Biodiversity plays an important role in regulating the climate, thus making a key contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation. At the same time, meeting mitigation targets coupled with ecosystem-based approaches is essential to avert biodiversity loss. Therefore it is impossible to address biodiversity loss without addressing climate change, but it is equally impossible to tackle climate change without addressing biodiversity loss.
Conserving and restoring ecosystems, reducing impacts of climate change on society and contributing to climate change mitigation is possible by using ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation. They can provide both responses to climate change challenges and sustain ecosystem functions in the long term, often bringing multiple benefits at comparatively low cost.
The main EU pieces of nature legislation on the long term protection of biodiversity are the Bird and the Habitat Directives which led to the establishment of the Natura 2000 network. In 2012, the EU adopted the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 that sets out a long-term EU vision on biodiversity policy (2050) and agreed a range of mid-term 2020 targets and actions, also addressing climate change. In 2013 the EU adopted a Strategy on Green Infrastructure 'to promote the deployment of green infrastructure in the EU in urban and rural areas'.
In 2015, the European Commission published the mid-term review of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, which describes progress made in implementing the actions and achieving the targets set out in the strategy. The report demonstrates that action on the ground, supported by adequate financing, can protect and restore nature and the benefits it provides.
Also in 2015, the European Commission published ‘The State of Nature in the European Union', reporting on the status of and trends for habitat types and species covered by the Birds and Habitats Directives. As a contribution to policy discussions in the context of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy, the EEA published a report on the state of nature in the EU in 2015, and various relevant SOER2015 briefings (Biodiversity, Biodiversity - protected areas).
To consider climate change adaptation strategies in EU biodiversity policy, several recommendations for policy adjustments have been made including legal enforcement of connectivity requirements and the implementation of adaptive management plans for each Special Area of Conservation (SAC) of the Natura 2000 network. Guidelines for dealing with climate change in the management of Natura 2000 sites were developed in 2013 by the European Commission to facilitate site management and decision making at local and regional levels. The guidelines specify the need to move from a static conservation perspective to an adaptive management approach, which involves the consideration of potential climate impacts and the design of management actions that take those impacts into account.
Green infrastructure also contributes to the coherence of the Natura 2000 network by improving landscape permeability and thus adding to the resilience of ecological networks to climate change. The concept of Green Infrastructure describes ecological networks in their wider context and emphasizes the importance of maintaining and restoring the provision of ecosystem goods and services for society and the value of multi-functional ecosystems. Synergies can be used with other land uses and functions, such as agriculture, forestry and water management.
The loss of organic soil matter and soil biodiversity also contributes to a decreasing resilience of ecosystems to climate change and is dealt with in the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, including a ten-year work programme for the European Commission.
Invasive alien species represent one of the primary threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially in geographically and evolutionary isolated ecosystems, such as small islands, and the risks such species pose may be greater due to climate change. This is addressed in the EU Regulation on Invasive Species.
Improving the knowledge base
Activities have been carried out in order to improve the understanding of biodiversity vulnerability to climate change at EU and regional levels activities.
Comprehensive data and information on biodiversity in the EU can be found on the Biodiversity Information System for Europe (BISE).
Work is being carried out by the EU Member States, with assistance of the European Commission, to map and assess ecosystems and their services in their national territory, assess their economic value, and promote the integration of these values into accounting and reporting systems at EU and national level as part of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy.
DG ENV published various studies that can be used as a methodological basis for further work on adaptation, e.g. on the inter-relationship between soil and climate change and on soil biodiversity. The EEA SOER 2015 European briefings and the 2012 State of the soil report of the JRC review various aspects of soil conditions in the EU, including the role of climate change.
Several research projects supported by the Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development and other EU programmes have increased knowledge on biodiversity vulnerability and adaptation (for example MACIS, BRANCH, ATEAM, Ecologic, Habit-change). The EU´s Research and Innovation programme HORIZON 2020 work plan for 2016-2017 for Societal Challenge 5 on Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials includes actions on nature-based solutions and re-naturing cities. Research on biodiversity is also supported through the BiodivERsA ERA-Net, which works to coordinate national research programmes on biodiversity across Europe and to organize international funding for research projects in this field on a competitive basis.
Supporting investment and funding
Several EU-level funds and instruments provide significant financial support for conserving biodiversity and can support the implementation of the Birds and Habitats Directives also covering climate change aspects: the LIFE programme and its grants and the financing instrument the Natural Capital Financing Facility, the European Structural Investment Funds (ESIF), notably the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF), and Horizon 2020.
Image Copyright: Daniel Danko, Environment & Me/ EEA
- Guidelines on Climate Change and Natura 2000
- CBD Climate Change Adaptation Database
- Adaptive management of natural habitats
- Habitat restoration and management in the Ebro delta coastal lagoons
- Assessment of the potential of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation in Europe
- Helping ecosystems in Europe to adapt to climate change
- EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020
- Streamlining European biodiversity indicators 2020
- Establishment and restoration of riparian buffers
- BISE, Biodiversity Information System for Europe
- Terrestrial Biodiversity Climate Change Impacts - Record Card 2012-2013