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Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2023-05-23

Item Status Links
National Adaptation Strategy (NAS)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
National Adaptation Plan (NAP)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
France is the European Union country with the largest surface area (550,000 km2, approximately 13% of the European Union's surface). Situated between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, between latitudes 41°N and 51°N, metropolitan France has about 5,500 km of coastline, including 2,000 km of beach, the country's main leisure facility. A country of average altitude, where plains and hills occupy two thirds of the territory, it nevertheless has two mountainous barriers, to the east and south: the Alps and the Pyrenees. Mont Blanc (4,810 m), the highest point in France, is located in the Alps, on the border with Italy. The Massif Central in the centre of the country disperses water into four main basins: the Seine in the north, the Loire in the northwest, the Rhône in the east and the Garonne in the southwest.

On a global scale, metropolitan France has a temperate climate. The rainfalls are distributed throughout the year and temperatures are relatively mild. These characteristics are due to the average latitude and the predominance of winds from the Atlantic. There are five main types of climate in mainland France: oceanic, altered oceanic, semi-continental, mountain and Mediterranean.

The climates of the French overseas territories are more contrasted. Most of the overseas territories are located in tropical or equatorial zones (Caribbean, South America, Indian Ocean, Polynesia, etc.); the others have harsh cold climates (Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), or even extreme climates (French Southern and Antarctic Territories, with a record low of -37.5°C in Dumont d'Urville in 1990)

Finally, overseas France in tropical regions is exposed to natural risks such as cyclones (Irma in September 2017 in the Atlantic, Fakir in 2018, Dovi in New Caledonia, Batsirai and Emnati in 2022 and Freddy in 2023 in Reunion).

Agricultural landscapes (cultivated and grassland) account for 51% of the surface of Metropolitan France. So-called natural areas (woodland, moorland, bare soil, wetlands and underwater) account for 40% and artificial land for 9% (built-up land, paved or stabilised land, other artificial land).

Metropolitan France is located at the crossroads of four terrestrial biogeographical regions (Alpine, Atlantic, Continental, Mediterranean) and two marine regions (Atlantic, Mediterranean), a position that explains the rich diversity of natural habitats and species it hosts. Within the framework of the European Habitats-Fauna-Flora Directive, the evaluation of the conservation status of natural habitats of community interest shows that of the 132 habitats present in France, 20% are in a conservation status deemed "favourable" over the period 2013-2018. Habitats in the Alpine region are in a better state overall (38% in a favourable state), while those in the Atlantic (terrestrial) region are the least well preserved (11% in a favourable state). The national red list of the IUCN and the National Museum of Natural History (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle / MNHN) assesses the risk of disappearance of species, by taxonomic group, on the scale of the French territory. To date, 10,055 species have been assessed, i.e. less than 6% of known species in France. 18% of the species assessed are extinct or threatened in France as of 1 February 2019. The risk of species extinction is much higher in the overseas islands (39%) than in mainland France (12%). Between 1989 and 2017, the populations of so-called "generalist" birds (inhabiting a wide variety of habitats) increased (+19%). Conversely, the number of common birds known as "specialists" (dependent on a particular habitat: agricultural, forestry, built-up areas) has decreased by 22% in mainland France. This phenomenon is explained by the degradation or loss of habitats and the collapse of insect populations. These trends lead to a homogenisation of bird communities and an impoverishment of species, which makes people aware of the need to act in all environments.
On the first of January 2023, the population of France reached 68 million inhabitants, including 2.2 million in the overseas departments (DOM). During 2023, the population increased by 0.3%; this increase is partly due to the natural balance (+56,000), which is at its lowest since the Covid-19 pandemic. Net migration is estimated at the end of 2022 at 161,000 people.

In 2022, 723,000 children were born in France, 19,000 fewer than in 2021: Births had rebounded in 2021, ending six years of consecutive decline. They start to fall again in 2022 and reach a historically low level. The total fertility rate is 1.80 children per woman in 2022, after 1.84 in 2021.

The two most populous regions (Île-de-France and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) account for 30% of the French population but only 13% of the territory. Île-de-France remains by far the most densely populated region with 1,022 inhabitants/km2, i.e. almost 10 times the average French density, including the French overseas departments (106 inhabitants/km2).

On a constant basis (excluding Mayotte), the population continues to grow, but more moderately than previously: in fact, population growth was around +0.5% between 2009 and 2014 and around +0.7% during the first half of the 2000s.

If recent demographic trends were to continue, France would have 76.5 million inhabitants on January 2070, i.e. 10.7 million more than in 2013: these would mainly be people aged 65 or over (+10.4 million). The population 75 and over would be twice as numerous in 2070 as in 2013 (+7.8 million). The natural balance would be the main driver of growth at the beginning of the period. Then, around 2050, population growth would be driven more by net migration. Thereafter, the natural balance would increase again and reach the level of the migratory balance. (Source:INSEE)
In 2021, France ranked 26th in the world for GDP per capita in purchasing power parity, slightly above the EU average of 30th but behind the euro area average of 25th. In the ranking by GDP in purchasing power parity, France is 10th (in current euros), up by 6.8% compared to 2020, after a 7.8% drop in 2020.

The French economy is mainly a service economy. In 2021, exports represented 29.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) and imports 31.4%. In 2018, the tertiary sector employed 76.1% of the working population, while the primary sector (agriculture, fisheries, etc.) accounted for only 2.5% and the secondary sector (mainly industry) 20%. The trade balance (goods and services) became in deficit in 2004, and this deficit increased until 2011 before decreasing slightly but remaining significant in 2015. Since 2015, this deficit has again increased sharply and in 2022 will reach a historic deficit of 163.6 billion euros, a deterioration of nearly 80 billion euros over one year, largely attributable to the rise in energy prices.

In 2018, exports of goods and services decelerated slightly (+3.5% in volume, after +3.9%) due mainly to the slowdown in exports of manufactured goods (+3.6% in volume, after +4.7%), which account for more than two-thirds of sales of goods and services. After a fall in 2020, trade in services was in surplus in 2022 (about 50 billion) thanks to the good performance of travel services (tourism), transport services (particularly sea freight) and financial services.

In terms of employment, the major economic sectors that could be most affected by climate change are
- The building sector (around 2 million jobs), with the need to find solutions to increase resilience to climate change (summer comfort, for example) while at the same time providing mitigation solutions (low consumption, etc.)
- The transport sector (approximately 1.2 million jobs), particularly with regard to infrastructure which can be affected both by extreme weather events (e.g. heat waves, floods) and by climate change and its effects (e.g. drought, rising sea levels, comfort for travellers in the event of a heat wave).
- The tourism sector (1.5 million jobs), with 90 million foreign tourists in 2018, will of course be very affected by climate change, with an expected drop in visitor numbers depending on the region (too hot) and the season (lack of snow).
- The agriculture and fisheries sector, associated with the agri-food sector (1.6 million jobs), must respond to the challenge of local climate change (such as the decrease in water resources) for production and to global impacts for processing, while meeting consumer demand. In 2020, France had 416,436 farms, including 390,000 in mainland France.

Further studies are underway, and they will serve as a basis for the development of the NAP-3.
Météo-France, the national weather service, is responsible for developing and providing meteorological and climate services tailored to the needs of public authorities, the aeronautical industry, companies and the general public, to enable them to manage risks to the safety of people and property, to better organise and adapt their activities and to anticipate the impacts of climate change. It has the State's competence in terms of meteorological safety for people and property.

The Contract of Objectives and Performance (COP) 2022-2026, signed between the State and Météo-France, is based on five strategic topics :
- to make a decisive contribution to the exercise of the State's regalian responsibilities and, first and foremost, to the safety of people and property;
- to be the national reference in the provision of climate data and services in support of adaptation to climate change
- to strengthen its ability to listen to customers, to offer ever more innovative services and to anticipate the future needs of the institution's institutional, aeronautical and commercial customers;
- develop the institution's agility, free up innovation and encourage partnerships;
- to implement an ambitious Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy, particularly in terms of quality of life at work and eco-responsibility.

The National Centre for Meteorological Research (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques/CNRM) is a joint research unit between the French National Centre for Scientific Research (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/CNRS) and Météo-France. It has about 80 researchers and 150 engineers, technicians and administrative staff. It is responsible for most of these activities and coordinates all of Météo-France's R&D activities. It is made up of six research units and a set of common services spread over several sites in France: mainly the Météopole in Toulouse (about 80%) and Grenoble, with the French Snow Research Centre (Centre d’Etudes de la Neige/CEN). To carry out its missions and carry out the experiments essential to the acquisition of new knowledge, the CNRM relies on high-tech resources: supercomputers, satellites, instrumented aircraft, drones, fixed or mobile measuring stations, instrumented sites in the mountains, wind profiler radars, anchored and drifting buoys, cold storage. In 2021, in order to strengthen the services provided to the community, the power of Météo-France's computers has been increased by a factor of 5.5 compared to the previous configuration, making available 21.48 petaflops of computing power spread over two sites. Given the importance of the issues related to meteorology and climate, this investment was the subject of a specific additional grant from the Ministry of Ecological Transition and Solidarity to Météo-France for a total amount of 27.1 million euros over the years 2019-2022. The annual budget of Météo-France is €362 million (2020).

France has recognised scientific expertise in the field of climate modelling and observation systems targeting the planet's major fluid envelopes (atmosphere, oceans, continental hydrosphere) and the biosphere. French scientists, who are grouped together in the Climeri-France platform, have participated in the World Climate Research Programme (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project / CMIP6) with two climate models, one developed by the CNRM associated with the Cerfacs (Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique ; European Centre of Research and Teaching in Scientific Calculation), the other by the IPSL. The two new French models, but also other foreign models already available, simulate a greater warming by 2100 than the previous versions established in 2012. The climate models are also used as a basis for finer-scale climate modelling over metropolitan France and the overseas territories. For example, several simulations carried out within the framework of CMIP6 have been 'zoomed in', over Europe and the Indian Ocean. At these scales, the scientists were able to represent phenomena such as heat waves, cyclones and dust transport more realistically than previously.

