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National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

Belgium has three main geographical regions: Low-Belgium (up to 100 m above sealevel), Middle-Belgium (100 till 200 m above sealevel) and High-Belgium (200 till more then 500m above sealevel). The area of Low-Belgium starts in the Western area with the coastline (66 km long), beaches and sand dunes and the polders. Polders are areas of fertile land, close to or below sea level that have been reclaimed from the sea, from which they are protected by dikes or, further inland, by fields that have been drained with canals.

The Flemish lowland is situated between the polders and the rivers Leie and Scheldt. This is an area composed by sandy soils with some small hills. More to the East the area "de Kempen" is situated, a sandy area with mainly coniferous forests, meadows and mais fields.

The second geographical region, Middle-Belgium or the central plateau, lies further inland. This is a smooth, slowly rising area towards the rivers Samber and Maas, that has many fertile valleys and is irrigated by many waterways. Here one can also find rougher land, including caves and small gorges.

The third geographical region, High-Belgium, is less populated and contains most forests. The first part (Southern of the rivers Samber and Maas) is the Condroz-plateau, a fertile and turistical area. South of the Condroz, the region of Fagne and Famenne is situated, an area that is nog very suitable for agriculture. More to the South are the Ardennes, a densily forested area, very rocky with deep vally' s, that extends towards the Eifel in France and Germany.
Belgium is a very densly populated country with almost 11,5 million inhabitants for 30.528 km². The Northern part (Flanders) is more highly populated then the Southern part (Walloon Region). The Belgian population has grown by 61,235 persons, or 0.54 % on a yearly basis. This figures concern the legal population on 1 January 2020 and the changes in population observed in the course of 2019. The largest part of the growth rate (89% is due to the positive migration balance: more immigrations than emigrations.
19% of the Belgian population is 65 years old or older. Belgium has an aging population.

The population growth in the largest cities is rather pronounced with 1,86% in Brussels, 0,65% in Gent, 0,63% in Antwerpen and 0,24% in Charleroi. The population in the city of Luik remained stable. On 01/01/2021 the city of Antwerp counted 530.824 inhabitants, Gent 263.866 inhabitants, Charleroi 202.587 inhabitants and Liège 197.538 inhabitants. The city of Brussels has 185.316 inhabitants.

In total the Brussels Capital Region counts 1.214.550 inhabitants, the Flemish Region 6.647.506 inhabitants and the Walloon Region 3.645.107 inhabitants.

The average population density in the Flemish Region was 487 inhabitants per km² in 2020. The population density is highest in and around the 'Flemish diamond', which is the central area between Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Brussels. Population density is also high in a number of coastal municipalities (Ostend, Bredene, Blankenberge and Bruges), in the south of West Flanders (Kortrijk and Roeselare) and in some central municipalities of the province of Limburg (Hasselt and Genk).
In Belgium, accounting for urban effects is particularly important given that the share of people living in cities and towns amounts to 87% (situation of 2015, putting the country
among the top urbanized regions in Europe. Considering mortality data for Belgium presented in Bustos Sierra et al. (2019a) by region, it emerges that Brussels has a higher excess mortality (when expressed as a percentage, not in absolute numbers) than the Flemish and Walloon Regions. Also here, this has been attributed to the excess temperature increment occurring in Brussels, caused by the urban heat island phenomenon.

With regards to industry, Belgium had a strong presence of the metal (southern part of Belgium) and chemical/refinery industries (northern Belgium) in the country. The sector of services is the most important economic sector in Belgium with a share of almost 70% of the GDP.

According to Statistics Belgium (2018) agricultural lands account for 44% (or 1,353,770 ha) of the land surface of Belgium. In 2018, the total amount of agricultural land consisted of 63% arable land, 35% permanent pastures and grassland and 2% permanent crops. Belgian agriculture is specialised in cereals, industrial crops, forage plants, vegetables and horticultural crops, potatoes, livestock and milk production. Although agricultural land occupies the greater part of the territory (44%), the number of farms has continued to decrease in recent years, while the average farm size has increased. The share of agriculture in the Belgian economy continues its decline and is now less than 1% of GDP.

Source: "Evaluation of the socio-economic impact of climate change in Belgium, 2020"

Belgium has a very dense network of infrastructure (roads, railways, waterways, ports and airports) and acts as an important transport hub in Western Europe.
 (Source: Evaluation of the socio-economic impact of climate change in Belgium, 2020).

