Water-limited crop productivity
- Yields of several crops (e.g. wheat) are stagnating, whereas yields of other crops (e.g. maize in north Europe) are increasing; both effects are partly due to the observed climatic warming.
- Extreme climatic events, including droughts and heat waves, have negatively affected crop productivity during the first decade of the 21st century, and this is expected to further increase yield variability under climate change.
- Crop yields will be affected by the combined effects of changes in temperature, rainfall and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Future climate change can lead to yield decreases or increases, depending on crop type and with considerable regional differences across Europe.