Last update:23 Feb 2017
|National adaptation strategy||Adopted|
|Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments||Completed, ongoing||
|Research programs||Ongoing (selection of major research programmes at national level)|
|Climate services / Met Office||Established|
|Monitoring, Indicators, Methodologies||Established|
|Training and education resources|
|National Communication on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change||Last National Communication Submitted (2014)|
German Adaptation Strategy (DAS)
In 2008 the Federal Government of Germany adopted the"German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change" (DAS; pdf, en; pdf, de). It lays the foundation for a medium-term process to progressively identify the effects of global climate change, assess the risks, and develop and implement adaptation measures.
Adaptation Action Plan (APA) of the German Adaptation Strategy
To underpin this strategy with specific action, the DAS was followed by the "Adaptation Action Plan of the German Adaptation Strategy" (APA) in relation to climate change (APA; pdf en; pdf, de), adopted on 31.08.2011. The action plan commits to concrete steps in the further development and implementation of the DAS. It follows an integrated approach which takes account of the interactions between sectoral and regional activities and strives to anchor consideration of the possible impacts of climate change in all relevant policies.
Further information can be found on the webpages of Germany's Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB; Webpage, en) leading the DAS process and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA; Webpage de; Webpage en) including the UBA's "KomPass - Climate Impacts and Adaptation in Germany") information portal www.anpassung.net.
The UBA-KomPass portal is intended to serve the networking of information provision on adaptation activities and policy, and is being further expanded for this purpose in cooperation with other governmental agencies.
Furthermore, the Web portal forms the interface to the European Union's adaptation information portal (European Climate Adaptation Platform; Climate-ADAPT).
Sub-national (Länder) Adaptation Strategies
An overview of the adaptation activities undertaken by the Länder is given below, including a discussion of the policy processes initiated in many Länder to promote adaptation to the impacts of climate change and diverse research activities:
- Baden-Württemberg (Webpage, de)
- Bavaria (Webpage, de)
- Berlin (Webpage, de)
- Brandenburg (Webpage, de)
- Bremen (Webpae, de)
- Hamburg (Webpage, de)
- Hessen (Webpage.de)
- Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Webpage.de)
- Lower Saxony (Webpage, de)
- North Rhine-Westphalia (Webpage, de)
- Rhineland-Palatinate) (Webpage, de)
- Saarland (Webpage, de)
- Saxony (Webpage, de)
- Saxony-Anhalt (Webpage, de)
- Schleswig-Holstein (Webpage, de)
- Thuringia (Webpage.de)
Adaptation elements from the UNFCCC National Communication
The Sixth National Report of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (Sixth National Communication) reported on vulnerability, impacts of climate changes and adaptation measures (pdf, en, page 152ff)
The "German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change" (DAS; pdf, en ) describes climate change impacts on nature, economy and society while deducing options for action in the fields:
- Human health
- Building sector
- Water regime, water management, coastal and marine protection
- Forestry and forest management
- Energy industry (conversion, transport and supply)
- Financial services industry
- Transport, transport infrastructure
- Trade and industry
- Spatial, regional and land-use planning
- Civil protection
A comprehensive prioritisation of specific areas or needs for action depends on a uniform appraisal of the risks across different sectors and fields of action on the basis of an integrated vulnerability analysis. As this is not yet available for Germany (see above), the action plan (2011) did not include explicit prioritisation or cost-benefit analyses for all fields of action. The German government aims to close this gap in the next action plan (2015).
The "Adaptation Action Plan" (APA; pdf en) nonetheless sets strategic priorities. Essential tasks for the prospective DAS process are the expansion of the knowledge base on climate change impacts for all fields of action, the subsequent prioritisation of climate risks, and based on this, the definition of key areas for actions or priority measures. For the Federal Government, an actual focus is given to the support of adaptation at local level.
Observations and Projections - Climate data and scenarios
Germany's National Meteorological Service (DWD) (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) is responsible for meeting the meteorological requirements arising from all areas of the German economy and society. The DWD plays an important role in providing services to the Federal Government and the Länder in terms of climate monitoring. This includes the provision of climate projections for the planning and preparation of adaptation measures.
In its German Climate Atlas (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) the DWD presents possible scenarios of future development of the climate in comparisons between the past and the situation today. Further access to climate-relevant data is offered by DWD's Climate Data Center (CDC) (Webpage, en; Webpage, de).
Germany's Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) are responsible for collecting basic data and developing climate projections for Germany's inshore waters. The BfG manages the National Data Centre and Reporting Portal on Water (Webpage, en; Webpage, de), whose work also helps the Federal Republic of Germany to fulfil its international reporting obligations to the European Commission.
With the KLIWAS research programme (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) the BfG, BSH, DWD and the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW) (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) developed seminal methodical principles for the development of climate projections for Germany's inshore waters.
The Climate Service Centre (CSC) (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) provides and synthesises latest results from climate system research and develops customised services regarding climate change information. The Climate Navigator (Webpage, de) allows searches to be made on climate change information, climate-relevant research in Germany, climate adaptation initiatives and stakeholders.
