progress achieved across Greece will be provided in due course, through the annual national reporting system established by the National Climate Law 4936/2022 (art.27), as well as on the basis of the results of the Monitoring and Evaluation cycles planned under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project.

Some elements regarding the current level of adaptive capacity in the various affected sectors at a national level are provided in the sectoral reports prepared by MEEN under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. The reports analyse the baseline situation with respect to mainstreaming adaptation across specific sectors based on dedicated desk reviews and in consultation with competent sectoral government departments and relevant stakeholders. So far, one report has been fully finalised on Biodiversity & Ecosystems, whereas the analysis is completed for four more sectors, namely forestry, agriculture and fisheries and aquaculture. With respect to Biodiversity & Ecosystems, significant knowledge gaps have been identified regarding the biology of species, hindering the assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerabilities, and undertaking of effective adaptation action. Other main gaps refer to the fragmented character of the capacity building addressed to natural environment services and a complete absence of dedicated reference to adaptation action. The current structures and processes do not enhance the required cooperation among different sectoral services and authorities . However, the measures undertaken to safeguard and preserve biodiversity and ecosystems significantly contribute to improve the adaptive capacity of biodiversity and ecosystems in Greece.

During the project all the NAS sectors will be analyzed, and such results will be available for all sectors and can guide action to increase adaptive capacity at national level.

At regional level, through the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, a series of 13 regional capacity building workshops is being planned. So far, workshops have been organized in 5 out of the 13 regions of Greece. The feedback received is very positive and the participants agree that the workshops have supported them to increase their knowledge regarding the regional adaptation planning, as well as with regards to climate projections, impacts & adaptation options in high vulnerability sectors of the Regions. The workshops further include technical hands-on exercises on the climate-proofing of projects, which has been welcomed by the regions , and participatory discussions with professionals and other regional stakeholders. By the end of the project, such events will be organized in all the Greek regions and are expected to contribute to the improvement of adaptive capacity.

Reference:

MEEN, Climate Change Department, LIFE-IP AdaptInGR Coordinating Beneficiary
As of March 2023, no monitoring reports have been published, therefore there is no official estimation of the progress towards meeting adaptation priorities.

Under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, the MEEN is in progress of performing the evaluation of the implementation of the NAS per sector, as part of the sectoral reports analysing the baseline situation.

Moreover, under the National Climate Law 4936/2022, the MEEN, in cooperation with the Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection and the National Environment & Climate Change Agency (NECCA) will prepare annual reports that will monitor the progress of adaptation actions, estimate the investments needs and propose corrective/alternative action as relevant (Article 27).

Reference:

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)

MEEN, Climate Change Department, LIFE-IP AdaptInGR Coordinating Beneficiary
There is currently no evaluation of the progress achieved towards addressing barriers to adaptation.

Reference:

MEEN, Climate Change Department, LIFE-IP AdaptInGR Coordinating Beneficiary
An updated assessment of the impacts and vulnerabilities across Greece is in progress and planned to be delivered by the end of 2024 under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. The CCIV will be based on RCPs scenarios and take into account updated climate projections. It will address impacts on the following sectors: water systems, fisheries and aquaculture, agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystems, tourism, built environment, transport, health, industry, and productivity. Through a bottom-up approach, damages will be estimated for each sector both with and without adaptation and then aggregated. Also, a top-down approach will be used for cost estimates through a Computable General Equilibrium model as this can incorporate market interactions and allow for indirect impacts to be estimated.

The assessment will draw upon the 2011 Comprehensive Climate Change Impact Assessment, developed at the initiative of the Bank of Greece (BoG), as well as subsequent research of the Climate Change Impacts Study Committee (CCISC) of the BoG (i.e. for the Tourism sector).

The assessment for the transport sector has been finalized, while the assessments for tourism, agriculture, biodiversity and ecosystems sectors have been significantly advanced.

Reference:

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project (www.adaptovegreece.gr)

MEEN, Climate Change Department, LIFE-IP AdaptInGR Coordinating Beneficiary
Article 5 of the National Climate Law 4936/2022 foresees the review of the NAS at least once every five years and its revision when required and after receiving the opinion of the National Climate Change Adaptation Committee (NCCAC).

