Last update:11 Jan 2017
|National adaptation strategy (The Romanian National Climate Change Strategy in place include also the adaptation component)||Adopted|
|Action plans||• under preparation through a TA program developed by the MEWF with the World Bank; the final version will be available by the end of 2015|
|Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments||• Completed: Pilot Study 2 for adaptation measures in agriculture (Caracal and Covasna areas) and Data Platform. • Completed: heatwave impact and risk mapping in Arad municipality; adaptation strategy for Danube Delta. • Currently being undertaken: hazard component of present and future climate-related risks in Sibiu, Brasov and Tîrgu Mureș municipalities and for sectors in region 7 Center.||
|Research programs||• finalized • finalized • ongoing • finished||
|Climate services / Met Office||• Established/Being developed: (1) high resolution gridded dataset (0.1 ° in latitude and longitude) based on station observations for trend detection over Romanian territory; (2) assessment of present and future climate-related risks over Danube macro-region|
|Web portal||• On the website of National Meteorological Administration are presented relevant|
|Monitoring, Indicators, Methodologies||• Climate change adaptation guide (adopted) • National Strategy on reducing the effects of drought (adopted)|
|Training and education resources||• Forum on Science-Policy Interface in Romania in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change, 22-23 May, Bucharest. • Workshop on „Climate change adaptation in agriculture", 23-24 October, Bucharest||Orientgate|
|National Communication on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change||• Last National Communication Submitted (2014)||Romania's Sixth National Communication on Climate Change and First Biennial Report|
In July 2013 the Romanian Government adopted Romania's National Climate Change Strategy (2013-2020) through the Governmental Decision no. 529/2013. The Adaptation component from the National Climate Change Strategy 2013-2020 aims to provide an action framework and guidelines that is to enable each sector to develop an individual action plan in line with the national strategic principles. The adaptation component addresses 13 sectors: industry; agriculture and fisheries; tourism; public health; construction and infrastructure; transport; water resources and flood protection; forestry; energy; biodiversity; insurance; recreational activities; education.
The implementation of the strategy falls into the Government responsibility, under the Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests (MEWF) coordination. But public administration authorities at every level are responsible for the results of measures to mitigate the effects of climate change (CC) in each sector with regard to flood protection, quality of life, vulnerability of transport and energy networks and to analyze and implement their own measures, actions and policies climate change related according to their responsibilities, where necessary. Along its preparation, the mindset of the adaptation component, was to identify and develop the priority actions to be set down and integrated in the planning process of sectors development envisaged through close cooperation between stakeholders. Nevertheless, an appropriate implementation of the current national strategy on CC is rather difficult since cross-sector priorities are rather provided as a catalogue, with no clear schedule of measures and indicators assessing and developing a national action plan. Thereby, review and update of the strategy objectives arose as a necessity.
On this line, the Government of Romania, through the MEWF, agreed with the World Bank on a two-year program to provide advisory services on climate change, operationalizing its current national climate change strategy. While both mitigation and adaptation areas keep equal weight into the operationalized strategy, the relevant improvements regard the completion of this strategy by the end of 2015, complementing the strategy with an action plan with identifiable actions, timelines and indicators along various climate P&Ms.
There are also various other existing strategies of specific relevance to climate action in the ARD sector.
A total of 8 measures were programmed in the National Rural Development Program (NRDP) for Romania 2007-2013 that are targeted at, or directly relevant to, climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as the transition to a low carbon economy. The total financial allocation to these 8 measures was 6 399.1 million EUR.
In addition, the National Strategy on Drought Effects Mitigation, the Action Plan for Addressing Nitrate Pollution from Agricultural Sources, and the National Plan for Irrigation Rehabilitation and Reform are among the key plans that are relevant for addressing climate change implications in water related sectors.
Several other strategies or action plans complementing the NAS are:
- National strategy for the prevention of emergency situations;
- National Strategy for Flood Risk Management in the medium and long term (GD no. 846/2010);
- River Basin Management Plans (for the 11 River Basins of Romania) elaborated by National Administration "Romanian Waters";
- Master Plan Coastal Protection and Restoration;
- National Strategy for investments in the irrigation sector;
- National strategic guidelines for the sustainable development of disadvantaged mountain area (2014 - 2020).