These results were made possible by improvements made to the climate models since the previous exercise. Their spatial resolution is finer, the modelling of the different physical compartments of the climate system (ocean, atmosphere, continental surfaces, ice, etc.) is more accomplished, and current evaluations show that the French models simulate observed climate characteristics better than the older versions.

The work carried out by the French community has mobilised about a hundred scientists from various disciplines (climatologists, oceanographers, glaciologists, specialists in the atmosphere, vegetation and soils, and experts in intensive computing), and has required significant computing resources: 500 million hours of computing provided by the supercomputers at Genci and Météo-France.

The future investment programme has enabled the strengthening of national research resources through the creation of laboratories of excellence and equipment of excellence.

Thus, the capacity of French research on climate and the environment has been strengthened by the creation of fourteen laboratories of excellence (labEx) supported by €133 million over 10 years.
The Drias portal, the future of the climate, is intended for a wide range of users, from experts (researchers, academics, etc.) to non-specialists (project managers, decision-makers, etc.), involved in climate change impact and adaptation studies. Thus, it is intended for territorial actors, who act within the framework of a plan or scheme related to the climate, or of an observatory, for private actors who are confronted with climate forecasting within their company, for environmental and adaptation consulting professionals, for researchers, who are involved in impact studies or work on adaptation, as well as for teachers who wish to access information from climate projections. Access to these data is essential in order to enable the vulnerability studies of territories necessary for the definition of climate change adaptation policies by local authorities.

Since the beginning of 2021, the DRIAS les futurs du Climat portal has a new dataset that was developed within the framework of the climate services convention supported by the Ministry for an Ecological Transition, with the scientific support of the CNRM, Cerfacs and the IPSL. Thirty regionalized simulations from the Euro-Cordex ensemble covering the three climate scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were selected to form a set that is more easily usable for impact studies than the complete ensemble, which comprises several hundred simulations. An accompanying report was produced to provide a scientific and practical guide to the use of this dataset. This service has been supplemented for the general public by the web application "Climat HD": yesterday's and tomorrow's climate, which offers an integrated vision of past and future climate change at national and regional levels. Climat HD synthesises the latest work of climatologists: key messages and graphics to better understand climate change and its impacts.

At the end of 2020, the Drias portal, the future of the Climate, received a major update with the launch of Drias 2020, which provides the main information needed to facilitate the use of this dataset in the development, implementation or evaluation of adaptation approaches and now includes the following new features :
o A new design for the entire portal
o Improved ergonomics for the « Discovery » area.
o Enrichment of the articles in the « Accompaniment » area.
o A new reference data set: DRIAS-2020
o New agro-climatic indicators.

In 2021, as part of the C3AF project (Climate Change and Consequences in the French West Indies) led by Météo-France and its scientific partners (University of the West Indies, BRGM and the University of Montpellier), new regionalized climate projections were produced and integrated into the portal for several overseas territories (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy),

Then Reunion Island with the addition in July 2021 of data from the BRIO-2021 set.
As on a global scale, the changes in average annual temperatures in mainland France shows a very clear warming since 1900. The rate of warming has varied, with a particularly strong increase since the 1980s. With the exception of 2021, the last few years (2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2022) have been among the warmest years since 1900. The year 2022 is the warmest year ever recorded in metropolitan France since records began in 1900, far ahead of 2020, which held the record until now. Over the year as a whole, the temperature reached 14.5°C on average over France, ahead of 2018 (13.9°C) and 2014 (13.8°C), 2020 (14.1°C). This is the warmest year since 1947 in all administrative regions except Île-de-France, where 2022 ranks second.
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
ChronicOcean acidification
Precipitation hydrological variability
Sea level rise
Water scarcity
Solid massAcuteAvalanche
Landslide
ChronicCoastal_erosion
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frost
Heat wave
Wildfire
Chronic
WindAcuteCyclone
Chronic
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtsignificantly increasing
Floodsignificantly increasing
Heavy precipitationsignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and typesevolution uncertain or unknown
Ocean acidificationsignificantly increasing
Precipitation hydrological variabilityevolution uncertain or unknown
Saline intrusionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sea level risesignificantly increasing
Water scarcitysignificantly increasing
Solid massAcuteAvalanche Futurewithout significant change
Landslide Futurewithout significant change
ChronicCoastal erosionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sol degradationevolution uncertain or unknown
Solifluctionevolution uncertain or unknown
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frostsignificantly decreasing
Heat wavesignificantly increasing
Wildfiresignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging temperatureevolution uncertain or unknown
Temperature variabilityevolution uncertain or unknown
WindAcuteCyclonesignificantly increasing
Stormwithout significant change
ChronicChanging wind patternsevolution uncertain or unknown
The hypothesis adopted for the NAP (PNACC-2) is a rise of 2°C in global average temperature by the end of the century. Consequences will differ depending on the region of the world but they will be accompanied everywhere by major changes in the precipitation regime and in the frequency and severity of extreme events. These changes will have strong impacts on all socio-economic sectors and on the global natural environment. The best possible knowledge of these changes, their impacts and the associated uncertainties is essential to identify the most relevant adaptation measures and to develop them as our knowledge progresses.

In line with the latest IPCC assessment report published in 2014, several projects initiated under the first NAP (PNACC-1) have specifiedy the changes to be expected in the various regions and they have provided the corresponding quantitative data to all takeholders involved in adaptation. From a qualitative point of view, the main climate changes expected in France, consistent with the changes already detected, are the following:
-A rise in temperatures of 2°C above the global average, particularly in the most continental regions, with increasingly frequent and severe heat waves extending beyond the traditional summer periods; cold waves will be less severe and less frequent without reducing the risks associated with spring frosts, favoured by an earlier start to vegetation;
-more intense precipitation, even in regions where the annual amount of precipitation will decrease, increasing the risk of floods; at the same time, drought episodes will be more frequent and severe, with sharply reduced low flows in rivers and streams, increased pressure on water resources needed for ecosystems and human activities, and an increased risk of forest fires;
-the warming of the ocean and the acceleration of the rise in sea level, associated with an increase in the risk of submersion ;
-uncertain changes in the frequency and severity of storms, except in tropical overseas regions where the severity of cyclones is expected to increase.

Global warming is accelerating the loss of biodiversity, whereas, conversely, measures to protect biodiversity could mitigate the impacts of climate change. The disruption of major ecological balances is already being observed: a physical environment that is changing and living beings that are struggling to adapt or are disappearing under the combined effects of climate change and human pressure on their environment. Climate change is now the main threat to World Natural Heritage.

Agriculture is one of the main affected sectors by the consequences of climate change due to rising temperatures, diminishing water resources, more frequent and intense droughts, the proliferation of pathogens and pests that result from them, the increase in certain extreme events, notably intense rainfall, heat waves and tropical cyclones with immediate impacts on crops and livestock, and even the risk of bushfires. In the future, cold spells in mainland France will be less severe and less frequent, without reducing the risks associated with spring frosts, which are favoured by an earlier start to vegetation.

All these impacts are already visible and their severity will increase as global warming increases. Thus, while the decrease in yields of certain crops is for the moment partially compensated by the fertilising effect of an increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, a decrease in yields is already visible on some crops and a generalized decrease is expected in the coming decades.

Forests, both deciduous and coniferous, could be impacted by climate change in the near future and very significantly, regardless of the location in France in the distant future. Edaphic and atmospheric droughts are the main constraints. Unlike all other cropping systems, it is not possible to reduce water stress by irrigation. Thermal effects on phenology do not lead to sufficient evasion strategies, unlike in annual crops. Temperature plays a negative role by increasing atmospheric dryness. The only beneficial effect is the increase in atmospheric CO2 content, which improves photosynthesis, but without compensating for the negative effects of increased water stress.
Among the impacts of climate change, a worsening of coastal flooding events, as well as a strong increase in fire risk can be anticipated. By 2060, most of the country is expected to be subject to several weeks of extreme fire risk each year, which is currently limited to the Mediterranean region. Another alarming phenomenon to be prepared for is the occurrence of more frequent, longer and more severe heat waves.

Finally, mainly due to the effect of increased evapotranspiration, we must fear the appearance of severe soil drought situations, which will exert a very strong constraint on agricultural production, including livestock farming. Over the period 2021-2050, the duration of soil drought in France is expected to increase from the current average of 2 months (mid-July to mid-September) to 4 months (mid-June to mid-October), while becoming more intense.

Heat waves are the cause of significant excess mortality. Thus, the 2003 heat wave caused 15,000 deaths; that of 2015, more than 1,700; that of 2018, around 1,600; 1,462 for those of 2019; and 1,924 deaths in 2020. With 3 heat waves recorded, 2022 becomes the year with the greatest health impact after 2003 with 2,816 excess deaths. The rise in temperatures also has indirect health effects, through the increase in risks linked to air pollution, particularly ozone pollution, the increase in allergic risks or the proliferation of certain algae (such as cyanobacteria), with risks of contamination of drinking water, recreational water, fish and seafood.

Finally, global warming facilitates the spread of vector-borne diseases, particularly due to the extension of the settlement area of the tiger mosquito, which is the vector of the chikungunya, dengue and zika viruses. The French situation could soon resemble that of countries already more highly exposed, such as Greece and Italy, which are facing epidemics of the West Nile virus, for example.

The "Explore 70" project provides figures for expected river levels and groundwater recharge for the period 2046-2065. A significant decrease in groundwater recharge, a decrease in average annual river flow and more severe, longer and earlier low flows, with summer flows reduced by 30-60%, are to be expected. This scarcity of water resources will result in the deterioration of aquatic environments, increased constraints on drinking water supplies and severe disruption to sectors such as agriculture, tourism and energy. In water-stressed areas, conflicts of use could multiply.

Economic sectors are affected in different ways by climate change. The most directly affected is agriculture. Warming is the cause of a stagnation in yields, a drop in nutritional quality, an alteration in the quality of seeds, a change in the phenology of perennial crops such as fruit trees and vines, changes in the organoleptic quality of certain products, and effects on plant and animal health linked to changes in the behaviour and geographical distribution of bio-aggressors and pathogens. In addition, more frequent and severe agricultural droughts could significantly alter agricultural production potential and create an increased need for irrigation, even though water resources will be scarcer.

