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Urban areas and human health

Urban areas face specific climate change challenges which differ from those likely to be experienced in the surrounding rural region. These include exacerbated heat waves, floods and water scarcity problems. While urban areas will generally be exposed to the same regional climate as the surrounding area, the physical form and socio-economic activity of the city can alter the effect of exposure on a local scale. Human health impacts are concentrated in, but not limited to urban areas.

Indicators

 Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe – indicators and maps The recently published EEA report 'Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe' includes several indicators and thematic maps such ...
 Floods and health River and coastal flooding affect millions of people in Europe each year. They affect human health through drowning, heart attacks, injuries, infections, psychosocial consequen ...
 Vector-borne diseases The transmission cycles of vector-borne diseases are sensitive to climatic factors but also to land use, vector control, human behaviour and public health capacities. ...
 Damages from weather and climate-related events Hydro-meteorological events (storms, floods, and landslides) account for 64 % of the reported damages due to natural disasters in Europe since 198 ...
 DRI - Disaster Risk Index The DRI enables the calculation of the average risk of death per country in large- and medium-scale disasters associated with earthquakes, tropical cyclones and floods, based ...
 Extreme temperatures and health Mortality and morbidity increase, especially in vulnerable population groups, and general population well-being decreases during extreme cold spells and heat wave ...
 Air pollution by ozone Ozone is both an important air pollutant and a GHG. Excessive exposure to ground-level ozone is estimated to cause about 20000 premature deaths per year in Europe. A ...

