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National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

The Czech Republic lies within the Atlantic-continental area of the moderate climate zone of the northern hemisphere with fluctuating average annual temperatures. The territory varies between mountains and lowlands, with an average altitude of 450m. Rising temperatures, increasing average number of hot days, and more frequent rainstorms are being experienced already. This has resulted in a loss of biodiversity, changes in the water regime, drought events, and more frequent flooding.

Average annual temperature fluctuates depending on geographic factors between 1.1 to 9.7°C. The lowest temperature averages are recorded in mountainous regions along the northern, eastern and south-western borders. The warmest regions lie in altitudes not exceeding 200m (lowlands in southeast and along the Elbe River). Prague and Brno, representing bigger cities, are specific, as within its heat island the average annual temperature is higher by approximately 1 to 2°C above the normal value or its geographic location.

The short-term estimation (2030) shows that the average annual air temperature in the Czech Republic will increase, according to the ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ model, approximately by 1°C; warming up in the summer and winter is only slightly less than in the spring and autumn. The medium-term estimation (2050) shows that the simulated warming becomes more significant - temperature will rise the most in the summer (by 2.7 °C), least in the winter (by 1.8 °C).

Total precipitation changes are more complex. Most nodal points in winter show in simulation decrease of precipitation (depending on specific location by up to 20 %), while in the spring the same show increase (by 2 to approximately 16 %); in the summer and especially in the autumn the situation varies place to place (some locations show slight decrease by several per cent in the autumn, while elsewhere an increase by up to 20–26 %, in the summer slight decrease prevails, but in some locations (for instance in Western Bohemia) there is an increase by up to 10 %). At the same time, there is an apparent spatial variability of these changes, so it is possible that eventual climate signal may be, in this short timeframe, drowned out by natural (year-on-year) fluctuation of precipitation totals. Between the beginning of autumn until the beginning of the summer the anticipated increase of precipitation is accompanied by identical increase in territorial evapotranspiration caused by increased temperature. In the summer, there is a decrease in precipitation and due to a drop in water reserves in the soil, this will probably not lead to a significant increase in territorial evapotranspiration. An important factor is a shift in snow cover melt in higher altitudes due to higher temperature, roughly from April to January / February.

Considering the weak signal of anticipated change in relative humidity and with regard to the fact that measured relative humidity values have not changed between 1961 and 2000, we use the measured value from the reference period to estimate these impacts. Simulated changes in seasonal daily averages of global radiation are most apparent in the winter (exceeding 10 %), in other seasons they range in most locations below 4 %, however in comparison with model errors the change in global radiation is small. Same recommendation remains therefore in place for application of these sets as for relative humidity. The medium-term perspective makes winter decrease in precipitation more apparent (for instance in Krkonoše, Ceskomoravská Vysocina, Beskydy by up to 20 %) and their increase in the autumn. During the summer, the decrease in precipitation becomes dominant factor, which will be even more significant in long-term horizon, while decrease of winter precipitation will be lower in comparison with the preceding period.

Changes in relative humidity are small – in the winter below 5 %, summer 5–10 % and at the end of the 21st century this may become up to 15 % (in parts of Central Bohemia, Vysocina). This finding is in line with the anticipated increase of air temperature and decrease in precipitation amount.
The Czech Republic had population of 10,71 mil. as of 30 September 2020. Average population density is of 139 inhabitants per km2 which makes the Czech Republic one of relatively densely populated countries in Europe and 73,5% of its population lives in urban areas. This means that a large number of inhabitants live in areas with disrupted environment, especially due to emissions from intensive traffic, household heating using solid fuels mostly in smaller municipalities and other local negative impacts. Further health risks of climate change include vector-borne diseases, heat stress, increased incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, and respiratory diseases due to ambient air pollution.

The NAP outlines health adaptation measures, including ensuring adequate medical infrastructure for epidemic emergencies, implementing early warning systems for water- and vector-borne diseases; and providing information to strengthen decision-making around health risk situations.