UBA/KomPass at the German Federal Environment Agency (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) and the DKRZ Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) offer overviews of climate projection data for Germany, impact and risk assessments as well as downloads of data and maps.
Sub-national (Länder) Observations and Projections
An additional channel of information is Germany's Regional Climate Atlas (Webpage, de), which is made available by the Regional Climate Offices (Webpage, en; Webpage, de) of the Helmholtz Association (Webpage, en; Webpage, de).
Regional climate change projections are also carried out by the individual Länder:
- Baden-Württemberg: Klimatlas (Webpage, de)
- Berlin: Umweltatlas (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- Brandenburg (Webpage, de https://www.pik-potsdam.de/research/publications/pikreports/.files/pr121.pdf)
- Hessen: Umweltatlas (Webpage, de)
- North Rhine-Westphalia: Klimaatlas (Webpage, de)
- Saxony: Bisherige Klimaentwicklung (Webpage, de)
- Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia: REKIS – Regionales Klimainformationssystem für Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thüringen (Webpage, de)
- Rhineland-Palatinate (Klimawandelinformationssystem kwis-rlp; Webpage, de)
Impact, vulnerability information - Assessments
The first vulnerability assessment of climate change impacts for selected fields of actions in Germany was conducted in 2005 (Climate Change in Germany | Vulnerability and Adaption of Climate sensitive Sectors pdf, en; pdf, de). Many studies have investigated this topic in recent years commissioned by different agencies. The existing impact, vulnerability and risk studies form an inconsistent patchwork in methodical and spatial terms, as well as in regard to the time periods considered. Anticipating this, already in the Adaptation Action Plan 2011 (AAP 1) a consistent nationwide vulnerability analysis was called for to assess Germany's vulnerability to climate change.
For the further development of the DAS and the prioritisation of climate risks and needs for action, an up-to-date, consistent cross-sectoral vulnerability assessment, covering the whole of Germany was prepared in 2011 until 2015. This assessment was conducted by experts from government departments and agencies, particularly by using existing cooperation with federal authorities to create a "Vulnerability Network" (Webpage, de).
The vulnerability assessment was carried out based on an extensive research project. The special feature of the methodology was its co-design from scientists and experts of public authorities as well as the consideration of climate and socio-economic projections, both covering a range of possible futures.
In a screening procedure covering all of Germany using the newly-developed, consistent method, the regions and topics will be identified which are particularly at risk by climate change for each of the sectors and across these sectors. The results include climate change impact maps with a spatial resolution of municipalities. The vulnerability assessment will be published in autumn 2015.
The results are used for assessing the adaptation needs of the different sectors as basis for the Adaptation Action Plan (APA2).
Sub-national (Länder) vulnerability assessments
In addition, various studies and activities have already been carried out by individual Länder to assess the level of vulnerability to climate change. Studies are currently available for the following:
Klimawandel (Webpage, de),
KLARA - Studie (pdf, de)
- Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and Rhineland-Palatinate:
KLIWA – Studie (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
Klimaanpassung (pdf, de)
Umweltatlas (Webpage, en), Bericht zum Klimawandel in Berlin (pdf, de)
- Bremen (webpage, de http://www.umwelt.bremen.de/sixcms/media.php/13/BdV_L_S_Klimaanpassung%20Anlage_Endf.pdf)
- Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania:
Studie "Folgen des Klimawandels in MV 2010" (Webpage, de)
- Lower Saxony:
Auswirkungen des Klimawandels (Webpage, de)
- North Rhine-Westphalia:
Regionale Abschätzung der Anfälligkeit ausgewählter Sektoren (pdf, de)
Kompetenzzentrum für Klimawandelfolgen (Webpage, de),
KlimLandRP (pdf, de)
Klimawandel (Webpage, de),
Klimawandel – Sachstand und Ausblick 2005 (pdf, de)
- Saxony –Anhalt:
Klimawandel (Webpage, de)
Economic assessments of adaptation
UBA/KomPass worked out a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for adaptation measures. The study delivers a framework for CBA in Germany and applies it to a broad range of case studies for all sectors listed in the national adaption strategy. A literature study (pdf, de) has already been published; the final report was published in June 2012 (pdf, de). Furthermore several regional assessments are being undertaken. Most of them are connected to the KLIMZUG research programme (see section ‘Local actions').
Sub-national (Länder) activities
- Saxony-Anhalt conducted an economic analysis "Costs of adaptation to climate change in selected sectors" (pdf, de).
- Hamburg (Webpage, de)
Information on monitoring - Evaluation
The first monitoring report on the DAS is a report by the IWG and was published in May 2015. It forms part of the Federation's progress report on the German Adaptation Strategy commissioned by the Federal Cabinet, and in future is to be drawn up every four years. The report addresses the interested public and political decision-makers, and provides information on the impact of climate change which has already been observed and measured, as well as on adaptation measures which have already been initiated. For the first time, it is shown in a compact form using suitable data what changes can already be measured in the various natural and societal systems.