Publications & reports


Information portals


Discover

» Adaptation Strategies for European Cities: Final Report  - DG Climate Action commissioned a consortium led by Ricardo-AEA and ICLEI to undertake the Adaptation Strategies for European Cities project ...
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» Adaptation to climate change: key terms  - This report examines the key adaptation terms and concepts used by the climate change community and other institutions. It was prepared in response to the Annex ...
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» Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia.  - This report shows an overview of adaptation options to climate change for Europe and Central Asia. It discuss the emerging best practice adaptati ...
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» Adapting to climate change. UK Climate Projections.  - This report explains the key findings and potential uses of the UK Climate Projections. Moreover, it provides an update on the Government’s Ad ...
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» Arctic environment: European perspectives - Why should Europe care?  - This report is a joint product of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the European Environment Agency (EEA). It aims ...
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» Climate Adaptation Research in a Larger Europe: an analysis at national scale  - The CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation INFOBASE is a publicly accessible, online database on Climate Adaptation research. The INF ...
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» Climate Change and the Northern Dimension: An analysis of vulnerability and adaptation policy in Finland, Sweden and Norway  - The article examines the policy designs in climate change adaptation in th ...
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» Climate change impacts in Europe. Final report of the PESETA research project  - The PESETA research project integrates a set of high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an eco ...
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» Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2012. An indicator-based report  - This European Environment Agency (EEA) report presents information on past and projected climate change and related ...
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» Adaptation in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany  - The website of the  Ministry for Climate Protection, Environment, Agriculture, Nature Conservation and Consumer Protection of the German State of Nor ...
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» Adaptation Sector Action Plans (Scotland, UK)  - The Climate Adaptation Portal of Scotland includes the Scotland's Climate Change Adaptation Framework and the 12 related Sector Action Plans. The Sector ...
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» Bavaria  - Regional approach on adaptation plans and strategies for Bavaria This website informs about the principles of Bavarian climate change policy initiatives, including the ""Climate Programm ...
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» cigrasp  - ci:grasp performs as a climate information service and provides sound knowledge on current and projected climate stimuli, climate impacts and adaptation options at the national, sub-national a ...
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» Climate Change Adaptation in Austria  - This web-site provides comprehensive information on adaptation to climate change in Austria, including the Austrian approach "Towards a national adaptation strategy".
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» Climate Change Knowledge Portal of the World Bank (CCKP)  - The Climate Change Knowledge Portal (CCKP) of the World Bank is a web-based platform to assist in capacity building and knowledge development ...
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» Climate Data Center (CDC) of the German Weather Service (DWD)  - The Climate Data Center (CDC) of the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst - DWD) offers assess to climate data for Germany, but ...
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» Copernicus - the European Earth Observation Programme  - Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a Europe ...
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» Danish Portal for Adaptation to Climate Change  - The Danish Portal for Adaptation to Climate Change (klimatilpasning) presents existing knowledge on climate change and climate change adaptation within a ...
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» E3 Geoportal  - Environmental change, land-use, globalisation, and socio-economic contexts are all widely recognised to affect the transmission patterns of infectious diseases. Yet data on these diseas ...
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» A framework for stakeholder engagement on climate adaptation  - This document is the output from a project that was designed to inform CSIRO’s Climate Adaptation Flagship (CAF) about best practice ...
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» Assessing the Climate Change Fitness of Spatial Planning: A Guidance for Planners.  - This guidance for planners on national, regional and local levels gives advice on how to assess the “climate ch ...
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» Climate Change Information for Effective Adaptation - A Practitioner‘s Manual  - This guidance document highlights ways to gather and interpret the relevant information for decision makers, in particular ...
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» Dialogue by Design: A Handbook of Public & Stakeholder Engagement  - The purpose of this handbook is to help those charged with public and stakeholder engagement to do it better. Other guides have two ga ...
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» Guidance Note for Lead Authors of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report on Consistent Treatment of Uncertainties  - These guidance notes are intended to assist Lead Authors of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 ...
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» Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change - Guidelines for Municipalities  - These Guidelines are intended to assist local communities in formulating Local Adaptation Plans (LAPs) or implementing some st ...
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» ‘Towards Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region’  - Guidance for decision-makers, produced in the context of the INTERREG IIIB project “Developing Policies and Adaptation Str ...
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» Climate Change Adaptation Navigator  - This web-based application is designed to assist local and state governments as well as regional organisations in the process of adapting to the impacts of climate ...
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» Compendium on methods and tools to evaluate impacts of, vulnerability and adaptation to, climate change  - The UNFCCC Compendium on methods and tools to evaluate impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptat ...
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» ECDC Vibrio environmental suitability model  - The Vibrio Risk Map is based on a worldwide model using salinity and sea surface temperature to estimate the association between environmental conditions a ...
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» MEDIATION Toolbox  - The MEDIATION Toolbox is a structured database of methods and tools that are available to support the assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, and adaptation decisi ...
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» SimCLIM  - SimCLIM is an integrated modelling system developed by CLIMsystems Ltd. The integrated model enables to assess impacts and adaptation related to climate change and climate variability (includi ...