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-15

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • actual NAS - adopted
National adaptation plan (NAP)
  • previous NAP - superseded
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
Adaptation portals and platforms
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
New climatic projections have been built for the Belgian territory in the framework of the Belgian CORDEX.be project (Combining regional downscaling expertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond) which aims to combine regional downscaling expertise in Belgium. This project (2015-2017), funded by BELSPO (Belgian Science policy) brought together the different Belgian climate modelling groups. CORDEX.be makes use of the most recent IPCC scenarios (2014). The project performed impact studies on the impact of climate change on agriculture, urban heat stress, storm surges and wave heights as well as biogenic emissions. Projections towards 2100 are made in Flanders by the Flemish Environmental Agency and visualized at municipal level on the portal site https://vmm.klimaat.be . The impacts of climate change that can be consulted on the portal site are drought, heat, flooding and extreme precipitation. The portal site will be updated in March 2021.

Other sources:
- Royal Institute of Meteorology https://www.meteo.be/[…]/klimaatprojecties
- Urban Climate Service Centre VITO https://www.urban-climate.eu/
- The Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ is providing scientific information (including on climate changes and climate change adaptation) on the sea, the coast and tidal systems. https://www.vliz.be/en/
The RMI uses an adapted version of the ALARO model that is validated according to the international standards for climate simulations.

In 2020 the RMI published a new climate report "Climate report 2020: from climate information to climate services" (available in French and Dutch): https://www.meteo.be/[…]/klimaatrapporten and https://climat.be/doc/kmi-irm-rapport-2020-complet-fr.pdf
The information on the Belgean country page on Climateadapt is still up to date.

Additional, as measure in the NAP, a study has been executed on the "Socio-economic impact of climate change in Belgium", the report of the study has been published in September 2020. https://www.adapt2climate.be/[…]/?lang=en
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Heat wave
  • Changing temperature (air freshwater marine water)
Wind
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Subsidence
  • Soil erosion
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Heat wave
Wind
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Soil erosion
Drought and water scarcity

Fluvial and Pluvial flooding

Salinisation

Sickness and mortality caused by heat (especially in cities)

Socially weak groups are more vulnerable to these effects

Effects on agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, water quality and quantity, transport, economy,...

Key affected sectors

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Cordex.be shows a high resolution climate scenario for Belgium and was develloped in respons to measure 1 of the National Adaptation Plan. Heatwaves, floods and drought will be / are the main climate hazards in Belgium. In the study of the socio-economic impact of climate change, these factors were taken into account to examine the economical costs that go along with the physical impacts of climate change in various sectors in case of inaction. ( Biodiversity, emergency planning, agriculture, energy, fisheries, forestery, health, industry & services, transport & infrastructure.)
The National Adaptation Plan was approved in 2017 with specific adaptation actions to be taken at the national level to improve cooperation and develop synergies between different entities (federal and regional). In March 2019, the mid-term evaluation of this plan was published for the period 2017-2018. The final evaluation of this plan was finalised at the end of 2020 and adopted by the National Commission on Climate Change in March 2021.
Measure 8 of the NAP: "Consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation needs under the future National Environmental Health Action Plan (NEHAP). "

related initiatives: MEMO: Monitoring of exotic mosquitoes in Belgium at suspected points of entry
Measure 11 of the NAP: "Coordination of preventive planning and management measures in case of climate change emergencies." The Crisis Center is setting up a new structure to professionalize risk analysis by taking into account climate change on the different risk categories (man-made, natural, technological and health risks). Subsequently, a methodology will be developed to focus on the response to priority risks, both in terms of recommendations for preventive measures and in terms of emergency preparedness.
public availability of climate (adaptation) relevant information (studies, news,..) on klimaat.be & Adapt2climate.be.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

National Working group on Adaptation: the National Climate Commission (NCC) deals with domestic climate issues and the Coordination Committee for International Environmental Policy (CCIEP) treats the international environmental affairs. To prepare the work and decisions for the NCC and CCIEP there are working groups. The working group adaptation is the only working group working on adaptation both under NCC and CCIEP. The NCC is responsible for the development, adoption and implementation of the NAS and the NAP.