The adaptation component of the climate change strategy addresses 13 sectors: industry; agriculture and fisheries; tourism; public health; construction and infrastructure; transport; water resources and flood protection; forestry; energy; biodiversity; insurance; recreational activities; education. For five of them – agriculture and rural development, forestry, water, urban, transport, the World Bank delivered rapid assessments within OPERA-CLIMA project, reports which contain adaptation measures recommended to implement through ESIF 2014-2020.
Key identified legislation or policy instruments or initiatives (sectoral, territorial planning) to integrate impacts, vulnerability and adaptation considerations (adopted or planned).
The Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMP) – on-going (deadline Dec 2015) will include measures (nonstructural and structural measures); special attention will be given to the following aspects:
- Establishing the early warning and communication system (see WATMAN - phase 2) and FRMPs;
- Identify and map the areas exposed to the flash-floods;
- Safeguard retention areas in local and regional planning;
- Restore and maintain the functions of the natural retention areas;
- Limit developments in flood-prone areas;
- Analysis and adaptation measures for critical water management infrastructure (dams, dykes, water supply systems) in the context of the CC.
NRDP – Package 5
The 2014 – 2020 National Rural Development Programme (NRDP) – a programme through which non-repayable EU and Romanian Government funding is awarded for the economic and social development of the rural area in Romania.
Links between the climate change adaptation and disaster risk management policies
The institutional mandate for the coordination, prevention and management of emergency situations lies with the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (GIES), part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. All institutions are mandated to share information about the occurrence of natural hazards with GIES. In case of an emergency, GIES coordinates and works with a wide variety of stakeholders, including local municipalities, fire departments, medical emergency services, as well as the police. GIES is currently in the process of assessing all risks in the country, including climate-related risks. The first results of these risk assessments are expected by the end of 2015.
The General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (GIES) is implementing the RO-RISK "Support to fulfill the ex-ante conditionality 5.1. – risk assessment at national level" project, whose aim is to develop an unique risk assessment methodology, in order that in 2016 Romania submit a report to the European Commission with regard to the national risk assessment.
The methodology aims at developing an integrated approach of (natural, biological, technological) risk assessment and its objective is both to assure a common framework for the analysis of sectoral risk assessment, and to provide information regarding the types of risks on the Romanian territory, by its application to all these risks. The risk assessment will be followed by the preparation of risk management plans at sectoral level.
A risk analysis and screening approach for climate change mitigation and adaptation options was delivered to Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests as milestone – "Report on the analysis and risk assessment mitigation and adaptation actions and options in key policies" - for preparing the Romanian Climate Change (CC) action plan project ("Romania: Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Program"). The report is available at: http://opera-clima.ro/ro/document/
Worrying aspects with regard to preparedness, resilience or climate change adaptation:
- Funds finding for future investments in flood protection;
- Community awareness;
- Uncertainity quantification for climate changes aspects;
- A major problem that we will be facing now and future is the community involvement in emergency situations and supporting activities for authorities;
- Less resilience means higher socio-economic consequences ("flood hit the pooring people");
- The need of non-structural measures (small non-permanent reservoirs and polders etc) or lack of maintanance of existing hydraulic works;
- Need for improving the hydrologic monitoring network.
- Better cooperation among the local involved institutions;
- Efficiency of an adequate early warning system for localities;
- Efficiency of mobile/inflatable dikes during emergency situations.
Main actions taken to adapt to climate change with regard to flooding:
- Improved monitoring, flood forecasting and warning;
- increasing awareness of flood risk among the exposed population;
- Dams and dikes safety, taking into consideration the increasing frequency of floods;
- Improved forecasting for reliable, high anticipation time and time needed for emergency management and reducing social vulnerability, especially for flash-floods;
- Preparing the public and improving the efficiency of emergency management for drastically;
- Reducing the technological risk and hazard, taking into consideration a better dams operation for flood mitigation.
Improvements in technology to make a difference in preparedness, response and recovery for future floods:
- The safety degree of the hydraulic engineering structures will be increased by Automatic stations with sensors that increase the safety degree of dams, automatic sensor stations that measure the snow layer and gauging stations for inflow discharges, intakes and diversions;
- Software and hardware for coordination and control during hydraulic structures operation;
- Automated Stations with sensors that monitor water quality;
- New Decisional Support System – DSS for integrated water management, created to support decision centers in flood management.