The review and revision of the current NAS will be undertaken in the context of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. More specifically the process will take into account the results of the two Monitoring and Evaluation cycles that are planned to be implemented during the project to estimate the progress towards reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks, reaching the national adaptation objectives and addressing barriers to adaptation. In addition, the updated CCIV assessment will also be taken into account. The aim of the revision will include:
- The identification of new priorities (vulnerable areas, new sectors), suggestion of new actions and prioritization of new/remaining adaptation measures;
- The identification of new directions and priorities for the National Adaptation Strategy and development of the relevant strategic directions, exploring, if needed; the requirement for specific Sectoral Adaptation Strategies;
- Bringing forward concrete suggestions to enhance cooperation and build up agreements and joint plans with neighboring countries on common climate challenges (cross-border flood risk management, management of protected areas and disaster risk management/mitigation).

The MCCCP will supervise and actively participate in the NAS review and revision. The revision of the NAS will be presented to the NCCCA for its formal opinion, while MCCCP will prepare the institutional arrangements for its adoption, according to the provisions of the Greek institutional framework. For the review of the Greek NAS and prior to adoption of any new priority, extensive public/stakeholder consultation of at least 30 days will be performed, according to the provisions of the Greek legislation.

Reference:

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)

MEEN, Climate Change Department, LIFE-IP AdaptInGR Coordinating Beneficiary

Good practices and lessons learnt

Art. 4 of Directive 2007/60/EC foresees that flood risk assessments shall take into account, inter alia, impacts of climate change on the occurrence of floods. The 1st revision of "Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment for Greece” used future projections on precipitation intensity (RCP4.5 –RCP8.5) from Copernicus’s ‘Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation’ (SWICCA project) to better define and map areas at high risk of flooding.
The Hub intends to provide tools & resources for assisting decision-makers across the different steps of the adaptation policy cycle, raise awareness among Greek citizens and vulnerable groups, and promote sharing of good practices among key adaptation stakeholders. It includes an interactive climate projection web-tool to increase understanding of climate change impacts, as well as a dedicated section to support climate-proofing of infrastructure in the EU programming period 2021-2027.
The LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project produced new climate projection data & maps to support mainstreaming of adaptation across policies & projects in Greece. High resolution GIS maps for 22 selected climate indices were produced based on the climate projections. The maps are easily accessible and downable through MEEN’s GIS Mapsportal. They are used in hands-on exercises at regional and national level. Dedicated online events are planned for promoting the use of the projections to key stakeholders.

Cooperation and experience

Greece ratified the Paris Agreement by Law 4426/2016. Under Law 4426/2016, the MEEN holds the responsibility for its implementation. Adaptation action under UNFCCC remained in the mandate of MEEN after the establishment of the MCCCP. Adaptation progress under UNFCCC is reflected on the 8th National Communication submitted in Dec. 2022.

In addition, the 2030 Agenda and SDGs, through SDG 13 ‘Climate Action’, urges for action to combat climate change and its impacts through strategic planning in all countries, including city areas or metropolitan regions. The monitoring and coordination for the implementation of the SDGs in Greece is given to the Greek Government Presidency, to ensure the consistency of policies. Progress is reflected on the 'Voluntary National Review 2022' on SDGs' implementation, as well as National SDG Statistics. Moreover, the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project contributes to SDGs (13, 3, 11,14, 15) and the Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE) linked to Art. 6 of the UNFCCC and Art.12 of the Paris Agreement, through its activities to support sectoral adaptation; build capacity and increase awareness.

The transfer of adaptation responsibilities to the MCCCP strengthens the links between disaster risk management and adaptation and thereby enhance coherence between the two policies. The Hellenic National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (UN Sendai Framework, Hyogo Framework for Action) was established in 2012 and is coordinated by the General Secretarial for Civil Protection. The MEEN is represented within the platform, ensuring coherence of adaptation action under UNFCCC and UN Sendai Frameworks.