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)energy; other
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe observed impacts of climate change for both energy production and distribution are as follows: - High air and water temperatures, especially those observed during heat waves - Drought leading to reduced river flows (including low water levels), - Risks of external stresses from severe natural events, such as storms, extreme precipitation, sticky snow and forest fires. Climate change also has consequences for energy demand as the increase in global average temperature reduces the need for heating in winter. To quantify the impacts of climate change, a specific climate department has been created within the EDF group (Electricité de France). The studies carried out have demonstrated the robustness of the EDF Group's generating fleet, while identifying potential threats to be monitored. While climate change and other anthropogenic changes are an additional source of uncertainty to be taken into account in our assessments, the principle of a ten-yearly review of the safety of nuclear and hydraulic facilities is a fundamental pillar of this long-term robustness.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentWith structures potentially having a technical life of more than 40 years, the production and distribution of electrical energy must adapt its installations to the physical consequences of climate change. Since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, climate change research projects have been implemented in collaboration with the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) and the first versions of the LMD climate model have been used for sensitivity studies. From 1995 onwards, the ARPEGE-Climat model of Météo-France was also used.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsnot applicable
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
AssessmentStudies are carried out by the energy transport organisation (RTE). These studies take into account the wheather and the current and future climate and their impact on the electricity network and on the overall functioning of the French and European system (Lelong and Dubus, 2022). These studies are partly carried out in partnership with Météo-France and the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, but also with the European programme COPERNICUS Climate Change Service. Climate change was thus integrated into the "Energy Futures 2050" prospective study, which showed that the transformation of the electricity system must now integrate the probable consequences of climate change, particularly on water resources, heat waves and wind regimes. RTE is also carrying out studies on the impacts of climate change on the elements of the network itself; heat waves are the subject of particular attention in the RESILIENCE project.
Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentGlobal warming is causing stagnation in yields, a drop in nutritional quality, changes in seed quality, changes in the phenology of perennial crops such as fruit trees and vines, changes in the organoleptic quality of certain products, and effects on plant and animal health linked to changes in the behaviour and geographical distribution of bio-aggressors and pathogens. According to the French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE), the climate is responsible for 30% to 70% of the stagnation in wheat yields in France, which is already observed today. Some sectors and territories are seeing their yields decrease and the lack of water is already having visible consequences: - In the Languedoc region, the gradual transition to a semi-arid Mediterranean climate has been accompanied by a decline in agricultural production over thirty years, estimated by INRAE at 0.9 tonnes of dry matter per hectare, i.e. a loss of 11%; - since 2010, winegrowers have had to deal with vintages with a strong water deficit one year out of two, which has resulted in a 20% drop in production in those years. - In Lozère, the change from a humid temperate climate to a Mediterranean climate has resulted in an average loss of forage production of 11% over thirty years; - INRAE has evaluated the effects of a 40% reduction in the volumes that can be harvested for the period from June to September for the Drôme des collines: a loss of 12,000 tonnes (-28%) and up to 19,000 tonnes (-47%) in a dry year for corn and a loss of 5,000 tonnes (-10%) and up to 8,000 tonnes (-17%) in a dry year for apricots.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThe General Council for Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas (CGAAER), whose mission is to assist ministers, published a study in April 2022 that highlights the difficulty of exhaustively assessing the costs of both impacts and adaptation in the agricultural sector, given the multi-faceted determinants of the production system and the close linkage between the sector and the territory. The adaptation options presented in this report include : - investment in new storage facilities and irrigation equipment on farms, subject to the availability of water resources for a doubling of the volumes of water withdrawn for irrigation - a massification of climate services to farmers; - renewal of the French orchard, when it is unsuited to the future climate. - Tensions on current and future water resources make the sector more vulnerable and reduce its capacity to adapt.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentA joint report by the General Council for the Environment and Development (CGEDD), which became the General Inspectorate for the Environment and Sustainable Development (IGEDD) in 2022, and the General Council for Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas (CGAAER) reminds us that the physical impacts are numerous and their interactions with agricultural systems are complex. For example, agricultural production is directly sensitive to temperature, plant water requirements are threatened by changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration (particularly in the south-west), soils tend to deteriorate and previously non-endemic crop pathogens and pests may emerge. Added to this is the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events: droughts, heat waves or cold spells. The Onerc report to the Prime Minister and Parliament (2022), entitled 'La prospective au service de l'adaptation au changement climatique', shows ten-year crop losses due to drought by 2050 (RCP 8.5) of 25% for grasslands, 7.4% for soft winter wheat and almost 10% for winter barley. Corn cultivation appears to be very disadvantaged by climate change, particularly in current production areas, with yield reductions of 5.7% to 11.4% anticipated on average over the period 2020-2050, and which could reach 17% over the period 2070-2100.
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentExtreme climatic events have already proven consequences on the health of populations. For example, heat waves, which occur regularly in summer, are all accompanied by excess mortality: + 1,739 deaths in 2015, + 378 in 2016, + 474 in 2017, + 1,641 in 2018, + 1,462 in 2019, + 1,924 in 2020, + 239 in 2021 and + 2,816 in 2022. Climate change, by increasing the frequency of extreme climatic events, can therefore also have health effects. Heat waves cause excess mortality, but also have other consequences: increased tiredness, loss of attention, cardiovascular symptoms, pregnancy disorders, increased demand on the health system (increase in medical consultations, work accidents, emergency room visits or hospitalisations). The average increase in temperature can also have indirect effects, such as an increase in the risk of ozone, allergies (e.g. pollen), algal blooms or vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, zika, etc.). Finally, other extreme events (e.g. flash floods) can also have health consequences.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country
AssessmentThe health impacts of heat, both during and outside heatwaves, have already increased in recent years and this phenomenon will accelerate in the medium and long term with the increase in frequency, duration, intensity and spatial distribution of heatwaves, and with the temporal extension of hot spells (from May to October). Despite a wide range of prevention and management measures being put in place, the impacts remain significant and it is clear that mitigation and adaptation measures are insufficient and will need to be expanded and improved in order to minimise the health impacts of climate change, particularly those due to heat waves (Onerc, 2023).
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios
AssessmentA Senate report, published in 2019, provides, with the help of Santé publique France, a quantification of the health impacts of climate change in the context of excess mortality attributable to extreme temperatures: - in 2050, in the optimistic scenario of greenhouse gas emission reductions (RCP 2.6), mortality attributable to temperature would represent only 0.1% of deaths. This figure would be ten times higher (i.e. 1%) in the RCP 8.5 scenario; - By 2090, the temperature-related death rate would be 0.2% in RCP 2.6 and twenty times higher in RCP 8.5 (i.e. 4%). These results are based on a global statistical study, but where the temperature-mortality relationships used are assessed at the local level (18 different measurement points are used for metropolitan France). The study accounts for both the decrease in the number of deaths related to cold waves and the increase in the number of deaths related to heat waves. However, as future demographic changes or possible adaptation are not taken into account, the figures could be refined.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Each year, ONERC publishes a report to the Prime Minister and Parliament that provides a review and synthesis of the risks and challenges posed by climate change in a particular area and advises on adaptation options.

In 2019, ONERC's report entitled "Les événements météorologiques extrêmes dans un contexte de changement climatique" (Extrem wheather events in a context of Climate Change), provides a risk assessment of the major hazards. An more recently, in June 2023, ONERC's report entitled "Les vagues de chakeur extrêmes dans un contexte de changement climatique" (Heat waves in a context of Climate Change), informs on the risk related to heat waves.

In 2022, ONERC's report entitled "La prospective au service de l'adaptation au changement climatique" (Foresight for adaptation to climate change), illustrates the mobilisation of different actors in the field of adaptation to climate change through different foresight work.
Published on 6 July 2017, the axis 19 of the French Climate Plan, "Adapting to climate change", sets the scene: "Climate change is accelerating and its impacts in France will be significant in the years to come. The Government is committed to protecting the French people and the economy, in particular the most exposed sectors and regions, such as agriculture, forests, coastal regions and mountainous areas. France will increase the funding dedicated to the adaptation of its territories and economy throughout the five-year period for metropolitan and overseas actions on the prevention of climate change impacts, resilience and the mobilisation of nature-based adaptive solutions.

Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the first NAP (PNACC-1 2011-2015), the NAP-2 (PNACC-2) was developed according to one of the main principles governing the Climate Plan, namely the mobilisation of the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders, which enabled the actions included in this adaptation plan to be co-constructed. The consultation was organised according to six areas of action which structure the priorities of the PNACC-2: Governance, Prevention and resilience, Economic sectors, Knowledge and information, Nature and environment, International:
- the actions in the "Governance" area aim to effectively articulate the national and territorial levels and to involve society in the implementation and monitoring of the NAP-2, with a particular focus on the French overseas departments and territories; they ensure cohesion between adaptation and mitigation;
- the proposed measures are based on the best scientific knowledge and on the awareness of the population as a whole of the need to combat and adapt to climate change ('Knowledge and information' area)
- various measures to protect people and property from climate risks ("Prevention and resilience" area) and to prepare economic sectors for the anticipated changes ("Economic sectors" area), which accompany development and will strengthen the potential for job creation and innovation;
- where possible, use of measures that promote nature-based solutions (area 'Natural environments');

Finally, specific actions aim to benefit from the experiences of other countries and to strengthen the capacities of French actors in order to support developing countries in their own climate change adaptation policies ("International" domain).

The steering and monitoring of the NAP-2 (PNACC-2) are entrusted to the specialised commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of guiding the ONERC. This commission thus acts as a national adaptation monitoring committee to ensure annual monitoring of the detailed implementation plan and to choose relevant adaptation indicators.
Since the first law of July 1976 on nature protection, the law on environmental assessment has been modified by the law of 12 July 2010 on the national commitment to the environment. Climate is a theme explicitly mentioned by article R 122-20 II 5°a) of the environmental code on which to study the "probable significant effects of the implementation of the plan, scheme, programme or other planning document on the environment". Thus, the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, but also the adaptation of other environmental issues and more broadly of the territory to the effects of climate change, are part of the considerations that must feed into the strategic choices developed.
At the national level, the Ministry of Ecological Transition and Territorial Cohesion is responsible for the policy of adaptation to climate change and the prevention of natural risks.