Ways to make a difference:
- The accuracy and sensitivity of dam monitoring will be devleopped;
- Instrumented monitoring can provide long term, consistent records of data, allowing the detection of subtle trends of the dams;
- The collection of instrumentation data will be automatised and will allow monitoring on a more frequent (near real time) basis. Automated monitoring systems can be used to initiate alarms notifying dam monitoring personnel of sudden changes in the instrument data values due to normal or extreme loading conditions such as earthquakes and flooding.
Key future adaptation actions at national/regional/local government level to raise resilience to future floooding in a changing climate:
- Measures to control leakage and soil erosion on slopes and through programmes to combat soil erosion, torrential correction, ecological restoration and establishment of protective forest screens in agricultural, forestry and natural areas;
- Programmes for leakage control in urban areas through temporary reservoirs and sewage networks;
- Defining a common approach to flood risk management in transboundary river basins;
- Creating an efficient flood insurance and compensation system.
Key future adaptation actions at business and community level to raise resilience to future flooding in a changing climate:
- Defining norms and rules of construction in exposed areas to flooding; permits, construction control;
- Organizing flood defence and evacuation exercises;
- Information, consultation and education of the population at risk from flooding to reduce vulnerability and build collective resilience to flooding.
a. Observations and projections
Within the National Administration Romanian Waters (NAW), there is active a national hydrological network, based on which the surface water resource is monitored daily and in real time (890 hydrometric stations on inland rivers). The National Institute for Hydrology and Water Management (NIHWM) elaborates short, medium and long term hydrological forecasts and warnings, and also monthly hydrogeological forecasts and trend estimations. In more detail, the quantitative monitoring of water resources is executed at the national level by the National System of Hydrological and Hydrogeological Watch (NSHHW).
One of the important projects underway is the WATMAN project information system for integrated water management. WATMAN is a nationwide project that aims to set a proper infrastructure base at the national level for Flood prevention and Reduction of the destructive consequences of floods and pollution generated by floods.
National climate services associated with national observations and projections:
The monitoring of climate-related parameters is executed by NARW and NAM (National Administration for Meteorology). NAM is responsible for monitoring the meteorological parameters – such as air temperature and pressure, precipitations, humidity, wind speed and direction. More information about the NAM activities could be found on their website: http://www.meteoromania.ro/anm/?lang=ro_ro. NARW is at the national level responsible for monitoring the surface water, ground water and its quality.
Hydrological monitoring in Romania is carried out through the National Integrated Water Monitoring System (NIWMS), which is managed by NARW. The NARW delegates its authority to basin water management units. For details about NARW activity you could access http://www.rowater.ro/sites/en/default.aspx.
b. Impacts & vulnerability assessments
The impact of climate change is already being felt in Romania, 2007 was the warmest year in two decades (average temperature 11.5° C). In 2005, Romania suffered from historic floods which caused 76 deaths and significant property damage, and 2007 brought the country's most severe drought in the last 60 years. Heavy rain in April and May of 2005 caused Romania's worst floods in 50 years, causing at least 1.66 billion Euro in damage. This represents 2.1% of Romanian GDP. Flooding has also impacted about 656,392 ha agricultural land, 10,420 km roads, 23.8 km of railway, 9,113 bridges and foot bridges and contaminated 90,394 wells. In late June 2010 floods were the result of an extreme weather event that struck Romania. At least 21 people died and the economic losses were about 0.6% of the GDP. Romania was impacted by the droughts and water scarcity in 2002, 2003, 2011 and 2012. The frequency of wildfires in Romania has increased in the recent past. The damage caused by wildfires can be substantial especially from an economic point of view. In 2013, 33% of the recorded fires in Romania were wildfires.
Drought is one of the major natural processes of interest for agriculture. In Romania, from a total surface of 237.500 km2, 62% are agricultural lands – approximately 14.7 million ha – categorized according to usage in arable land, pastures, vineyards and orchards. Frequent and prolonged drought affects 7.1 million ha, which represent 48% from the total agricultural land (2006).