The Benelux Working group on Adaptation is hosted by the Benelux secretariat and organises workshops with the aim of knowledge exchange on effects of climate change, adaptation policies and actions.
In Wallonia, a knowledge platform, the Walloon IPCC platform, exists with the aim to make the link between scientific and policy makers but also to disseminate information on climate to a large public. https://plateforme-wallonne-giec.be. In 2020, the German speaking community organised a transboundary webinar together with the regions of Nordrheinwestfalen et Rheinland-Pfalz http://www.ostbelgienlive.be/[…]/11246_read-61459.

In Flanders the policy on adaptation is developed by the Flemish Task Force on Adaptation in which different policy areas of the Flemish government participate. In 2020 the Flemish high level Task Force on Drought was established for the governance of the Blue Deal.
At the national level the adaptation priorities are: research, transversal issues, biodiversity, energy, health, international cooperation & crisis management.

At the regional level the priorities are climate adaptive infrastructure and environment, spatial planning, health, water management, greenblue networks and biodiversity, climate adaptive agriculture and foodchain and climate adaptive and circular economy.
Lack of knowledge for every sector individually.

Lack of sense of urgency in some sectors.

Lack of sense of urgency in some municipalities.

Lack of indicators for an efficient monitoring system.
Our National adaptation strategy dates back to 2010. Goals: Identifying and including all relevant areas so links can be formed with different policy areas and their adaptation measures resulting in synergies and counteracting maladaptation principles, outline and a roadmap were identified in this strategy and created the base towards our comprehensive national adaptation plan. 3 objectives main objectives were /are:
- Ensure coherence between existing Belgian adaptation activities and foresee impacts and vulnerabilities to climate change, as well as with adaptation measures already implemented.
- Better communication at national, European and international level
- Forming a national Adaptation Plan.

The National Adaptation Plan focusses on Research, Transversal issues, Biodiversity, Energy, Health, International cooperation & crisis management. The NAP indentifies 11 measures with each their own budget and timeline. (Both of the latter could be updated after the mid-term evaluation.)

1. Development of high-resolution climate scenarios for Belgium. (Research). Budget: 1.2 milion for 2 years.
2. Development of a roadmap for a Belgian climate knowledge center. (Research). Budget not specified.
3. Development of a national online plaform for climateadaptation. (Adapt2Climate) (Transversal Issues) Buget: cost needed for development and maintencance. (12.000 - 25.000 euro)
4. Strengthening of the sectorial coordination on a national level (Transversal Issues) Budget event-specific.
5. Including climate change in the risk assesment of exotic invasive species. (Biodiversity) Budget for TrIAS project : 727.649 euro.
6. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the energy supply security and on the transport and distribution infrastructures for energy. (Energy) Buget not specified.
7. Evaluation of the socio-economic impact of climate change in Belgium (Research) Budget: 88.895 euro.
8. Including the impact of climate change and need for adaptation into the framework to the future national actionplan for environment and health. (NEHAP) (Health) Budget not specified.
9. Make specialists in the field of healthcare aware of the effects of climate change (Health) Budget 45.000 euro
10. Transnational cooperation for adaptation. Budget not specified.

Coordination of preventive, planning and management measures in case of emergencies connected to climate change. (International cooperation)
11. Coordination of preventive, planning and management measures in case of emergencies connected to climate change (Crisis management). Budget not specified.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


For the overview of the content of sub-national strategies, plans and efforts, we like to refer to the actual country page of Belgium.

A new Flemish and Federal Adaptation Plan 2021-2030 are to be developed.
Federal:

Measure 6 of the FAP: 'Taking into account the expected impacts of climate change in Defense Department activities at the national level with respect to natural disaster crisis management'

Measure 7 of the FAP: 'Enhanced cooperation among member states for crisis management in natural disasters'. ('Belgian First Aid & Support Team' will help in case of international disasters including natural or climate related events.)

Measure 8 of the FAP: 'Long-term analysis of the need for additional capacity to prepare for crisis management in natural disasters'. (The Civil Security (fire department, assistance zones and Units of Civil Protection) has resources to come to the aid of the population in case of so-called classic natural or human disasters. The review of natural risks will show whether or not the current resources need to be reassessed. It can already be said that the quantity and quality of the resources
will probably not be sufficient. The existing resources of the emergency services will generally need to be supplemented with more resources and new equipment. The role and capacity of defense will also be considered. these plans were postponed and will start in 2021)

Wallonia:

Climate change impacts will be taken into account in the future River Basin Management Plans 2022-2027 in application of the Water Framework Directive and in the future flood risk management plans 2022-2027 in application of the Flood Directive.