With regards to hazard prevention, an improvment can be seen in the means of dealing with the increased risks of fire, heat waves.

Inter-ministerial awareness-raising campaing to inform the public and set out the right behaviour to adopt in the event of natural hazards have been taking place on an annual basis for years, it is only recenntly, that they have shifted towards better consideration of the consequences of cvlimate change.

In June 2023, the information collected within the feedback of previous heatwaves led to the introduction of a national heat wave management plan to better tackle the impact of heatwaves on the daily lives of French people, to ensure the continuity of essential public services, and to safeguard economic activities, environments and natural resources.
The Geoportal called Géorisque provides easy access to data on natural hazards. These data come from 14 databases, 6 of which are related to climate change:
1 Administrative procedures related to risks (BD GASPAR),
2 Flood Zoning identifies the Territories at high risk of flooding (Territoires à Risques importants d'Inondation, TRI),
3 The Flooding by rising groundwater corresponds to the location of areas where there is a high probability of overflows by rising groundwater,
4 The Land Movement Database (BDMvt),
5 The map of exposure to the phenomenon of clay shrinkage and swelling,
6 Natural risk prevention plans produced by the departmental instructional services.
France will have to adapt to the impacts of climate change that past emissions of greenhouse gases accumulated in the atmosphere now make unavoidable. The general objective of the French National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (PNACC-2 2018-2023) is to implement the necessary actions to adapt the territories of metropolitan and overseas France to the projected regional climate change by 2050. Its objective is therefore to better protect the French against extreme climatic events, but also to adapt the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism) to future climatic conditions and to improve their resilience in the face of expected changes.
In 2016, an external evaluation of the first National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (PNACC-1 2011-2015) was entrusted to the General Council for the Environment and Development (CGEDD), which became the General Inspectorate for the Environment and Sustainable Development (IGEDD) in 2022. This evaluation highlighted the challenges, gaps and obstacles to the implementation of adaptation policies.

This evaluation concluded that the first NAP responded well overall to the main challenges related to adaptation to climate change identified by the IPCC, but that the next plan should pay sufficient attention to territorial adaptation, to taking into account the specific challenges of the French Overseas Territories, and to greater involvement of stakeholders outside the public sphere.

The first adaptation plan was also deemed insufficiently prioritised.

The difficulties or barriers encountered vary according to the actions but can be summarised as follows
- Feasibility difficulties that may stem from a lack of resources, whether human or financial, or a lack of prior knowledge;
- a certain lack of involvement of the entities in charge, such as insufficient political mobilisation; sometimes due to
- The consequences of climate change, which are often considered abstract, need to be better explained,
- the difficulty for local authorities to grasp the issues at stake over a long period of time and to mobilise the political and economic players concerned.

These conclusions are also quite identical for most economic sectors which often have difficulty in conceiving what an adaptation strategy for their activity could be, especially considering small businesses.
The national strategy for adaptation to climate change is the State's response to address the issue of adaptation to climate change. This strategy was developed through a broad consultation process, led by the National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC), involving the different sectors of activity and civil society under the responsibility of the Interministerial Delegate for Sustainable Development. It was validated by the Interministerial Committee for Sustainable Development on 13 November 2006, chaired by the Prime Minister. This strategy was still considered relevant when the preparation of the second plan began in 2016.

The National Adaptation Plan (PNACC-1 2011-2015), was adopted in 2011. It defined a series of actions and implementation processes covering a wide range of sectors. The NAP was developed in interaction with stakeholders. The review process of the NAP started in June 2016. Announced in the national climate plan (Plan Climat) published in July 2017, the second National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (PNACC-2) was presented by the Minister for Ecological and Solidarity Transition on 20 December 2018. With its second Nataional Adaptation Plan, France is aiming for effective adaptation from the middle of the 21st century to a regional climate in mainland France and the French overseas departments and territories consistent with a global temperature rise of 2 ° C compared to the pre-industrial temperature. Its objective is to better prepare French society for climate change by integrating adaptation into public policies, involving the territories and the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism, etc.). Compared to the first NAP (2011-2015), the NAP-2 is distinguished by the following major orientations :
- a greater involvement of territorial actors within a coherent, coordinated, shared and closely monitored national climate change adaptation approach
- a priority given to nature-based solutions wherever they make sense
- a strong focus on the overseas territories, which is reflected in specific measures for these regions that are highly vulnerable to climate change;
- the involvement of the major economic sectors, starting with systematic prospective studies;
- the implementation of close monitoring of the measures by a specialised Commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) representing the stakeholders and society and chaired by a senator. The annual progress report on the plan is presented to the specialised commission, which issues an opinion each year and submits it to the CNTE;

The fifty eight measures included in the NAP-2 (PNACC 2) are divided into six major areas of action that take into account all the problems posed by the current and expected impacts of climate change:
- governance: territorialisation of the NCCP 2 and changes to standards and regulations to take account of the future climate;
- prevention and resilience: improving prevention and strengthening resilience to the expected increase in extreme events;
- nature and environments: adapting and preserving environments to ensure the favourable development of biodiversity and our environmental heritage;
- Economic sectors: adapting the major economic sectors affected by climate change, including tourism, agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, forestry and the timber industry, as well as the finance and insurance sector;
- knowledge and information: improving knowledge and the means of training and informing stakeholders and the general public in order to accelerate France's adaptation and consolidate the basis on which decisions are taken;
- international dimension: development and export of French know-how in this area and influence of French diplomacy in climate negotiations.

The total amount of €8.7 billion will be mobilised over five-year period from 2018 to 2023.

The budgets spent over the period 2018-2021 to implement climate change adaptation actions under the NAP-2 are as follows:
- €100,000 for the governance of the adaptation policy ;
- 346 million for the prevention and management of natural risks and disasters
- 1.6 billion for the preservation and sustainable management of natural resources and environments
- 43 million for the adaptation of economic sectors
- 121 million for improving knowledge and information on climate change
- 6.1 billion for France's international action on climate change
The new territorial organisation of the Republic (N° 2015-991), known as the NOTRe law, was the 7th of August 2015. This law requires each metropolitan region, excluding the Île-de-France region, to draw up a regional strategy for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). The SRADDET defines, among other things, medium- and long-term objectives relating to climate, air and energy, including climate change mitigation and adaptation. The SRADDET integrates and simplifies the pre-existing regional climate, air and energy strategy (SRCAE) and the other plans relating to ecological coherence, transport, infrastructure and waste by taking up "the essential elements" with the aim of better coordination of spatial planning policies. These documents are designed as tools for integrating the various planning policies; they are forward-looking and prescriptive. In Île-de-France, Corsica and the French overseas territories, the regional climate guidelines, and in particular those on adaptation to climate change, must be included in the corresponding planning tools, respectively the SRCAE (Regional Climate, Air and Energy Strategy for Île-de-France and Corsica) and the SAR (Regional Development Strategy for the French overseas territories).

The Region must set medium and long-term objectives and general rules for sustainable, balanced and resilient development at the intermediate level between the national and local levels. This comprehensive tool, which is ultimately approved by the regional prefect, therefore requires broad consultation and dialogue with all the players involved in sustainable regional development, and in particular the players and decision-makers who draw up sub-regional urban planning documents (territorial coherence plans, territorial climate-air-energy plans), as they are the ones who will have to implement the regional guidelines at the level of the inter-municipalities.

Ecological transition and adaptation to climate change are key cross-cutting themes of the SRADDETs, and concern in particular the economical management of resources and land and the fight against the consumption of agricultural, natural and forestry areas.

At the inter-municipal level, the territorial climate air and energy plans (PCAETs, which are compulsory for all public establishments of inter-municipal cooperation with more than 20,000 inhabitants) are tools for coordinating the territory and defining strategic and operational objectives in order to mitigate climate change, adapt to it, develop renewable energies and control energy consumption and reduce air pollution. They include a diagnosis, a territorial strategy, an action plan and a monitoring and evaluation system. The strategy identifies the priorities that the local authority chooses and the objectives that it sets itself. The action plan covers all sectors of activity and is the operational tool for coordinating the energy transition in the territory. The monitoring and evaluation system covers the implementation of actions, governance and steering adopted. It describes the indicators to be monitored in relation to the objectives set. The objectives and priorities must be explicitly linked to the existing regional plan. In total, more than 750 mandatory PCAET are expected, reinforced by voluntary PCAET prepared by local authorities that are not obliged to draw up one. All the PCAET have been made public and are available at http://www.territoires-climat.ademe.fr.

Many other documents can also contribute to adaptation to climate change on a smaller scale of themes or territories. This is particularly the case for :
- the Territorial Coherence Scheme and the Local Urban Plan
- natural risk prevention plans
- urban transport plans
- regional health and environment plans
- strategic seafront document plans or action plans for marine environments on the coast
- park charters in certain areas.
- water development and management (master) plans.
The first National Adaptation Plan (PNACC 2011-2015) was intended to facilitate the integration of adaptation into various sectoral policies. According to the NAP evaluation report, the integration of adaptation considerations into main land use and resource management policies is well progressing in the areas of biodiversity, forestry, agriculture and urban planning, as well as in coastal and mountainous areas. Integrations into the river basin management strategy have also been achieved.

For example, the first national strategy on flood risk, published in October 2014, and the national strategy for integrated coastal management have taken into account the impact of climate change.

The second National Adaptation Plan (PNACC-2) has the same objective of strengthening integration into sectoral policies and also creates cohesion between adaptation and mitigation measures. In particular, the level of adaptation to be achieved is directly linked to the ambitions to limit temperature increases; conversely, some greenhouse gas mitigation measures depend on the expected evolution of climate conditions. With foresight exercises at various levels underway, the NAP-2 also helps to raise awareness and mobilise stakeholders to develop their capacity to cope with change by integrating climate change into economic and financial risk analysis.