Flood Hazard and Risk Maps available at national level for Areas with Potential Significant Flood Risk, but the effects of climate change has not been taken into account in the modeling of elaboration of hazardous and risk maps, as it was reported to the EU, in 2014; the CC will be considered for the 2nd cycle of reporting.
c. Research on adaptation
Programmes addressing adaptation knowledge priorities and how national research policies underpin adaptation knowledge development:
- SEERISK - Changing risks in changing climate
- OrientGate – A structured network for integration of climate knowledge into policy and territorial planning:
- RO07- A green way to sustainable development
Projects within NIHWM:
- Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania (CLIMHYDEX) - PN II-ID-2011-2-0073 (2012-2016)
- Enabling Climate Information Services for Europe – (ECLISE) – FP7-ENV-2010-1 (2011-2014)
- CarpathCC Climate Change Framework Project – Services contract within Preparatory action on climate in the Carpathian region — framework contract for in-depth assessments of vulnerability of environmental resources and ecosystem-based adaptation measures (2011-2013)
- ADWICE "Literature review on the potential climate change effects on drinking water resources across the EU and the identification of priorities among different types of drinking water supplies" - EC DG ENV (2011-2012)
- CCWATERS - Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply – South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme (2009-2012)
Studies elaborated by the NIHWM:
- (2010) Methodology for estimating the impact of climate change on maximum flow regime (case study BH Mures).
- (2011) "Estimating the impact of climate change on maximum flow regime in the Siret hydrographic basin",
- (2012) "Estimating the impact of climate change on river basins maximum flow regime of Jiu and Ialomita".
- (2013) "Estimating the impact of climate change on river basins maximum flow regime of Olt".
- (2013) "Estimating the impact of climate change on minimum flow regime and of the draining phenomenon. Application to the Danube basin - Seaside (Dobrogea)"
- (2014) "Estimating the impact of climate change on river flow regime in Romania",
For all these project, the thematic topic was: "Hydrological extreme and climate change impacts"
The main central Government institution in Romania in charge with climate change adaptation related attributions is the MEWF. It is the central body responsible for coordination of the CC policy at national level and reports to the European institutions.
Coordination mechanisms and involvement of stakeholders in national adaptation policy (e.g. development, implementation, monitoring and review). In particular, governance structure/bodies and how they work, involving:
National Commission for Climate Change (NCCC): MECC has issued in November 2014 a new Government Decision (GD 1026/20.11.2014) aiming at enforcing the role and improving the operation of the National Commission for Climate Change.
As for the other central and local Government institutions in Romania with climate change adaptation related attributions are:
- Ministry of European Funds: the central body responsible for overall coordination of ESI Funds.
- Ministry of Transport: the Government body responsible for all transport sectors (air, sea, road, rail), as well as the different infrastructure (roads, railways, air infrastructure, shipping, etc.).
- Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration: the central body responsible for the CC related issues in the areas of infrastructure, construction and urban planning.
- Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development: the central body responsible for the CC related issues in the areas of agriculture and rural development.
- Ministry of National Education and Scientific Research: the central body responsible for the research and education area
- Local authorities (LA): implement at local level the CC adaptation related requirements and report to MECC. In particular, LA are responsible for climate-proofing measures in each sector, in terms of flood protection, quality of life, economic and ecological vitality, vulnerability of transport and energy networks, etc.
- National Administration for Romanian Waters is at the national level responsible for monitoring the surface water, ground water and the quality of the water.
- The National Administration for Meteorology is responsible for monitoring the meteorological parameters – such as air temperature and pressure, precipitations, humidity, wind speed and direction.
- General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations. All agencies are mandated to share information about the occurrence of natural hazards with GIES. In case of an emergency, GIES coordinates and works with a wide variety of stakeholders including local municipalities, fire departments, medical emergency services, as well as the police.
Furthermore, there is a need for the Government to strengthen the active involvement of the business community and NGOs. Currently, there are several NGOs with relevant activity targeting the climate adaptation area (Terra Mileniul III, Regional Environment Center etc.). While the current Climate Change Program developed by the MEWF with the World Bank is also working as a facilitative networking tool, cooperative approach should be strengthened.