References:

NC8 (https://unfccc.int/NC8)

SDG VNR 2022 (https://hlpf.un.org/[…]/voluntary-national-review-2022)

SDG Statistics (https://www.statistics.gr/sdgs)

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (www.adaptivegreece.gr)

Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (https://www.preventionweb.net/[…]/greece-national-platform)
The NAS recognises that Greece shares a significant amount of water resources, mountainous areas and forests with neighbouring countries and that it is, therefore, important to establish communication channels with those countries. A number of specific actions are mentioned in the NAS, including identifying and recording transboundary adaptation issues, creating processes for the development of common policies, creating shared data collection stations, training and capacity building. The development of these actions is still in progress. In addition, the RAAPs has assessed the transboundary character of climate impacts (Ministerial Decision 11258/2017) to identify needs for international cooperation. Transboundary public consultations on the RAAPs may also occur through the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process to consider potential transboundary impacts. Transboundary public consultations, as part of the SEA process, have taken place for the transboundary flood risk management plans (for example the consultation on the Evros River Basin shared by Greece and Bulgaria).

Cooperation on adaptation issues is recognized a priority in various international cooperation schemes in which the Greek authorities take part, as for example in the the 2017 trilateral cooperation agreements between Greece-Cyprus-Israel and Greece-Cyprus-Egypt mainly focusing on the exchange of knowledge and know-how on adaptation policy monitoring, evaluation and good practice at regional and local scales.

Already many bilateral and multilateral sectoral programmes aiming at strengthening science and sharing of knowledge, as well as the progress in the policy making and implementation of adaptation are in place. Greek authorities, research organizations and academia, industries, professionsals and the civil society participate in many of the EU competitive projects, such as Interreg, Horizon and LIFE, seeking to work together towards implementing adaptation.

Moreover, Greek research and academic bodies, such as the National Observatory of Athens and the Academy of Athens, provide information to the EU Copernicus Programme.

Refrerence:

MEEN, Climate Change Department

National Adaptation Strategy (https://ypen.gov.gr/[…]/20160406_ESPKA_teliko.pdf)

Interreg projects 2014-2020 (https://old-2014-2020.interreg.gr/#Welcome)

LIFE Projects' database (https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/life/publicWebsite/search)

CORDIS EU-funded project's database (https://cordis.europa.eu/projects/en)
With respect to the cooperation for enhancing adaptation action, it seems that the current focus of official cooperation is set on the knowledge sharing with respect to the vulnerability and adaptation options, as well as at an operational level.

Greece is a member of the Union for Mediterranean (UfM) and closely follows its adaptation- related developments and work. The UfM adaptation work and initiatives come hand to hand with the work and initiatives of UNEP/MAP. Through its Barcelona Convention and Protocols, the UNEP/MAP sets a favourable institutional, legal and implementation framework for adapting Mediterranean natural resources such as the marine and coastal areas. Greece is the Host Country of the UNEP/MAP Coordinating Unit.

Mediterranean and transnational cooperation activities are foreseen to replicate the results and share the knowledge and experience acquired through the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, with regards to monitoring adaptation policy implementation, developing climate projections, mainstreaming adaptation across sectoral policies, implementing concrete adaptation projects, etc. Replication and transfer will be facilitated mostly through workshops. Experience sharing and collaboration between Greece and the national adaptation authorities of other European Neighbours, in particular Non-EU Mediterranean and Balkan countries, will be sought as well. Sharing of experience of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR results may be further pursued through the ongoing trilateral agreements of the MEEN with Cyprus and Israel, and with Cyprus and Egypt.

In addition, the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR activities have been linked to the “National Programme for International Development Cooperation 2022-2025” of the Hellenic Aid/Ministry of Foreign Affairs and have been subject of the 2023 country review by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD. This also aligns with the EU Adaptation Strategy provisions for “stepping up international action for climate resilience”.

Moreover, Greece participates in the OECD Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation (TFCCA), aiming to advance countries’ policy agendas in support of strengthening their resilience to climate change and climate variability. As part of the TFCCA activities, Greece (MCCCP) participates in the ‘Adapting to climate change in the management of wildfires’ project which aims to support countries to better understand and address extreme wildfire risk in the context of climate change. In the context of the project, a case study on the wildfire prevention in Greece will be prepared.

Refrerence: MEEN, Climate Change Department, Coordinating Beneficiary of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

The National Climate Change Adaptation Committee (NCCAC), chaired by the Minister of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection, includes representatives of relevant ministries (Environment & Energy, Economics, Internal Affairs, Development & Investments, Tourism, Infrastructure & Transport, Health, Maritime Affairs & Insular Policy, Rural Development & Food, Education & Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports, National Defense). The NCCAC also includes representatives from the Union of Greek Regions, the Central Union of Greek Municipalities, the c Meteorological Service, the Association of Industries, NGOs and academics specialising in adaptation issues. Additional participants can be invited based on identified needs.