There have been carried out several studies, for example the Charles University study aimed at effects of sudden air temperature and pressure changes on mortality in the Czech Republic. Events were selected from the data covering 1986-2005 and were compared with the database of daily all-cause (total) mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, both for the overall population and for people aged 70 years or more. Increase of mortality was found after significant temperature increase or pressure drop both in summer and winter month. Decrease of mortality occurred after significant pressure increase or temperature drop in summer. Mortality variations are usually more pronounced for population aged 70 years or more, and sudden temperature changes affect mortality on cardiovascular diseases more strongly. Changes in mortality were also found after passages of cold fronts in summer. As regards the future health risks, population exposure to heat stress is likely to rise due to increased urbanisation and climate change increasing the likelihood of severe heat waves.

Climate change increases the risk of flooding as extreme heavy rainfall and storm events become more likely. Flooding can affect water, sanitation and water infrastructure and services, contaminate water with fecal bacteria (eg. E. Coli) from run-off or sewer overflow. Increasing temperatures and precipitation can also lead to water contaminated with eg. algae blooms. Water safety and security problems can result in water-borne diseases, noncommunicable diseases and injury and mortality.

In 2018 the Czech Republic has reported the most confirmed tick-borne encephalitis cases in the EU. The distribution and vectorial capacity of disease vectors is expected to alter with climate change. As a result, population exposure to vector-borne diseases could change. Populations previously not exposed to certain vector-borne diseases could be increasingly exposed in future, as rising global temperatures shift the distribution of vectors.
Sustained, effective operation of the infrastructure in the energy, water, transport and ICT sectors is vitally important to the performance of the economy.

Before the COVID pandemic the Czech Republic was undergoing a phase of economic growth, particularly due to growth of domestic demand, but also due to net exports and increased private investment. The unemployment is quite low and shortage of labour is becoming a constraint for faster economic growth. The economic growth is mainly driven by the industry sector and the Czech Republic has one the largest share of industry in GDP in EU.

The prevalence of energy intensive industry is also one of the reasons why the Czech Republic has quite robust and reliable transmission network. The extreme weather events already cause quite a lot of damage to transmission and distribution networks but the distribution companies manage to keep the power supply stable with low incidence of power outages. However, the network would also need to adapt to expected increased demand for cooling during summer peaks, increased demand for electromobility and the development of decentralized power sources.

Most goods are shipped by trucks and the road transport is also by far the most prevalent mode of passenger transport. Due to its position in the centre of Europe and dense network of transport routes, the Czech Republic is also a major transit corridor for the EU. Large part of the transport infrastructure is quite old and fast transport connection between some major cities and neighbouring countries is lacking. Significant investments in the development of transport infrastructure are planned for the next few years and they need to be climate proofed. The Czech Republic also has one of the densest railroad networks in the EU which is also negatively affected by the increased occurrence of extreme weather events. The air travel is almost exclusively used for international transport only and waterborne transport also does not play a significant role in the Czech Republic.

The expected changes in hydrological cycle and occurrence of extreme weather events could also damage the water and wastewater infrastructure and are already causing decline in hydropower production. The telecommunication network is also at increased risk.

The Czech Republic has adopted strategies, plans and measures for protection of the critical infrastructure. The NAP also outlines measures for all the abovementioned risks.

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-15

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • previous NAS - superseded
  • being developed
National adaptation plan (NAP)
  • previous NAP - superseded
  • being developed
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Being developed
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
  • Being developed
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
  • Established
  • Established
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is responsible for establishing and operating state monitoring and observation networks to monitor the quantitative and qualitative state of atmosphere and hydrosphere and the causes leading to their pollution or damage. The climate record of the Czech Republic has been available since 1775. Measurement and observation of basic climatic characteristics is carried out at 200 climatological, 600 rain gauge and several observatories today. Basic datasets are being checked continuously at several levels, including automatic control processes immediately after data is stored in the CLIDATA climatological database (checking for deviations and physically improbable values, replacing them by values statistically estimated). This is followed by an expert quality control of the data record consistency, manual assessment of previous automatically executed estimates are included as well. The standard control process terminates by an area data control using the specialized GIS application CLIDATA/GIS. Prior to using time series prepared in this way to compare the outputs of climate models, the series are undergoing inhomogeneity detection in the time series and comparison with metadata. An appropriate homogenization follows if needed.