The natural risks reduction is based in particular on the Natural Risk Prevention Plans (PPRN), which are examined by the decentralised services of the State and which are valid as a public utility servitude. They are therefore enforceable and must be annexed to the Local Urban Plan (PLU). The aim of the PPRN is to delimit the areas exposed to risks and, depending on this assessment, to prohibit or authorise new constructions or developments there subject to specific requirements. They also define prevention, protection and safeguard measures, and measures relating to constructions and developments already present in risk zones. PPRNs are available for different hazards, including coastal hazards. Coastal risk prevention plans systematically include a 20 cm rise in average sea level to take account of the short-term consequences of climate change and a 60 cm rise in average sea level in 100 years (circular of 27 July 2011 and decree of 5 July 2019). Indeed, the rise in sea level will make marine submersions more frequent.

In France, water resources are managed in river basins, delimited by surface water divides. For each basin, a basin committee decides on the main guidelines within the framework of national and European water policies. This assembly is composed of a broad representation of all categories of water stakeholders: 40% elected representatives of local authorities, 40% representatives of water users, 20% representatives of the State. The water agencies contribute to securing water bodies and aquatic environments in the face of climate change through strong decisions, investments or developments and by promoting useful tools and methods for taking action. Within the framework of the first national adaptation plan (PNACC 2011-2015), one action consisted of strengthening the integration of climate change issues into water planning and management, in particular in the intervention programmes of the Water Agencies (2013-2018) and in the Water Development and Management Master Plans (2016-2021). This action aimed to integrate the expected impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptation measures into the intervention tools of the water agencies and the planning tools for water management on the scale of the major river basins. The SDAGEs and the intervention programmes of the water agencies that have been drawn up since then thus make it possible to ensure that the challenges of climate change are sufficiently taken into account. All the water agencies have adopted climate change adaptation plans that specify the adaptation actions to be prioritised for each area. Through their 11th action programme for 2019-2024, the water agencies have thus planned to devote €500 million per year to operations that contribute to adaptation to climate change.
Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the first National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (2011-2015), the second adaptation plan NAP-2 (PNACC-2) was developed by mobilising the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders. The consultation was organised according to six areas of action which structure the priorities of the NAP-2. The work thus began in 2016 with a consultation phase aimed at identifying the necessary measures in a collective exercise that was resolutely transparent, open and partnership-based. The State, under the responsibility of the Directorate-General for Energy and Climate (DGEC), set up a working group for each of the six components, each chaired by the central administration directorates most concerned by the themes addressed. Members of the National Council for an Ecological Transition were invited to join the working groups, which also included qualified individuals from various backgrounds (scientists, economic players, NGOs) and representatives of government departments. The most vulnerable populations are represented through the State services or via their representatives in NGOs. Over a twelve-month working period, almost 300 participants divided into 6 groups met in parallel 3 to 4 times depending on the group.

A seminar organised on 4 July 2017 brought together the participants of all the groups to collectively discuss the conclusions of each of them. The various thematic recommendation sheets resulting from the consultation were thus finalised under the direction of the group chairmen with the support of ONERC for the secretariat and coordination of the work. This exercise was finalised with the publication of the second Climate Change Adaptation Plan in 2018.

For the elaboration of regional climate policies, the regions generally have a regional network either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or more rarely with the other themes of the regional plans for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). The aim of these multi-actor networks is to encourage regional actors to take into account the challenges of adaptation and to enable them to move forward on these issues. The most vulnerable populations are involved through their representatives in national, regional and local associations.

Identical structures have also been set up at a more local level (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories in the process of developing a PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the development and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

For instance, in Normandy, an "energy transition" WG led by the DREAL brings together the DDT(M), ADEME, the bank of territories, the DRAAF and the Region. In particular, it has set up a working group to support a collective increase in skills in adapting to climate change (setting up training courses, developing shared language, listing available resources and data, supporting new teams, etc.). In this context and for a better articulation of the approaches, the work is shared more widely with other Norman actors (ANBDD, OFB, Region, etc.). A thematic council on adaptation is also led by the Normandy Agency for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development (ANBDD) created in 2020.

Similarly, in the Hauts de France region, there is also a regional network of territories in the process of implementing the PCAET led by the Region and the DREAL. This network aims to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of the territories by facilitating the creation and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs. Adaptation is one of the topics addressed. Since autumn 2019, 8 webinars have been offered. There are also departmental PCAET clubs in some of the Region's departments.

In most regions, regional observatories on agriculture and climate change (ORACLE), associated with a prospective approach (Climat XXI), have been set up by the regional chamber of agriculture, in a partnership framework. The indicators deployed help to make climate change real for the agricultural world and serve as a basis for numerous awareness-raising actions among the agricultural sectors.

In the Nouvelle Aquitaine region, the regional council recently financed the creation of a regional research network, Futurs-ACT, which aims to structure and synergise the work of laboratories and researchers on anticipating climate change in the territories of Nouvelle Aquitaine, with an emphasis on the science-society-decision-maker link.

For example, in the Occitanie region, within the framework of links established between regional scientific actors such as the ATECOPOL, RECO and Météo-France, a call for projects has been launched to build awareness-raising events around the issues specific to each territory.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported
As part of the implementation of the roadmap from the 2014 Environmental Conference, the General Council for the Environment and Sustainable Development (CGEDD) was entrusted with the final evaluation of the NAP (PNACC 2011-2015) by the Minister for the Environment in June 2015. Several evaluations, both on individual themes and on the overall plan, were also published and were integrated into the final evaluation report in the form of an ONERC report to the Prime Minister and Parliament in 2016. France is a pioneer in its evaluation of adaptation policy, as it has engaged in an open, transparent and collaborative process to document as widely as possible the experience gained through the implementation of the first national adaptation plan.

The final evaluation report noted that although this was the first plan, its overall progress was very satisfactory, with 80% of the actions and about 75% of the measures initiated completed by the end of 2016. However, the mission was unable to comment on the scale of the financial commitment to the plan, for which €171 million had been envisaged, as the financial resources allocated were not monitored in a comprehensive manner. This first plan placed great emphasis on the deployment of key levers that the State could use to move the country forward, such as laws, statutory provisions, planning tools, methodological tools, improved observational systems and the sharing of analysis and observations. Some notable results can be highlighted, such as the publication of the Report on the climate in France in the 21st century, planning tools that have been considerably improved (e.g. the first French national policy for flood risk management, published in October 2014, and the national strategy for integrated coastal zone management take into account the impact of climate change and some operational measures to adapt specific sectors of activity that have been taken.

The monitoring of the implementation of the second national adaptation plan to climate change, which covers the period 2018 to 2023 (PNACC-2), is described in the "governance" section of PNACC-2.

This mechanism has been entrusted to the specialised commission of the National Council for an Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of guiding ONERC. This commission thus acts as a national adaptation monitoring committee to ensure annual monitoring of the plan, to choose relevant adaptation indicators and to propose, if necessary, changes in the national adaptation policy, particularly through additions to the PNACC-2. This body has made the NAP-2 an evolving, transparent and democratic public policy instrument while preparing its final global evaluation.
The implementation of the PNACC-2 required the setting up of a rigorous mechanism for monitoring the actions included in this ambitious plan and the resources mobilised. This mechanism involves the various levels of actors in a virtuous process that has made it possible to ensure, in complete transparency, the proper start-up and progress of the 58 actions included in this plan. This makes possible to measure the progress made in terms of adaptation as the plan implementation and until the end of the NAP period.

The monitoring mechanism is based on the CNTE's specialised commission in charge of steering the ONERC, which acts as a partnership monitoring body, according to the procedures it has defined from 2019, the start of the plan's implementation. The specialised commission regularly reports to the CNTE, which publishes an annual opinion on the implementation of the PNACC-2, and thus to the Minister in charge of the environment, on the progress of the actions included in the PNACC-2, with the aim of maintaining the highest level of mobilisation of all levels responsible for these actions or involved in their implementation.

Implementation is monitored using a specific monitoring tool developed by the digital service of the Ministry of Ecological Transition. Thanks to this tool, the pilots of the actions and sub-actions can regularly update the progress of the implementation of the NAP-2 actions. The CNTE's specialised commission has also validated a series of indicators sorted according to three axes: risk and impacts, implementation and result. These indicators, which are regularly updated, provide an overview of the impacts of climate change, the actions implemented and the results obtained.
As the NAP-2 was implemented, new sub-actions became necessary and the dedicated budget increased accordingly. Out of a total planned budget of €8.7 billion over the period 2018-2023, the budget spent on the implementation of the NAP-2 increased from €299 million at the end of 2019 to €2.5 billion in 2020, reaching an overall budget of €8.3 billion at the end of 2021.

This sum does not take into account the budgets planned for the prevention and management of natural risks of €1.1 billion outside the context of climate change.
The State plays also an important role in supporting stakeholders in natural risk management. Support for prevention relies heavily on the Major Natural Hazards Prevention Fund (Fonds de prévention des risques naturels majeurs FPRNM, also known as the "Barnier Fund") created in 1995 and endowed, via the contributions of those insured under the Natural Disaster (CatNat) scheme, with approximately €200 million per year, capped at €137 million in revenue for the 2018 Finance Act, but increased to €205 million in 2021. It is organised in three main packages:
    relocation measures. The option is to buy back houses progressively in risk areas;
    studies carried out for local authorities. 80% of the costs can be covered by studies to reduce the vulnerability of buildings to flooding;
    Vulnerability reduction for companies and individuals within the scope of the PPR (Plans de Prévention des Risques) but the amounts are low.
As the NACP-2 is implemented, new sub-actions have become necessary and the dedicated budget has increased accordingly. Thus the overall budget of the NAP-2 has increased from €299m at the end of 2019 to €8.3bn at the end of 2021.

The budgets spent over the period 2018-2021 to implement climate change adaptation actions under the NAP-2 are as follows:
- €100,000 for the governance of the adaptation policy ;
- 346 million for the prevention and management of natural risks and disasters
- 1.6 billion for the preservation and sustainable management of natural resources and environments
- 43 million for the adaptation of economic sectors
- 121 million for improving knowledge and information on climate change
- 6.1 billion for France's international action on climate change
One of the key measures of the first NAP (PNACC-2018-2021) is part of the implementation of the Flood Risk Assessment and Management Directive. Its impact is significant in terms of adaptation to climate change. For the first time, thanks to the Flood Directive, France has a national flood risk management strategy (October 2014). The preliminary flood risk assessment and the mapping of risks in the 122 territories at significant risk of flooding have made it possible to significantly improve knowledge; the major basins have a flood risk management plan, and the 122 territories at significant risk of flooding have a local flood risk management strategy.