Ref.Climate Law 4936/2022
Meetings/seminars are held regularly in the framework of projects/initiatives to spread and share information on adaptation. The LIFE-IP AdaptInGR regional info-days & capacity building workshops support the raising of awareness of adaptation planning and facilitate sharing of good practices among experts and authorities. 73 Greek municipalities participate in the Covenant of Mayors (CoM 2030). Coordinators include the Regions of Attica, Crete, Central & Western Macedonia, and the Greek Technical Chamber. Eleven Greek cities and the Region of Thessaly have joined the EU Mission on Adaptation. Moreover, the recent CLIMAT?ICCA network, an initiative of the Region of Attica, aspires to support Greek regions & cities on tackling CCA issues.
The art. 43 of Law 4414/2016 (abolished on 27-05-2022) required the 13 Regional Authorities of Greece to develop and implement RAAPs (within a 7-year planning cycle) and set the minimum technical specifications for their content. The RAAPs content was further elaborated by Ministerial Decision (MD) 11258/2017 (Government Gazette, issue B, 873/2017), which provided the detailed specifications/template for the content of the first RAAPs.

On the basis of the MD, the first RAAPs include:
- Analysis of projections of future climate conditions at the regional level. More specifically, analysis of the trends of the main climate parameters for the short, mid (2050) and long (2100) term and for more than one scenario, using existing data and well-established regional climate models. The analysis will include existing trends and potential changes in extreme weather events, temperature, sea-level rise, etc.
- Vulnerability assessment of specific sectors and/or geographical areas within each region based on the outcomes of the climate condition projections.
- Assessment of climate change impacts (environmental, social, economical etc.) on the previously identified sectors and/or geographical areas in the short, mid (2050) and long (2100) term. The impacts are assessed based on their: probability, magnitude (area and/or population affected), intensity, complexity, timing, reversibility/possibility to mitigate, cross-border and/or cross-sectoral character etc.
- Identification of priority sectors and priority geographical areas for action.

Examination of the potential measures/actions included in the NAS based on the particular regional circumstances, priorities and needs and development of concrete regional action plans.
• Wherever there is a case for sector or sub-regional analysis, specific actions per sector or sub-regional area are indicated. In addition, pursuant to the art. 43 of Law 4414/2016, the national competent authority has checked the compliance of the RAAPs with the NAS, while the local authorities participated in the Regional Consultation Committees giving formal opinions on the RAAPs of the respective regions.

The development of the 13 RAAPs has been completed and their Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and official endorsement by Regional Councils is expected to conclude by September 2023. Up to March 2023:
• 5 regions have officially endorsed their RAAPs, namely the Regions of North Aegean, Crete, Attica, Peloponnese and Western Greece.
• 2 regions concluded/will soon conclude the SEA process and officially endorse their RAAPs. More specifically, the SEA is concluded for the RAAP of Central Macedonia and is at an advanced level for the RAAP of Western Macedonia.
• For the RAAPs of Anatoliki Makedonia-Thrace, Sterea Ellada and South Aegean the SEA is in progress.
• For the rest 3 regions the SEA is expected to start soon.

The art. 43 of Law 4414/2016 was replaced by art. 6 of the National Climate Law 4936/2022, which is going to drive the 2nd cycle of RAAPs. The National Climate Law retained the main provisions of Law 4414/2016 in terms of RAAPs and transferred the responsibility of checking their compliance with the NAS from the Ministry of Environment and Energy to the Ministry for Climate Crisis and Civil Protection.

