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Indicators collection

Air pollution due to ozone: health impacts and effects of climate change

There was no discernible trend in European ozone concentrations between 2003 and 2012, in terms of the annual mean of the daily maximum eight hour average measured at any type of station. It is difficult to attribute observed ozone exceedences, or changes therein, to individual causes such as climate change

Vector-borne diseases

The transmission cycles of vector-borne diseases are sensitive to climatic factors, but disease risks are also affected by factors such as land use, vector control, human behaviour, population movements and public health capacities. Climate change is regarded as the principal factor behind the observed move of the tick species Ixodes ricinus — the vector of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in Europe — to higher latitudes and altitudes

Extreme temperatures and health

Heat waves and extreme cold spells are associated with decreases in general population well-being and with increases in mortality and morbidity, especially in vulnerable population groups. Temperature thresholds for health impacts differ according to the region and season

Floods and health

River and coastal flooding have affected many millions of people in Europe since 2000. Flooding affects human health through drowning, heart attacks, injuries, infections, exposure to chemical hazards and mental health consequences

Water- and food-borne diseases

It is not possible to assess whether past climate change has already affected water- and food-borne diseases in Europe, but the sensitivity of pathogens to climate factors suggest that climate change could be having effects on these diseases. The number of vibriosis infections, which can be life-threatening, has increased substantially in Baltic Sea states since 1980

Vulnerability to Extremes of Heat in Europe

People over 65 years of age, particularly those with chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes and heart, lung and kidney disease), are among the most vulnerable to the health effects of heatwaves. In a world that is increasingly warming due to climate change, this indicator measures the vulnerability to heat of populations around the world

Climate suitability for infectious disease transmission - Dengue

The environmental suitability for the transmission of many infectious diseases, particularly vector-, water- and food-borne diseases, is influenced by shifts in temperature and precipitation. Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that can cause febrile illnesses and, in severe cases, organ failure and death, with children under five particularly at risk

Climate suitability for infectious disease transmission - Vibrio

Vibrio bacteria are found in brackish marine waters and cause a range of human infections, including gastroenteritis, wound infections, septicaemia and cholera. This indicator assesses the influence of a changing climate on the environmental suitability for the transmission of these infectious diseases

Exposure of vulnerable populations to heatwaves

Exposure to extremes of heat results in a range of health consequences, including heat stress and heat stroke, worsening heart disease, and acute kidney injury. Populations over 65, particularly vulnerable to these effects, are being exposed to heatwaves in increasing numbers

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