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» The EcoCities Spatial Portal  - This tool case shows how to assess the geography of Greater Manchester's vulnerability to climate change. The EcoCities spatial portal was developed within the EcoCities p ...
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» Annual Precipitation Change 2021-2050  - Projected changes in annual precipitation in percentages under A1B scenario, multi-model ensemble mean for the time periods 2021-2050 relative to 1961-1990 mean ...
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» Annual Temperature Change 2021-2050  - Projected changes in annual mean surface temperature (in K) under A1B scenario, multi-model ensemble mean for the time period 2021-2050 relative to 1961-1990 mean. M ...
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» Annual Temperature Change 2071-2100  - Projected changes in annual mean surface temperature (in K) under A1B scenario, multi-model ensemble mean for the time period 2071-2100 relative to 1961-1990 mean ...
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» Change in annual mean number of summer days  - Change in annual mean number of summer days with maximum air temperature above 25 degrees Celcius. Climatic changes derived from a comparison of 1961 - 199 ...
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» Change in annual mean temperature  - Change in annual mean temperature in 2 metres above surface. Climatic changes derived from a comparison of 1961 - 1990 and 2071 - 2100 climate projections by the CCL ...
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» Climate variables - projected changes (ESPON Climate Change project)  - The ESPON Climate project performed a pan-European vulnerability assessment as a basis for identifying regional typologies of cli ...
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» Summer Temperature Change 2021-2050  - Projected changes in summer mean surface temperature (in K) under A1B scenario, multi-model ensemble mean for the time period 2021-2050 relative to 1961-1990 mean. M ...
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» Summer Temperature Change 2071-2100  - Projected changes in summer mean surface temperature (in K) under A1B scenario, multi-model ensemble mean for the time period 2071-2100 relative to 1961-1990 mean. M ...
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» Winter Temperature Change 2021-2050  - Projected changes in winter mean surface temperature (in K) under A1B scenario, multi-model ensemble mean for the time period 2021-2050 relative to 1961-1990 mean. M ...
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» Air pollution by ozone  - Ozone is both an important air pollutant and a GHG. Excessive exposure to ground-level ozone is estimated to cause about 20000 premature deaths per year in Europe. A ...
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» DRI - Disaster Risk Index  - The DRI enables the calculation of the average risk of death per country in large- and medium-scale disasters associated with earthquakes, tropical cyclones and floods, based ...
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» EUROSTAT Urban audit  - The Urban Audit provides European urban statistics for cities across 27 European countries.  It contains almost 300 statistical indicators presenting information on matters ...
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» EVDAB, European Database of Vulnerabilities  - The European Database of Vulnerabilities to Natural Hazards (EVDAB) collects and integrates relevant datasets for the identification and the evaluation of ...
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» Extreme temperatures and health  - Mortality and morbidity increase, especially in vulnerable population groups, and general population well-being decreases during extreme cold spells and heat wave ...
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» Floods and health  - River and coastal flooding affect millions of people in Europe each year. They affect human health through drowning, heart attacks, injuries, infections, psychosocial consequen ...
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» Global and European temperature  - Global     Three independent long records of global average near-surface (land and ocean) annual temperature show that the decade between 2002 and 2 ...
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» Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe – indicators and maps  - The recently published EEA report 'Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe' includes several indicators and thematic maps such ...
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» Vector-borne diseases  - The transmission cycles of vector-borne diseases are sensitive to climatic factors but also to land use, vector control, human behaviour and public health capacities. ...
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» ACCENT-PLUS project  - Atmospheric Composition Change: the European Network-Policy Support and Science
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» ASIAN MONSOON project  - The impact of climate change on the southeast Asian Monsoon
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» BASE project  - Bottom-up Climate Adaptation Strategies towards a Sustainable Europe
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» C3-Alps project  - C3-Alps – Capitalising Climate Change Knowledge for Adaptation in the Alpine Space
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» C8 project  - Consistent computation of the chemistry-cloud continuum and climate change in Cyprus
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» CapHaz-Net project  - Social capacity building for natural hazards: Toward more resilient societies
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» CARBOSCHOOLS+ project  - European network of regional projects for school partnerships on climate change research
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» CARPIVIA project  - Carpathian integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and ecosystem-based adaptation measures
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» CAVIAR project  - Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in the Arctic Regions
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» CCSP project  - Climate changes Spatial Planning
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» Centre for Climate Change Impacts Adaptation and Modelling (CCIAM)  - The Centre for Climate Change Impacts Adaptation and Modelling (CCIAM) from the Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon (FCUL) ha ...
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» CMCC  - The Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC) is operated by a Research Consortium consisting of different Italian public and private research Institutions and led by the Istituto Nazio ...
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» European Commission’s Joint Research Centre - Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES)  - The Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES) is one of the seven scientific institutes of the ...
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» European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET)  - The European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) aims to provide timely and quality-assured data, information and ...
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» OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Climate Change  - Global climate change threatens to disrupt the well-being of society, undermine economic development and alter the natura ...
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» ONERC (Observatoire National sur les Effets du Réchauffement Climatique)  - The Observatoire national sur les effets du réchauffement climatique (ONERC) is a French organisation that was created by law on ...
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