References:

Law 4414/2016 (http://www.et.gr/idocs-nph/[…]s1tiEdpqWltryQTsRnvq51ooce-)
  

Ministerial Decision (MD) 11258/2017 (http://www.et.gr/idocs-nph/[…]XSpWbTo0uBodm9tofIAKYUGWPuk)

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)
 

MEEN, Climate Change Department
Stakeholder engagement and public consultation have been made mandatory for the development of the first RAAPs through the Ministerial Decision 11258/2017. The main regional stakeholders (public authorities, scientific community, business and industry, civil society etc.) of the 13 Greek Regions have been invited to identify/submit their views on measures that can contribute to the adaptation of their region/area of interest, especially the stakeholder groups whose activities are more vulnerable to climate change, for example farmers, hotel operators, etc. In addition, regional authorities have been required to consult and coordinate with neighbouring regions, in the case of shared vulnerability hotspots (e.g. shared protected areas or river basins). These consultations provided input in the development of the 13 RAAPs. Public consultation on the RAAPs has also taken place through the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process. The 5 RAAPs already endorsed have undergone this step before their final endorsement (all RAAPs shall undergo this step before their final endorsement).

As already mentioned, the 13 RAAPs have been subject to an opinion-giving procedure by the Regional Consultation Committees. The Regional Consultation Committee comprises of representatives of stakeholders and citizens within the territorial boundaries of the respective region: i.e. representatives of trade unions, chambers, scientific unions and associations, cooperatives, employee associations, sport and culture associations, public bodies supervised by regional authorities, civil society and citizens (Law 3852/2010 “Kallikratis Administrative Programme”, Article 178).

The National Climate Law (art. 6) retains the requirement of Regional Consultation Committees giving opining on their RAAPs before their official enforcement. It also extends the opinion giving process to the National Climate Change Adaptation Committee and the Ministry of Climate Crisis and Civil Protection (replacing the Ministry of Environment and Energy). The National Climate Change Adaptation Committee brings together all main adaptation stakeholders and ensures good horizontal cooperation.

Moreover, many RAAPs foresee the establishment of regional adaptation committees and/or regioanl adaptation working groups to oversee and monitor the implementation of the RAAPs.

References:

Ministerial Decision (MD) 11258/2017 (http://www.et.gr/idocs-nph/[…]XSpWbTo0uBodm9tofIAKYUGWPuk)

MEEN, Climate Change Department

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)

Regional Adaptation Action Plans
The RAAPs include actions to raise awareness and build capacity of the professional groups in their regions, whose activities are more vulnerable to climate change, for example farmers, hotel operators, fishers, aquaculture entrepreneurs etc.

Under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR, capacity building workshops have been organised at regional level (5 workshops by 15 March 2023). Professionals of particularly vulnerable sectors of each Region have been specifically invited to participate in the discussions. Moreover, the workshops have hosted sectoral discussions where useful feedback have been collected on the already visible climate change impacts in the region that affect the activities of the private sector stakeholders. This feedback could inform the prioritisation and specification of the RAAP's measures for the private sector. The importance of actively involving representatives of private sector in the organization of the events is highlighted as a good practice for active participation.

References:

Regional Adaptation Action Plans

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project (www.adaptivegreece.gr)

MEEN, Climate Change Department, Coordinating Beneficiary of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project
At subnational level, adaptation measures have been primarily implemented through the 13 Regional Operational Programmes (ROPs) (one for each region of Greece) of the National Strategic Reference Framework 2014-2020 which included specific budget and measures under the Thematic Objective 5 ‘Climate Change Adaptation & Disaster Risk Management’.

In the period 2014-2020, the main adaptation actions implemented at regional level were linked to the NAS Objective 3 and more specifically to the implementation of measures for reducing the intensity and magnitude of climate change impacts (especially with respect to flood-risk protection and protection from fires), the protection from extreme weather events (including the provision of relevant equipment for field operations), as well as the elaboration of risk assessment studies. The actions also referred to the regional adaptation planning and the development of the RAAPs, which is linked to the NAS Objective 2, while a limited number of actions contributed to the establishment of a monitoring mechanism for the evaluation and review of adaptation policies and actions (NAS Objective 4). Finally, a very limited number of actions aimed at awareness –raising and thus have contributed to NAS Objective 5. With respect to the RDP, the main investment at regional level refers to the improvements of water irrigation systems through dedicated calls for each of the 13 Greek regions.

Regarding RAAPs, the budget required for the implementation of each measure is estimated and possible finance sources are identified. The main possible financing sources comprise:
o ESIF 2021-2027: Regional Operational Programmes, Sectoral Operational Programmes (e.g. Rural Development, Environment & Climate Change, Fisheries and Sea, Transport), Research and Innovation Strategy for Smart Specialization (RIS3), etc.
o Other EU programmes 2021-2027: LIFE, Horizon, Interreg
o National funds: Green Programme for the Development of Local Government Organisations (“Antonis Tritsis” Programme).
o Own regional funds.