For the coast topic, the SONEL internet portal allows the consultation of the long-term monitoring of sea levels. The wave submersion alert is now operational in mainland France and has been progressively extended to overseas France since 2016. This represents an undeniable achievement of the first national adaptation plan to climate change. It is based on an operational wave and marine surge forecasting chain developed by Météo-France with the French Navy's Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and called the HOMONIM project. Coastal risk prevention plans incorporate climate change and their implementation is facilitated by the publication of a methodological guide in May 2014.

In addition, similar initiatives also concern risks in mountain areas: for example, for flash floods on mountainous terrain, IRSTEA and Météo-France have developed the RHYTMME project for the deployment of radars in the S and X bands, for the forecasting of hydrometeorological risk in Mediterranean mountainous terrain, which gave the opportunity to progressively develop a flash flood warning system. This flash flood warning system is being deployed more widely beyond the Mediterranean in Brittany and the Pyrenees. For the sensitive issue of shrinkage and swelling of clays (RGA), which represents a definite risk of building cracking, research and studies have been carried out within the framework of the ARGIC 2 project. Three technical guides have also been published on the characterisation of clay soils, on the design of foundations and on the repair of structures subject to RGA.

At the end of the first adaptation plan, France was better prepared to face natural risks, the implementation of the flooding directive having represented a major step forward and the disasters of 2010 (storm Xynthia and the Var floods) having accelerated awareness of the need to act. The scope of the actions required the strong mobilisation of the scientific and technical network and the decentralised services.
In the field of knowledge, several structuring research initiatives in support of public action have been carried out or initiated within the framework of the NAP (PNACC), for example on the decadal forecasting of climatic events and associated uncertainties, understanding the role of climate change in extreme events, knowledge of wave climates, climate scenarios in mountain areas, adaptation of buildings to the problem of heat and urban cooling as well as to the shrinkage and swelling of clays, or the use of innovative methods to develop adaptation within the territory. A major knowledge effort has been undertaken in certain areas, such as the metaprogramme for adaptation to climate change in agriculture and forestry within the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE). Foresight exercises have also been carried out, such as "Explore 2070" in the field of water or "AFClim", which has made it possible to draw lessons on the factors favourable or unfavourable to adaptation actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors and to identify levers that can be mobilised to adapt to environments likely to be exacerbated by climate change. Interesting initiatives have also been taken to facilitate the dissemination of research results to professionals, such as the Aforce mixed technology network in the forestry sector (RMT-AForce), which is thus actively participating in increasing adaptive capacity.

ONERC reports present the main consequences of global warming in France and include recommendations for adaptation:
- The tree and the forest in the face of a changing climate (2014),
- The coastline in the context of climate change (2015),
- Extreme weather events in a changing climate, December (2018)
- Nature-based solutions for adapting to climate change (2019),
- Foresight for climate change adaptation (2022).

The Climate Change Adaptation Resource Centre has been designed to support all stakeholders in climate change adaptation. It is the first French resource centre specifically dedicated to adaptation to climate change. It provides access to information on the reality of climate change, its challenges and existing solutions. It provides tools for all stakeholders and enables them to take action through five user paths: elected officials, local authority technicians, economic actors, research consultancies and individuals. All the themes of adaptation to climate change are covered. Specific pages bring together regional information (mapping of local initiatives, directory of local actors, access to climate services, etc.). A search engine provides access to various resources: reports, fact sheets, guides, summaries, research projects, etc.
While the thematic approach of the first national climate change adaptation plan (2011-2015) had the advantage of allowing each department of the central government administration to quickly find its areas of competence in the plan, its evaluation showed that this system did not allow for sufficient consideration of the interfaces between themes and for prioritisation.

The French Climate Plan published in 2017 announces the priorities of the second national adaptation plan, namely the protection of the French people and the economy, and in particular the most exposed sectors and regions such as agriculture, forestry, coastal regions or mountain areas.

Based on the recommendations resulting from the evaluation of the first NAP (PNACC 2011-2015), the NAP-2 (PNACC 2018-2023) was developed by mobilising the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders. The consultation was organised according to 6 areas of action which structure the priorities of the NAP-2 as follows :
- the actions in the "Governance" area aim to effectively link the national and territorial levels and to involve society in the implementation and monitoring of the NAP-2, with particular attention to the overseas territories; they will ensure coherence between adaptation and mitigation and strengthen the legal and normative framework for adaptation;
- the proposed actions are based on the best scientific knowledge and on raising the awareness of the whole population of the need to fight and adapt to climate change ('Knowledge and information' area).
- Many actions aim to protect people and property from climate risks ("Prevention and resilience" area) and to prepare economic sectors for the expected changes ("Economic sectors" area), which will accompany the evolution and reinforce the potential for job creation and innovation;
- some actions aim to benefit from the experiences of other countries and to strengthen the capacity of French actors to support developing countries in their own climate change adaptation policies ("International" area).
Announced by the Climate Plan in 2017, France has increased the funding dedicated to the adaptation of its territories and economy during the NAP-2 period (PNACC-2 2018 2023) to act in metropolitan and overseas territories on the prevention of climate change impacts, resilience.

The second National Adaptation Plan also aims to better inform and raise awareness among the general public of the multiple challenges of adaptation to climate change and the potential offered by nature-based solutions, in order to create a favourable context for the implementation of adaptation measures. This objective of raising awareness among the general public is complemented by an objective of training the various categories of stakeholders, including elected officials at different levels of responsibility and actors in the world of work, by conducting pilot educational actions in territories vulnerable to climate change, particularly in the French overseas territories.The theme of adaptation is still in the process of being appropriated by the territories, but it is gradually being integrated into the governance spaces currently deployed to guide and monitor the actions of the territories in terms of energy transition, mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
The Drias, futurs of climate (Drias, les futurs du climat) service was launched in July 2012 and is the result of the Drias project (Donner accès aux scénarios climatiques Régionalisés français pour l'Impact et l'Adaptation de nos Sociétés et environnement) financed by the Management and Impact of Climate Change (GICC) programme of the French Ministry of Energy and Solidarity Transition (MTES). At the end of 2020, the Drias les futurs du Climat portal has reveived a major update with the launch of Drias 2020, which now incorporates the following new features:
- A new design for the entire portal
- Improved ergonomics for the Discovery area.
- Enrichment of the articles in the Accompaniment area.
- A new reference data set: DRIAS-2020
- New agro-climatic indicators.

In 2021, as part of the C3AF project (Climate Change and Consequences in the French West Indies) led by Météo-France and its scientific partners (University of the West Indies, BRGM and the University of Montpellier), new regionalized climate projections were produced and integrated into the portal for several overseas territories (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barthélemy), followed by Reunion Island with the addition in July 2021 of data from the BRIO-2021 set. Access to these data is essential to enable vulnerability studies of territories necessary for the definition of climate change adaptation policies by local authorities. A large number of exercises exist on the provision of knowledge in the water sector, including Explore 2070 which works on a specific time window (2046-2065), with regionalised projections. This project aimed to assess the impacts of climate change on aquatic environments and water resources by 2070, and to facilitate the management of adaptation issues in the water sector by addressing climate, surface hydrology and groundwater hydrology. The research community has made progress since 2010 and scientists are embarking on a consortium of French research organisations and university centres (Météo France, INRAE, BRGM, ENS, Sorbonne University, IGE, LSCE, EDF) to update the Explore 2070 results by adopting a multi-model approach to assess the uncertainties at the different levels of climate and hydrology modelling. The Explore 2 project is thus based on the DRIAS 2020 projections, which provide a vision of possible climate changes over the 21st century under three GHG emission scenarios considered; this is a novelty and a great asset compared to Explore 2070, which is limited to one scenario and a reduced simulation window (2046-2065).

As part of the implementation of the NAP-2 (PNACC-2), the ONERC report to the Prime Minister and Parliament, entitled "La prospective au service de l'adaptation au changement climatique" (Foresight for adaptation to climate change), published in 2022, illustrates the mobilisation of different actors.

At the inter-municipal level, the revision of the PCAETs every six years allows for the updating of local vulnerability studies.
Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the first NAP (PNACC 2011-2015), the NAP-2 was developed by mobilising the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders, which made it possible to co-construct the actions included in this adaptation plan. The consultation was organised according to six areas of action which structure the priorities of the NAP-2.

In the same way, the steering and monitoring of the NAP-2 is based on a specific mechanism adapted to the multitude of areas and actors involved in the policy of adaptation to climate change.

This mechanism is entrusted to the specialised commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of guiding ONERC. This commission thus acts as a national adaptation monitoring committee to ensure annual monitoring of the plan, to choose relevant adaptation indicators and to propose, if necessary, changes in the national adaptation policy, particularly through additions to this NAP. The purpose of this body is to make the NAP an evolving public policy instrument while preparing its final overall assessment, which will lead to the development of the next national adaptation plan. The implementation of the second national adaptation plan to climate change (PNACC-2) is organised around a dual monitoring mechanism and an annual cycle of meetings involving the departments of the pilot ministries and the representatives of civil society concerned.

In the first quarter, the pilots of the NAP-2 actions meet to present the year's work programme and the budgetary elements for the current and next year. In the second quarter, the members of the CNTE's specialised commission, responsible for guiding the action of the National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC) and representing all the colleges of civil society, meet to present the year's work programme.

In the third quarter, the pilots of the territorial actions, the members of the specialised commission concerned, the territorial authorities and the deconcentrated services of the State are invited to a territorial coordination meeting.

In the fourth quarter, the NAP-2 (PNACC-2) pilots and the members of the specialised commission meet to prepare the CNTE's opinion on the annual assessment of the implementation of the NAP-2 (PNACC-2), which is then voted on in the CNTE's plenary session. Each of these opinions is accessible to all on the website of the Ministry in charge of Environment.