The basis for this monitoring report on the DAS is formed by 102 indicators which were adopted on 4 July 2014 by the IWG as the Indicator System for the DAS. The Ministries and their appointed scientific authorities were closely involved in the development of the indicator system. The Federal Länder were consulted. The indicator system will be made available to the Federal Länder when the monitoring report is published.
Progress report on the DAS/AAP II
The drafting of a progress report setting out concrete steps for refining and implementing the DAS was agreed with the cabinet resolution on the AAP.
Elements of the progress report are an evaluation report describing the state of implementation of the Adaptation Action Plan, as well as an advanced and refined Adaptation Action Plan II. This is to present future actions to be taken by the Federation, albeit it will be increasingly concerned with establishing adaptation-relevant long-term tasks in the portfolios of the Federal Ministries. In the central reporting document, the progress report on the DAS will present the progress that has been made in implementing the Strategy and the process of reforming the adaptation strategy:
In addition to the monitoring report (see above), a vulnerability analysis (see above) provides the technical foundation and details to analyse vulnerability and ability to adapt. This permits the need for adaptation of the Federation to be derived, as well as possible actions and instruments.
The progress report is currently being drawn up, and is to be adopted at the end of 2015 as a Cabinet resolution.
Networks or other collaborations
Numerous stakeholders contribute to Germany's adaptation landscape. In the "Adaptation Action Plan" the German government committed to actively support dialogue, participation and the creation of networks between relevant actors and at all levels.
The following regional networks are already established:
- dynaklim - Dynamic Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in the Emscher-Lippe Region (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- ExWoSt – Climate change-proof urban development: countering the causes and impact of climate change with urban concepts (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- INKA BB - Innovation Network of Climate Change Adaptation Brandenburg Berlin (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- KFM/klimazwei - Regional management of climate effects in the metropolitan areas of Hanover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg (Webpage, de)
- KLIFF – Climate impact and adaptation research in Lower Saxony (Webpage, de; Flyer pdf, en)
- KlimaMORO – Spatial Development Strategies in Climate Change (Webpage, de)
- KLIMZUG-NORD – Strategies adapted to climate changes concerning the metropolitan area of Hamburg (Webpage,en; Webpage, de)
- KLIMZUG-Nordhessen – Regional Network for Climate Change Adaptation - Northern Hesse (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- KliNes Klima-Netzwerk Sachsen (Webpage, de http://www.umwelt.sachsen.de/umwelt/klima/17848.htm)
- KLIWA - Climate change and consequences for water management (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- Network for climate concepts of local authorities (Webpage, de)
- Klara-net – network for climate adaptation in the region of Starkenburg (Webpage, de)
- nordwest2050 – Prospects for Climate-Adapted Innovation Processes in the Model Region Bremen-Oldenburg in North Western Germany (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- RADOST – Regional adaptation strategies for the Baltic coastline of Germany (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- Regional Climate Offices of the Helmholtz Association (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- REGKLAM – Development and Testing of an Integrated Regional Climate Change Adaptation Programme for the Model Region of Dresden (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- KARS – Klimaanpassung Region Stuttgart (Verband Region Stuttgart, Stadt Ludwigsburg, Stadt Esslingen, Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart) (Webpage, de)
- Klimabündnis Kieler Bucht (webpage, de http://www.klimabuendnis-kieler-bucht.de/)
Databases on case studies (or projects) of implemented measures
On its webpage KomPass (in the Federal Environment Agency, UBA) collects local adaptation measures - Tatenbank (Webpage, de) and research projects relating to climate effects and adaptation - Projektkatalog (Webpage, de; Webpage, en).
Individual cities' actions
Individual cities and local authorities in Germany have developed adaptation strategies of their own or are currently engaged in this process, e.g.:
- Essen – ExWoSt-Project (Webpage, de)
- Jena (Webpage, de)
- Karlsruhe (Webpage, de)
- Nuremberg (Webpage, de)
- Regensburg (Webpage,de)
- Dresden - REGKLAM-Project (Webpage, en; Webpage, de)
- Bocholt (Webpage, de)
- Bad Liebenwerda (Webpage,de)
- Darmstadt-Dieburg (Webpage,de)
- Frankfurt (Main) (Webpage, de)
- Speyer (Webpage, de)
- Pirmasens (Webpage, de)
- Saarbrücken (Webpage, de)
- Chemnitz (Webpage, de)
- Hansestadt Lübeck (Webpage, de)
- Jena (Webpage)
Note: The cities of Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen are federal states in Germany. For information on this see sub-national sections.
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, BMUB
KomPass - Climate Impacts and Adaptation in Germany within the Federal Environment Agency, UBA Dessau
- http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/topics/climate-energy/climate-impacts-adaptation (en) /
- http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klima-energie/klimafolgen-anpassung (de)