Although the majority of the RAAPs has not yet undergone the official endorsement procedure, the implementation of adaptation measures in the most vulnerable sectors of each Region is in progress, especially in sectors where adaptation planning is mainstreamed through existing strategies and plans, for instance flood risk management, forestry and agriculture. However, it should be noted that most of the RAAPs indicate the need for specialized studies in order to understand better the exact impacts and vulnerabilities at a local level in order to proceed with the design of adaptation actions. Stakeholder engagement is explicitly mentioned in the RAAPs (Art. 6 of the National Climate Law). More specifically the RAAPs include a dedicated section regarding the ways in which consultation with stakeholders for the estimation of impacts and implementation of measures by them takes place.

References:

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR (2023). 1st report on complementary funding. F3.D3. LIFE17 IPC/GR/000006

ESIF 2024-2020 (https://2014-2020.espa.gr/el/Pages/default.aspx)

ESIF 2021-2027 (https://www.espa.gr/el/Pages/default.aspx)

Regional Adaptation Action Plans

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)
Article 6 of the National Climate Law 4936/2022 foresees the evaluation and review of the RAAPs at least once every five years; given the current progress in the development of the 13 RAAPs it is expected that their review will be performed in the years 2027/2028. The revision of the RAAP will be decided by the Regional Environment & Spatial Planning Directorates on the basis of their reviews.

The revision of the RAAPs is going to be supported by the processes designed under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project. More specifically by 2026, the project will provide recommendations for the revision of each of the RAAPs on the basis of the results from the M&E cycles, the updated CCIV assessment and the objectives of the revised NAS. The project will also propose new, more elaborate terms of reference for adaptation planning for each Region, according to local specificities and progress achieved in the implementation of the RAAPs.

References:

National Climate Law 4936/2022 (https://www.et.gr/api/DownloadFeksApi/?fek_pdf=20220100105)

LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project (www.adaptivegreece.gr)

MEEN, Climate Change Department, Coordinating Beneficiary of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project
At a subnational level, the cooperation on adaptation actions is achieved through a number of bilateral and multilateral projects, funded mainly through EU competitive programmes. Examples of such programmes include Interreg, Horizon and LIFE. For example, Greek Regions and Cities have signed the EU Adaptation Charter, committing themselves to building climate resilience on the ground in an inclusive way and engaging way. These signatories enable the Regions and Cities to create a comprehensive cooperation structure and work together with other regional and EU authorities for enhancing adaptation action.

References:

Interreg projects 2014-2020 (https://old-2014-2020.interreg.gr/#Welcome)

LIFE Projects' database (https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/life/publicWebsite/search)

CORDIS EU-funded project's database (https://cordis.europa.eu/projects/en)

EU Adaptation Mission (https://research-and-innova[…]daptation-climate-change_en)

Good practices and lessons learnt

Assessment of climate impacts, vulnerability and risks to climate change, including adaptive capacity; Stakeholder engagement

Under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, regional capacity building workshops and awareness raising events were organized, bringing together the full range of regional adaptation stakeholders: decision makers, public servants and key professional groups. The workshops included hands-on exercises based on existing regional case-studies. Regional authorities implemented the vulnerability analysis making use of the regional adaptation plan and climate projections.

References:
LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project (www.adaptivegreece.gr)
MEEN, Climate Change Department, Coordinating Beneficiary of the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project

Climate risk communication; Stakeholder engagement

Under the LIFE-IP AdaptInGR project, concrete actions to support the integration of adaptation in school curricula include:
- Production of a special teachers’ guide and a teachers’ kit package for primary and secondary schoolteachers (downloaded by >5.500 people).
- online training seminars for teachers across the 13 Greek Regions to support the practical use of the guide.
- Organization of dedicated student competitions.

References: www.adaptivegreece.gr

Ministry for Climate Crisis and Civil Protection.

Cabinet of the Minister
Adaptation policy
Ilias Prevezas
Climate Change Advisor, Cabinet of the Minister

Ministry of Environment and Energy

Department of Climate Change
Responsible for adaptation reporting 2023
Ioanna Tsalakanidou
Officer in the Department of Climate Change

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'