Good practices and lessons learnt

A key action of the national adaptation plan (PNACC-2), the Climate Change Adaptation Resource Centre has been designed to support all stakeholders in climate change adaptation. This new resource centre provides access to personalised information on the reality of climate change, its challenges and existing solutions. It provides all actors with tools and enables them to take action through five pathways.

Cooperation and experience

With its adaptation strategy (2006) and its two national adaptation plans published respectively in 2011 and 2018, France's adaptation policy contributes to the adaptation component of the Paris Agreement and is in line with the sustainable development goals, contributing directly to goal 13 on climate and more transversally to the goals related to water (ODD 6) and those related to the resilience of industry (ODD 9) and cities (ODD 11).

The French natural risk management policy responds to the four priorities defined at the global level by the Sendai 2015-2030 framework for action.

At the national level, the Ministry of Ecological Transition and Solidarity is the holder of the natural risk management and flood forecasting policy. It relies on the Ministry of Territorial Cohesion to ensure that risks are taken into account in urban planning and that construction rules are strictly respected. The Ministry of the Economy supervises the insurance sector, which is responsible for compensation in the event of a disaster. The Ministries of Agriculture, Health, Foreign Affairs, Culture and Education also contribute to risk prevention in their areas of responsibility. The Director General of Risk Prevention of the Ministry of Ecological Transition and Territory cohesion, as the delegate for major risks, ensures coordination with the Ministry of the Interior (DGSCGC), which intervenes in the event of a crisis.

The State implements actions in the legislative, regulatory and technical fields to improve the prevention and reduction of risks at source on the one hand and, on the other, the information and protection of citizens. The ministries rely on several operators whose actions primarily concern knowledge of the risk through research projects, observation and forecasting of hazards, and measures to reduce vulnerability, which can also be mobilised in crisis management.
France actively participates in the EU’s work to coordinate its position on scientific agenda items under the UNFCCC. In this context, it contributes to scientific analysis and other preparative documents and attends the regular meetings between member states in this field. The issue group (IG-Science) dedicated to scientific issues under the Working Party for International Environmental Issues (WPIEI) meets 2-3 times per semester. In 2022 and 2023, it notably considered how to reflect recent IPCC reports under the relevant agenda items of the UNFCCC.
The Pyrenean Climate Change Observatory (OPCC) is a cross-border territorial cooperation initiative of the Pyrenean Working Community (PTC), launched in 2010 in the field of climate change. The members of the PTC, and therefore of the OPCCC, are the Principality of Andorra and the French Regions of New Aquitaine and Occitania, as well as the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon, Catalonia, Euskadi and Navarre. Since November 2019, Catalonia has held the Presidency of the Pyrenean Working Community.

The Pyrenean Climate Change Observatory, OPCC, aims to monitor and understand the phenomenon of climate change in the Pyrenees to help the territory adapt to its impacts. Its vision is to be the reference platform for knowledge on adaptation to climate change in mountain ecosystems.

Its governance is articulated around a Technical Committee, a Steering Committee and an Advisory Committee:
- The Technical Committee is composed of the referents of the 7 territories of the CTP, and has the function of orienting and setting priorities.
- The Steering Committee is made up of the project partners and is in charge of coordinating and implementing the operational part of the project.
- The Advisory Committee is composed of scientists and representatives of the socio-economic sectors of the Massif. Its mission is to guarantee scientific rigour and to give strategic orientations to the Observatory's work.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

The implementation of the second national plan for adaptation to climate change (PNACC-2) is organised around a monitoring mechanism involving the departments of the pilot ministries and the representatives of civil society concerned.

The ministry has also set up an internal working group on water and climate change involving central and decentralised administration departments, operators (water agencies, French Office for Biodiversity) and partner research institutes (INRAE). Within the framework of the French Energy and Climate Strategy, several working groups have been organised, including a group on the Climate Change Adaptation Goal (TRACC) and a group on the territorialisation of climate policies.
As an action of the framework of the National Adaptation Plan, a resource centre on adaptation to climate change has been developed in collaboration with certain State operators, using new information technologies to facilitate the sharing of experiences, the access to good practices and a presentation of the mapping of actors, particularly at the territorial level. This centre deals in particular with the following themes: health (including at work), water, agriculture, forestry, soils, biodiversity, natural risks, urban planning, mobility, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism and the financial sector.
The new territorial organisation of the Republic (N° 2015-991), known as the NOTRe law, was the 7th of August 2015. This law requires each metropolitan region, excluding the Île-de-France region, to draw up a regional strategy for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). The SRADDET defines, among other things, medium- and long-term objectives relating to climate, air and energy, including climate change mitigation and adaptation. The SRADDET integrates and simplifies the pre-existing regional climate, air and energy strategy (SRCAE) and the other plans relating to ecological coherence, transport, infrastructure and waste by taking up "the essential elements" with the aim of better coordination of spatial planning policies. These documents are designed as tools for integrating the various planning policies; they are forward-looking and prescriptive. In Île-de-France, Corsica and the French overseas territories, the regional climate guidelines, and in particular those on adaptation to climate change, must be included in the corresponding planning tools, respectively the SRCAE (Regional Climate, Air and Energy Strategy for Île-de-France and Corsica) and the SAR (Regional Development Strategy for the French overseas territories).

The Region must set medium and long-term objectives and general rules for sustainable, balanced and resilient development at the intermediate level between the national and local levels. This comprehensive tool, which is ultimately approved by the regional prefect, therefore requires broad consultation and dialogue with all the players involved in sustainable regional development, and in particular the players and decision-makers who draw up sub-regional urban planning documents (territorial coherence plans, territorial climate-air-energy plans), as they are the ones who will have to implement the regional guidelines at the level of the inter-municipalities.

Ecological transition and adaptation to climate change are key cross-cutting themes of the SRADDETs, and concern in particular the economical management of resources and land and the fight against the consumption of agricultural, natural and forestry areas.

At the inter-municipal level, the territorial climate air and energy plans (PCAETs, which are compulsory for all public establishments of inter-municipal cooperation with more than 20,000 inhabitants) are tools for coordinating the territory and defining strategic and operational objectives in order to mitigate climate change, adapt to it, develop renewable energies and control energy consumption and reduce air pollution. They include a diagnosis, a territorial strategy, an action plan and a monitoring and evaluation system. The strategy identifies the priorities that the local authority chooses and the objectives that it sets itself. The action plan covers all sectors of activity and is the operational tool for coordinating the energy transition in the territory. The monitoring and evaluation system covers the implementation of actions, governance and steering adopted. It describes the indicators to be monitored in relation to the objectives set. The objectives and priorities must be explicitly linked to the existing regional plan. In total, more than 750 mandatory PCAET are expected, reinforced by voluntary PCAET prepared by local authorities that are not obliged to draw up one. All the PCAET have been made public and are available at http://www.territoires-climat.ademe.fr.

Many other documents can also contribute to adaptation to climate change on a smaller scale of themes or territories. This is particularly the case for :
- the Territorial Coherence Scheme and the Local Urban Plan
- natural risk prevention plans
- urban transport plans
- regional health and environment plans
- strategic seafront document plans or action plans for marine environments on the coast
- park charters in certain areas.
- water development and management (master) plans.

In France, water resources are managed in river basins, delimited by surface water divides. For each basin, a basin committee decides on the main guidelines within the framework of national and European water policies. This assembly is composed of a broad representation of all categories of water stakeholders: 40% elected representatives of local authorities, 40% representatives of water users, 20% representatives of the State. The water agencies contribute to securing water bodies and aquatic environments in the face of climate change through strong decisions, investments or developments and by promoting useful tools and methods for taking action. Within the framework of the first national adaptation plan (PNACC 2011-2015), one action consisted of strengthening the integration of climate change issues into water planning and management, in particular in the intervention programmes of the Water Agencies (2013-2018) and in the Water Development and Management Master Plans (2016-2021). This action aimed to integrate the expected impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptation measures into the intervention tools of the water agencies and the planning tools for water management on the scale of the major river basins. The SDAGEs and the intervention programmes of the water agencies that have been drawn up since then thus make it possible to ensure that the challenges of climate change are sufficiently taken into account. All the water agencies have adopted climate change adaptation plans that specify the adaptation actions to be prioritised for each area. Through their 11th action programme for 2019-2024, the water agencies have thus planned to devote €500 million per year to operations that contribute to adaptation to climate change.
Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the first National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (PNACC), the second adaptation plan NAP-2 (PNACC-2) was developed by mobilising the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders. The consultation was organised according to six areas of action which structure the priorities of the NAP-2. The work thus began in 2016 with a consultation phase aimed at identifying the necessary measures in a collective exercise that was resolutely transparent, open and partnership-based. The State, under the responsibility of the Directorate-General for Energy and Climate (DGEC), set up a working group for each of the six components, each chaired by the central administration directorates most concerned by the themes addressed. Members of the National Council for an Ecological Transition were invited to join the working groups, which also included qualified individuals from various backgrounds (scientists, economic players, NGOs) and representatives of government departments. The most vulnerable populations are represented through the State services or via their representatives in NGOs. Over a twelve-month working period, almost 300 participants divided into 6 groups met in parallel 3 to 4 times depending on the group.

A seminar organised on 4 July 2017 brought together the participants of all the groups to collectively discuss the conclusions of each of them. The various thematic recommendation sheets resulting from the consultation were thus finalised under the direction of the group chairmen with the support of ONERC for the secretariat and coordination of the work. This exercise was finalised with the publication of the second Climate Change Adaptation Plan in 2018.

For the elaboration of regional climate policies, the regions generally have a regional network either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or more rarely with the other themes of the regional plans for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). The aim of these multi-actor networks is to encourage regional actors to take into account the challenges of adaptation and to enable them to move forward on these issues. The most vulnerable populations are involved through their representatives in national, regional and local associations.