Flanders:

In July 2020 the Flemish Minister of Environment launched the Blue Deal with the ambition to increase the efforts in the fight against drought and water scarcity. The Blue Deal focuses on 6 tracks:
1. Public authorities give the good example and provide an adequate regulation
2. Circular water use as a rule
3. Agriculture and nature as part of the solution
4. Sensibilisation of private individuals and stimulation to decrease solid surfaces
5. The increase of security of supply
6. Investing together in innovation to make our water system smarter, more robust and more sustainable

Brussels:

Climate change impacts will be taken into account in the future water management plan 2022-2027 in application of the Flood Directive.

A new Integrated Air-Climate-Energy Plan with a chapter "adaptation" will be prepared in 2021 in order to be adopted in 2023.
Measure 1 of the NAP: Development of high-resolution climate scenarios for Belgium (CORDEX.be). The CORDEX.be project was followed up by a steering committee, three small stakeholder meetings were organized and the project was concluded with a large stakeholder meeting.

Measure 6 of the NAP: Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the energy supply security and on the transport and distribution infrastructures for energy. A joint NKC-ENOVER WG has met several times to conduct half-day brainstorming sessions with energy sector stakeholders & federations.

Measure 2 of the Federal Adaptation Plan: Identify rail vulnerabilities. Infrabel periodically participates in information sessions on climate change and also consults with stakeholders to determine future actions. Infrabel has had consultations with stakeholders such as the RMI and participated in the UIC workshop on "climate change" in order to draw up guidelines for the railroad sector.
Measure 2 of the NAP: 'Development of a roadmap for a Belgian Knowledge Center for the Climate.' (cancelled but might come back to the agenda)

Measure 3 of the NAP: Development of a national online platform for climate adaptation (Adapt2Climate)

Measure 4 of the NAP: Strengthening sectoral coordination at the national level

Measure 11 of the Federal Adaptation Plan: 'Organization of sectoral information sessions on climate change adaptation'

Measure 12 of the Federal Adaptation Plan: 'Increase information related to adaptation to climate change' (awareness and information dissemination )

In Flanders a Thinktank on climate change adaptation was founded in 2015 with the aim to stimulate knowledge exchange on climate change adaptation, define gaps in knowledge and bottlenecks in the implementation of policy between governments, scientific institutions and private sector. The work of the Thinktank was finalized with the publication of a final report (in Dutch) at the end of 2017 http://planning.ugent.be/[…]/dka-ADAPTFORLIFE-eindrapport.pdf .
Measures concerning these elements are evaluated in the mid-term and final evaluations. Currently no monitoring systems are in place to evaluate these aspects seperatly on the national or federal level.
The mid term evalutation of the implementation of both the national adaptation plan and the federal contribution to the national adaptation plan for the period 2016 - 2018 was published in 2019. In turn, the final evaluation for both plans were finalised at the end of 2020. indicators were defined at the beginning of the period covered by the documents.

Flanders:

At the flemish level the progress of the Flemish Adaptation Plan was monitored by a two yearly progress report compiled by the pilots in the Flemish Task Force on Adaptation. In preparation of a new Felmish Adaptation Plan 2021-2030 a study was conducted on the development of an efficient monitoring system based on indicators to measure the progress of adaptation actions. https://omgeving.vlaanderen[…]itoringsysteemAdaptatie.pdf (report in Dutch)
National:
1. Development of high-resolution climate scenarios for Belgium. Budget: 1.2 million for 2 years. This measure was completed with the launch of CORDEX.be in 2017.
2. Development of a roadmap for a Belgian climate knowledge centre. Budget not specified. Not executed during the foreseen period of the NAP. Might be initiated in 2021
3. Development of a national online platform for climateadaptation. (Adapt2Climate) Budget: cost needed for development and maintenance. (12.000 - 25.000 euro). The site was launched in spring of 2019 and is frequently updated with adaptation related news and (case) studies
4. Strengthening of the sectorial coordination on a national level. Budget event-specific. Although a positive start was made with the first kick-off event in 2017 (broad audience) and the roundtable in 2018 (targeted audience), subsequent events in 2019 were postponed until early 2020 after which they did not meet the expected audience. Throughout the rest of 2020, the COVID-19 crisis had a significant impact on the organization of events.
5. Including climate change in the risk assessment of exotic invasive species. Budget for TrIAS project : 727.649 euro. The project has resulted in an extensive collection of alien species data and the development of data-driven risk assessment procedures. The TrIAS project has resulted in a highly developed workflow that will only be completed with a few months delay (late 2020 before the foreseen period of the NAP has passed) without affecting the budget.
6. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the energy supply security and on the transport and distribution infrastructures for energy. Bduget not specified. Initial steps were taken as planned, and the working group was established. Although it was noted during the meeting that the effects of climate change were not yet really considered in the context of the energy sector in Belgium, no further action was taken. ENOVER considers the measure closed and the study was therefore not launched.
7. Evaluation of the socio-economic impact of climate change in Belgium (Research) Budget: 88.895 euro. The study was successfully executed and got much public attention. The results can be used for future data-based policy/decision making.
8. Including the impact of climate change and need for adaptation into the framework to the future national action plan for environment and health. (NEHAP) Budget not specified. An organisation was assigned to the task of carrying out the study of the impact of climate change on the health sector in Belgium. This will form the basis of, and provide a first insight into, the possible adaptation measures that can be taken to strengthen the resilience of the health system and avoid cascading effects. The study takes place in early 2021 (January - June)
9. Make specialists in the field of healthcare aware of the effects of climate change. Budget 45.000 euro. The award was granted in 2018. The modules were delivered, and the thesis and launch of the test phases completed. No budget revision took place.
10. Promotion of transnational cooperation for adaptation. Budget not specified. Most of the actions carried out under this measure consist of participation in the organization of workshops within the Benelux cooperation. The transnational cooperation projects focus on knowledge exchange and exchange of experiences and good practices.
11. Coordination of preventive, planning and management measures in case of emergencies connected to climate change. Budget not specified. Initial initiatives were undertaken, but efforts decreased in the period following the mid-term review (2019- 2020) after which the COVID-19 crisis prevented further progress. The various exercises undertaken have improved coordination, but there is no coordinated preventive approach yet. The distribution of competences between federal and regional authorities, the sectoral distribution of preventive competences, and the (sometimes partial) privatization of certain sectors multiply the authorities and services involved and complicate the coordination and coherence of the procedures involved.
National: Measure 11: Coordination of preventive planning and management measures in case of climate change emergencies: Initiated.

Federal: Measure 6 of the Federal Adaptation Plan: 'Taking into account the expected impacts of climate change in Defense Department activities at the national level with respect to natural disaster crisis management': Initiated

Measure 7 of the Federal Adaptation Plan: 'Enhanced cooperation among member states for crisis management in natural disasters': Belgian First Aid & Support Team' will help in case of international disasters including natural or climate related events, sendaii framework will be reinitiated

Measure 8 of the Federal Adaptation Plan: 'Long-term analysis of the need for additional capacity to prepare for crisis management in natural disasters'. (The Civil Security (fire department, assistance zones and Units of Civil Protection) has resources to come to the aid of the population in case of so-called classic natural or human disasters. The review of natural risks will show whether or not the current resources need to be reassessed. It can already be said that the quantity and quality of the resources
will probably not be sufficient. The existing resources of the emergency services will generally need to be supplemented with more resources and new equipment. The role and capacity of defense will also be considered): These plans were postponed and will start in 2021
Budget is made available per measure, not per sector.

In Flanders every policy area is responsible for the implementation and financing of their adaptation measures.
Studie of the socio economic impacts of climate change. This study identifies the physical effects of climate change for Belgium and the related costs and social effects in case of inaction.

Studie of the impact of climate change on the healthsector in Belgium.

Implementation of adaptation to CC in various sectors. (risk disaster management, mobility (aviation, railtraffic,..), )
In the different regions of Belgiums action has been taken for sensibilisation, awareness raising, support of local governments on climate change adaptation, incorporation of climate change and climate change adaptation in educational programs,...
Progress has been made but there is still a long way to go. Implementation of actions on the field, further sensibilisation and awareness raising are necessary.
There is already a lot of knowledge available and tools have been developed do share this knowledge amongst policy makers at different level but also executers in te field. There is still a lot of work to be done on sensibilisation and awareness raising and on supporting local and medium sized municipalities in their actions on climate change adaptation.
Study of the socio-economic impact of climate change.

