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Publications and Reports

Finance Opportunities for Climate Change Solutions in Cities (2016)


Cities cannot fund climate change responses on public funding sources only. Multiple funding sources are needed to deliver the large infrastructure financing that is essential to low-carbon development and climate risk management in cities. In the face of these challenges it is clear that public funding mechanisms will be completely inadequate - even with stepped-up contributions to the Green Climate Fund. Cities therefore must tap into a full spectrum of opportunities to raise money for climate action. This background paper shows how municipality governments could raise climate finance from various public and private finance sources, and gives best practice examples on how this could be invested in programs and projects.

Reference information

Reimund Schwarze, Peter B. Meyer, Anil Markandya et al.


bonds, equity finance, funding, loans, national development banks, private financing, public finance, regional development banks, taxes, transfers

Climate impacts

Droughts, Extreme Temperatures, Flooding, Ice and Snow, Sea Level Rise, Storms, Water Scarcity


Sector Policies, Adaptation Measures and Actions


Financial, Urban

Geographic characterisation


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