Adaptation addressed at subnational level:
Thus far the adaptation issue was short addressed in a planned manner at subnational level, and no specific mechanism is set to ensure consistent and coordinated approaches to actions that take place at subnational level. Nevertheless, an important first-of-its-kind project has recently (Feb 2015) commenced in Romania, namely A Green Way to Sustainable development. The project is developed through the EEA / Norwegian Financial Mechanisms 2009 – 2014.
b. Adaptation capacity, dissemination, education, training
Programmes/activities to promote education and public awareness on impacts and adaptation to climate change. (Avoid information on general sustainability or environmental actions).
The OrientGate project aims to coordinate climate change adaptation efforts in SEE countries by building a lasting partnership between communities that produce knowledge and experimental studies, and communities that apply that knowledge. The core output to be developed by OrientGate is a set of web tools, designed to provide access to data and metadata from climate observations and simulations that will be available through a data platform connected to the European Climate Adaptation Platform (CLIMATE-ADAPT).
Orientgate, Pilot Study 2: Climate change adaptation measures in Romanian agriculture
This study will focus on the agricultural areas of Covasna and Caracal. Climate projections suggest that agricultural areas in Romania may be negatively affected by a number of changes predicted by regional climate models. Adaptation to the impacts of climate change through better crop system management will be facilitated by existing knowledge of response options to severe climate events.
A Green Way to Sustainable Development (LEPA Sibiu, Region 7 Center)
- Educate, inform and develop knowledge through training programs focused on adaptation to climate change/ACC and effects of vulnerable sectors (energy, transport, constructions, agriculture, etc).
- Publicity – elaborate dissemination and communication strategy, organize and implement an awareness campaign to achieve awareness of ACC and project promotion.
- Establish a network of communicators on adaptation to climate change, representatives of the communication and PR departments in public institutions and authorities in Region 7 Center - LEPAs, county councils, municipalities who will support the project communication officer with responsibilities in communication and publicity, elaboration of information materials used in the public information campaign, web page and knowledge base.
- Elaboration of meteorological studies: data collection and mapping; study on designing numerical experiments; Regional Planning Cross Sectoral Study (aims at providing a monitoring outline to support the implementation of climate change adaptation plans)
- Elaboration of local strategies and action plans for adaptation to a changing climate in three municipalities in Region 7 Center
- Elaboration of 6 guidelines on adaptation to climate change for Region 7 Center, as follows: 1 guideline for the elaboration of municipal strategies, and 1 guideline for each of the selected sectors.
TERRA Mileniul III Foundation is an environmental organization focusing on climate change issues.
Two types of activities have been implemented under the project: documentation & dissemination
Young Ambassadors Fighting Climate Change (2014-2015): addresses the lack of education on climate change among young people, which is one of the most vulnerable category to the effects of this phenomenon.
- increasing the training of students and teachers as regards the causes and effects of climate change;
- awareness of local communities about climate change;
Regional Environment Center (REC Romania)
Climate Forum – a platform dedicated to Romanian stakeholders, open for all experts interested to discuss issues related to climate change, most especially connecting with energy efficiency, transport and how to communicate climate change.
OPERA-CLIMA Project (Romania: Climate Change and Low Carbon Green Growth Program, http://opera-clima.ro/en/project/): The Government of Romania, through the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Waters, has requested the World Bank to provide advisory services on climate change, including operationalizing its national climate change strategy and action plan, identifying and integrating climate-related actions in new operational programs, building a solid analytical base for impact assessment and climate-related decision making, and enhancing climate-friendly practices and monitoring system.
The animated video can be viewed by accessing the following link: http://www.mmediu.ro/articol/program-pe-schimbari-climatice-opera-clima-dintre-mmap-si-banca-mondiala/487.
National coordinating institution:
Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests, 12 Libertatii, Sector 5, Bucharest
Mr. Narcis JELER, Adaptation Contact Point for Romania,
Tel/fax: (+4) 021 408 9635
Ms. Gabriela POPESCU, Counselor, General Directorate for Climate Change
Tel/fax: (+4) 021 408 9635
Other competent organisations:
- National Administration for Meteorology
Ms. Elena MATEESCU, Executive Director
- National Romanian Waters Administration
Mr. Sorin RÎNDAŞU, Director Emergency Situation Department
- National Institute for Hydrology and Water Management
Ms. Daniela RĂDULESCU, Scientific Director