In Flanders a study has been initiated (2020): cost - benefit analysis of climate change adaptation.

Mapping of urban heat island in Brussels ( VITO, 2018. "Cartografie van de Koelte-eilanden in het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest ". http://document.environnement.brussels/opac_css/elecfile/Cartografie_Koelte_Eilanden_BHG; https://environnement.brussels/lenvironnement-etat-des-lieux/en-detail/climat/cartographie-des-ilots-de-fraicheur-bruxelles )

Study on the impact of nature-based solutions on the exposure of city residents to air pollution, noise or high temperatures: overview of the general knowledge and recommendations for the Brussels-Capital Region (VITO en Witteveen en bos, 2020, "Impact van ‘nature-based solutions’ op de blootstelling van stadsbewoners aan luchtvervuiling, lawaai of hoge temperaturen - Overzicht van de algemene kennis en aanbevelingen voor het brussels hoofdstedelijk gewest"; https://document.environnement.brussels/opac_css/elecfile/NatureBasedSolutions)
Evaluation of the current implementation of the various adaptation plans in combination with high resolution climate models for Belgium and different studies give a proper insight in the need for extra measures and reorientation of priorities. The final evaluation of the NAP will form the base for a possible new NAP.

Mid-term and Final evaluations give perspective on the implementation of each measure. Those not implemented are checked for relevance and can be taken up in a new plan. The priorities of those initiated but not completed can be reoriented and/or updated according to new information and relevance (if needed).
The results of the cost - benefit analysis of climate change adaptation will be used to make choices and to indicate priorities for adaptation actions in de new Flemish Adaptation Plan 2021-2030. A more efficient monitoring system based on indicators will be used to make adjustments in the plan during the next years.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Brussels: call for projects “Action Climat” for local authorities to implement projects that impulse climate transition policies and measures inside the region: https://environnement.brussels/thematiques/ville-durable/les-pouvoirs-locaux-bruxellois/le-soutien-regional-aux-initiatives-des-0. In 2021, local authorities can work on adaptation.
The Walloon government supports the municipalities who signed the Covenant of Mayors and provides dedicated tools to develop local risk and vulnerability assessments and design adaptation actions (http://www.awac.be/[…]/79-outil-d-aide-a-l-evaluation). Financial support and trainings are provided to municipalities. Under the regional level, there are also sub-regional coordinators who also support municipalities by sharing information, tools and experiences.
As adaptation has interfaces with various sectors and policy areas, a good integration between adaptation policy and other international frameworks is important.

The most important frameworks and conventions are the Natura2000 network, the Waterframework, Biodiversity strategy, CAP, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, World Heritage Convention, the SDG' s,...
In the context of development cooperation, the Belgian Development Cooperation Act includes the protection of the environment and natural resources, as well as the fight against climate change, as one of two important transversal priorities. In order to facilitate the integration of this priority, a university research platform developed an Environment Sustainability Toolkit. In addition, various initiatives forcapacity building within Belgian development cooperation were organised. Belgium also supports international agricultural research, among other things by means of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Belgian international cooperation focuses specifically on climate change adaptation in Least Developed Countries. In 2018 to make its environmental strategy more concrete the directorate general for development cooperation developed a Climate Vision to guide further climate action. Most of our partner countries are vulnerable not just because of their exposure to climate change, but
also because of their limited adaptive capacity. Moreover it is still more difficult to attract private finance for adaptation activities. Efforts must of course continue to be made to involve the private sector more in the work to
increase the climate resilience of the communities in our partner countries.

The Belgian Development Cooperation works towards incorporating climate and environmental concerns and opportunities in the full project cycle of the programmes and projects it finances, and which are implemented by a wide range of partners. These efforts for mainstreaming climate action are complemented by specific interventions, which will be scaled up in respons to our commitment to the Paris Agreement, both through bilateral cooperation as well as through contributions to multilateral funds and institutions.

Belgium is a strong supporter of the Green Climate fund, doubling its commitments as of 2020, Least Developed Countries Fund (more than 100 million EUR contributed since 2009) and Adaptation Fund.

National working group on adaptation

The working group on adaptation coordinates the adaptation policy in Belgium
Griet Verstraeten
Belgian pilot on climate change adaptation
[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'