Monitoring and evaluation
As adaptation often requires a high input of human and financial resources it is important for governments to ensure the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of adaptation interventions. Cities are still at an early stage in understanding how best to adapt to future climate change, how risks can be most effectively reduced and resilience enhanced and what the characteristics of a well-adapting society might be. Learning what works well (or not) under which circumstances and for what reasons is critical.
Furthermore, urban areas are dynamic entities and changes often occur within a short time period. Autonomous adaptation might occur alongside planned efforts, which need to be anticipated and taken into account as well. It is also essential to check whether or not there are any unanticipated side-effects resulting from the implementation of adaptation measures.
Adaptation must, therefore, be seen an iterative process that calls for close monitoring and regular review to ensure that it remains effective and the lessons learned are taken into account. Each adaptation strategy and/or action plan should be accompanied by monitoring and evaluating progress. This monitoring and evaluation of adaptation requires pragmatism (what is possible to be monitored and evaluate at the level concerned?) and a clear sense of purpose (what do we hope to achieve through this process?).
This step helps you to develop such a monitoring and evaluating progress.