Identical structures have also been set up at a more local level (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories in the process of developing a PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the development and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

For instance, in Normandy, an "energy transition" working group led by the DREAL brings together the DDT(M), ADEME, the bank of territories, the DRAAF and the Region. In particular, it has set up a working group to support a collective increase in skills in adapting to climate change (setting up training courses, developing shared language, listing available resources and data, supporting new teams, etc.). In this context and for a better articulation of the approaches, the work is shared more widely with other Norman actors (ANBDD, OFB, Region, etc.). A thematic council on adaptation is also led by the Normandy Agency for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development (ANBDD) created in 2020.

Similarly, in the Hauts de France region, there is also a regional network of territories in the process of implementing the PCAET led by the Region and the DREAL. This network aims to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of the territories by facilitating the creation and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs. Adaptation is one of the topics addressed. Since autumn 2019, 8 webinars have been offered. There are also departmental PCAET clubs in some of the Region's departments.

In most regions, regional observatories on agriculture and climate change (ORACLE), associated with a prospective approach (Climat XXI), have been set up by the regional chamber of agriculture, in a partnership framework. The indicators deployed help to make climate change real for the agricultural world and serve as a basis for numerous awareness-raising actions among the agricultural sectors.

In the Nouvelle Aquitaine region, the regional council recently financed the creation of a regional research network, Futurs-ACT, which aims to structure and synergise the work of laboratories and researchers on anticipating climate change in the territories of Nouvelle Aquitaine, with an emphasis on the science-society-decision-maker link.

For example, in the Occitanie region, within the framework of links established between regional scientific actors such as the ATECOPOL, RECO and Météo-France, a call for projects has been launched to build awareness-raising events around the issues specific to each territory.
Announced in France's Climate Plan in July 2017, the objective of the second national adaptation plan (PNACC-2) is to "better protect French people from extreme weather events, but also to better adapt the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism) to future climate conditions and improve their resilience to expected changes."

The implementation of the second national adaptation plan NAP-2 thus provides for prospective exercises to be carried out at various levels in order to raise awareness and mobilise stakeholders so that they are in a position to cope with changes by integrating climate change into the analysis of economic and financial risks.

In this context, ONERC's report to the Prime Minister and Parliament, entitled "La prospective au service de l'adaptation au changement climatique" (Foresight for adaptation to climate change), published in 2022, illustrates the mobilisation of different actors in the field of adaptation to climate change through different examples of foresight work. Each example presented focuses on different aspects of the work carried out, ranging from impact and vulnerability analyses, to the identification of responses to be implemented, to questions of acceptability of the proposed adaptation measures, according to the sensitivity of each actor. The methods and examples presented in this report help the sectors to identify their need for mobilisation in the face of the impacts of climate change and propose examples of action. Based on these experiences, new actors will be able to mobilise in turn and undertake specific prospective studies by sector to identify and strengthen priority actions in collaboration with actors and specialised institutes in the sectors, higher education and research establishments and regional observatories, facilitating their concrete consideration by economic actors, taking into account their specificities (size, sector, etc.), in particular by defining accompanying measures.

Specific prospective studies that already exist, such as CLIMAT-LAIT, CLIMAT Viande or the prospective studies conducted by Ademe or the MAA, are presented in this report. Without necessarily involving the entire sector, more and more private players are undertaking vulnerability analysis or adaptation forecasting exercises, particularly in collaboration with private consultancies.

A key action of the second national plan for adaptation to climate change is the Resource Centre on Adaptation to Climate Change. It has been designed to support all actors involved in adaptation to climate change. This new resource centre provides access to personalised information on the reality of climate change, its challenges and existing solutions. It provides all stakeholders with the tools they need to take action through five user paths, including one dedicated to economic stakeholders. All the themes of adaptation to climate change are covered. Specific pages bring together regional information (mapping of local initiatives, directory of local actors, access to climate services, etc.). A search engine provides access to various resources: reports, fact sheets, guides, summaries, research projects, etc.

For the development of regional climate policies, regions generally have a regional network either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or, more rarely, with the other themes of the regional strategies for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). The aim of these multi-actor networks is to encourage regional actors to take account of adaptation issues and to enable them to move forward on these issues.

Identical structures have also been set up at a more local level (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories with a PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the creation and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

From the national to the local level, the private sector is involved through employers' organisations (MEDEF), business confederations (CGPME, etc.), workers' unions and also the main sectors affected by climate change (FNSEA, FNPF, etc.) through their national, regional or local representatives on the CNTE's specialised commission responsible for monitoring the NAP-2 (PNACC-2).
As part of the implementation of the roadmap from the 2014 Environmental Conference, the General Council for the Environment and Sustainable Development (CGEDD) was entrusted with the final evaluation of the NAP (PNACC 2011-2015) by the Minister for the Environment in June 2015. Several evaluations, both on individual themes and on the overall plan, were also published and were integrated into the final evaluation report in the form of an ONERC report to the Prime Minister and Parliament in 2016. France is a pioneer in its evaluation of adaptation policy, as it has engaged in an open, transparent and collaborative process to document as widely as possible the experience gained through the implementation of the first national adaptation plan.

The final evaluation report noted that although this was the first plan, its overall progress was very satisfactory, with 80% of the actions and about 75% of the measures initiated completed by the end of 2016. However, the mission was unable to comment on the scale of the financial commitment to the plan, for which €171 million had been envisaged, as the financial resources allocated were not monitored in a comprehensive manner. This first plan placed great emphasis on the deployment of key levers that the State could use to move the country forward, such as laws, statutory provisions, planning tools, methodological tools, improved observational systems and the sharing of analysis and observations. Some notable results can be highlighted, such as the publication of the Report on the climate in France in the 21st century, planning tools that have been considerably improved (e.g. the first French national policy for flood risk management, published in October 2014, and the national strategy for integrated coastal zone management take into account the impact of climate change and some operational measures to adapt specific sectors of activity that have been taken.

The monitoring of the implementation of the second national adaptation plan to climate change, which covers the period 2018 to 2023 (PNACC-2), is described in the "governance" section of PNACC-2.

This mechanism has been entrusted to the specialised commission of the National Council for an Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of guiding ONERC. This commission thus acts as a national adaptation monitoring committee to ensure annual monitoring of the plan, to choose relevant adaptation indicators and to propose, if necessary, changes in the national adaptation policy, particularly through additions to the PNACC-2. This body has made the NAP-2 an evolving, transparent and democratic public policy instrument while preparing its final global evaluation
In order to increase knowledge on a finer scale and thus reduce uncertainties and facilitate the decisions of local actors, most regions have set up regional observation and research networks, sometimes called "local IPCCs" or "regional COPs", which take different forms depending on the region: regional research networks, expertise networks. What they have in common is the desire to structure and synergise the work of laboratories and researchers on anticipating climate change in their territories, with an emphasis on the science-society-decision-maker link.

Since 1996, the RARE has been supporting regional energy and environment agencies and observatories in their missions with the territories. More recently, this network has taken on the theme of adaptation to climate change. For example, under the impetus of AUvergne-Rhône-Alpes Energie Environnement (AURA-EE) and thanks to ClimaSTORY®, which is a playful collective intelligence tool that allows a territory to be approached from the angle of adaptation to climate change, the network is raising awareness of climate change issues among territorial actors. For the development of regional climate policies, the regions generally have a regional network that is either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or, more rarely, with the other themes of the regional plans for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). The aim of these multi-actor networks is to encourage regional actors to take into account the challenges of adaptation and to enable them to move forward on these issues.

Identical structures have also been set up at a more local level (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories with a PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the creation and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

Within the framework of the national strategy for integrated coastline management and the two action programmes that accompanied it from 2012 to 2015 and from 2017 to 2019, the coastal regions are now adopting regional strategies for integrated coastline management. The development or implementation of such strategies is at different stages depending on the region. They aim to combine natural risks with the environment (issues and solutions based on nature) and territorial planning.

Taking advantage of European funding, the Adapto project (2017-2022), initiated by the Conservatoire du littoral, aimed to explore solutions to erosion and marine submersion in natural coastal areas in the context of climate change, which is manifested by rising sea levels and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. On ten pilot sites, mainly natural and agricultural, belonging to the Conservatoire du littoral, this project tested a flexible management of the coastline.
France is an active participant in the Alpine Convention, which contains the guiding principles for a sustainable life in the Alps, now and in the future. The Convention is the legal basis for safeguarding sensitive Alpine ecosystems, regional cultural identities, heritage and traditions in the Alps.

The versatility and effectiveness of the Convention can be illustrated by the example of the global issue of climate change in the Alps. In April 2019, the ministers of the Alpine countries approved the system of climate targets for the Alps in 2050, which formulates an Alpine response to the global need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, complementing national and international targets and through cooperative approaches based on multi-level governance and stakeholder participation.

France is also active in EUSALP, the EU Strategy for the Alpine Region, participating or even leading Action groups, such as the Energy group, which focuses on the promotion of energy efficiency and the production and use of local renewable energy in the Alpine Region.

The coherence and link between the two existing groups are assured, allowing to unite the driving strengths in the same directions.

French local authorities are also signatories of the Covenant of Mayors. However, if no so many cities (less than 200) are members, 31 million of the 67 million French people are covered, and 20 million are covered by a covenant that includes adaptation to climate change (Less than 50 cities or local autoritories).

Good practices and lessons learnt

Efforts to integrate climate change adaptation into development and sectoral policies, plans and programs; Institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Within the framework of ecological planning, the action plan for resilient and concerted water management aims to guarantee quality water for all and preserve ecosystems. The 53 measures included are designed to meet three major challenges: sober use, quality and availability of the resource. The plan also improves response to drought crises.
The development of this plan was based on collaborative work with all stakeholders. The Comité national de l'eau (National Water Committee) and basin committees were consulted to share their issues and proposals.
The achievment of the plan's objectives are the responsibility of the State, local authorities, economic players, associations and citizens.

Ministère de la Transition écologique et de la Cohésion des Territoires

DGEC/SCEE/ONERC
Politique d'adaptation au changement climatique
Jérôme DUVERNOY
Chargé de mission adaptation au changement climatique

Ministère de la Transition écologique et de la Cohésion des Territoires

DGEC/SCEE/ONERC
Politique d'adaptation au changement climatique
Marie CARREGA
Adjointe au secrétaire général de l'ONERC
[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'