Home Database Indicators Annual Highest High Water, 2070-2100

Annual Highest High Water, 2070-2100

Context The annual highest high water index informs an understanding of European coastal hydrodynamics under the impact of climate change. It provides added value for various coastal sectors and studies such as port, shipping, and coastal management with particular relvance to coastal flooding.

Definition The projected change in annual highest high water (m) is calculated relative to the mean of annual highest high water levels during the historical period from 1977-2005. Tidal dynamics, sea level change data from climate models, and large-scale long-term changes to land height due to post-glacial rebound are taken into account in the calculation of this index. Storm surges caused by atmospheric forcing are not taken into account for this index.

Data Sources The data covers the period from 2070 to 2100 based on CMIP5 scenario RCP4.5 with medium greenhouse gas emissions.

The index is generated using the Global Tide and Surge Model (GTSM, Deltares) and the Wave Model (WAM, ECMWF). High resolution forcing fields for the GTSM are provided by the Danish Meteorological Institute's regional model (HIRHAM5) which is downscaled from the EC-EARTH global climate model.

The EC-EARTH simulations used input from a relative Sea Surface Height (SSH) dataset that takes into account geophysical drivers of long-term SSH change, such as changes to the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, thermal expansion of the ocean, and glacial isostatic adjustment.

Given that the projections of these climate scenarios are based on a single combination of the regional and global climate models, users of these data should take into consideration that there is an inevitable underestimation of the uncertainty associated with this dataset.

Supporting Information The data was collated on behalf of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). Further information about this index can be found in the C3S documentation resources in the Climate Data Store.


Visualisation and Navigation The projected change in the annual highest high water is presented for the future period 2070-2100 based on CMIP5 scenario RCP4.5 with medium greenhouse gas emissions.

Regional statistics for the projected change in annual highest high water are also available via the "Explore in Detail" button .

Projected change in the annual highest high water


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Context The annual highest high water index informs an understanding of European coastal hydrodynamics under the impact of climate change. It provides added value for various coastal sectors and studies such as port, shipping, and coastal management with particular relvance to coastal flooding.

Definition The projected change in annual highest high water (m) is calculated relative to the mean of annual highest high water levels during the historical period from 1977-2005. Tidal dynamics, sea level change data from climate models, and large-scale long-term changes to land height due to post-glacial rebound are taken into account in the calculation of this index. Storm surges caused by atmospheric forcing are not taken into account for this index.

Data Sources The data covers the period from 2070 to 2100 based on CMIP5 scenario RCP4.5 with medium greenhouse gas emissions.

The index is generated using the Global Tide and Surge Model (GTSM, Deltares) and the Wave Model (WAM, ECMWF). High resolution forcing fields for the GTSM are provided by the Danish Meteorological Institute's regional model (HIRHAM5) which is downscaled from the EC-EARTH global climate model.

The EC-EARTH simulations used input from a relative Sea Surface Height (SSH) dataset that takes into account geophysical drivers of long-term SSH change, such as changes to the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, thermal expansion of the ocean, and glacial isostatic adjustment.

Given that the projections of these climate scenarios are based on a single combination of the regional and global climate models, users of these data should take into consideration that there is an inevitable underestimation of the uncertainty associated with this dataset.

Supporting Information The data was collated on behalf of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). Further information about this index can be found in the C3S documentation resources in the Climate Data Store.


Visualisation and Navigation The projected change in the annual highest high water is presented for the future period 2070-2100 based on CMIP5 scenario RCP4.5 with medium greenhouse gas emissions.

Projected change in the annual highest high water - Explore index

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Content in the European Climate Data Explorer pages is delivered by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) implemented by ECMWF. Disclaimer