The CHMI is the supreme coordinator of the National Inventory System (NIS) for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. International conventions adopted to control emissions of GHG require unified, transparent, and verifiable way of greenhouse gas inventories.

Methodology of national GHG inventory is stipulated by international agreements mentioned above. National GHG inventory should be neither overestimated, nor underestimated and it must not be influenced by measurement uncertainty as far as possible. Delegation of responsibilities on institutions involved in compiling GHG inventories is one of the main pillars of the NIS. The main roles and obligations of the CHMI are as follows: inventory management, general and cross-cutting issues, QA/QC, annual reporting (Common Reporting Format, CRF), preparation and submission of National Inventory Report (NIR), liaison with the relevant UN FCCC and EU bodies, etc. Sectoral inventories are prepared by specialized institutions (sectoral compilers), that are supervised by the CHMI.

The very last regional scenarios according to solely A1B emission scenario have been prepared in the Czech Republic in 2010. This is no longer sufficient, that is why we use EURO-CORDEX (www.euro-cordex.net) outputs in the Czech Republic today, using so-called RCP emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways). RCP2.6 represents relatively the most appropriate climate development for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. On the contrary, in the short term, the development of emissions under RCP8.5 cannot be ruled out, and its inclusion has been driven by an effort to point out the benefits of mitigation measures as well as for the climate change effects in the Czech Republic. In line with the current commitments of the Paris Agreement Parties, we consider it realistic to expect the development of emissions under scenario RCP4.5. Most outputs in the Czech Republic are therefore prepared for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5.

To explore the future climate, we use the latest regional climate models (RCMs) currently based on the CORDEX initiative (part of WCRP, http://www.wcrp-climate.org/). The CORDEX project (http://wcrp-cordex.ipsl.jussieu.fr/) is currently the most important research in the field of regional modelling. A part of the project dealing with the European region is called EURO-CORDEX. The results of the EURO-CORDEX regional modelling have been used as input for a studying climate change and its impacts, including adaptation measures in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report. EURO-CORDEX uses new RCP emission scenarios and it is based on simulations of global CMIP5 climate models up to year 2100. The resolution of regional models is about 12 km (outputs from EUR-11, i.e. 0.11° latitude and longitude), which is already sufficient for climate impact and adaptation studies. The RCM models have been adjusted by model error correction (bias correction) to better correspond to the reality of the area under consideration (taking into account current measurements and observations within CHMI station network).

In the first step, the models outputs of the control run have been compared with the physically measured data. Based on the differences found, the models were adjusted using quantile correction. Global climate models (GCM) are used for selected outputs, that point in more objective way to the possible variance of future developments. From these GCM outputs we use only 28 simulation runs, for six meteorological characteristics needed for analyses within the CzechAdapt project (i.e. global radiation, max and min temperature, total precipitations, wind speed and relative humidity). When choosing which sets of outputs are used, two criteria are taken into account: the set well represents the variability within of all GCM, while containing a maximum of GCM models that are used to manage regional climate models (RCMs) in the Euro-CORDEX project.

We have started preparation of new regional scenarios using the ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ model as part of the PERUN project (TA CR, SS02030040) with a resolution of 3x3 km in 2020. The aim of the model part of the PERUN project is to adapt the ALADIN model to the ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ version. The current climate data records for the period 1981-2020 or 1961-1990 will be applied to validate the model. The adjusted model is going to be used as a tool for conducting controlled experiments with changing input characteristics and lateral boundary conditions.
The main emphasis in the Czech Republic is given to the co-operation of all actors in the field of climate change at the level of science and research, as well as on the preparation of strategic documents and the preparation of respective measures. In the Czech Republic, departmental organizations, specialised institutes of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic and universities engage with climatology and climate change. The departmental institutions are managed by the Ministry of Health (State Health Institute), by the Ministry of Agriculture (Research Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, p.r.i., Crop Research Institute, p.r.i. and Research Institute of Agriculture Technology, p.r.i), by the Ministry of the Environment (Czech Geological Survey, p.r.i., Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Water Management Research Institute, p.r.i.).

As far as Academy of Science of the Czech Republic concerns, mainly the Institute of Geophysics AS CR, p.r.i., Institute of Geology AS CR, p.r.i., Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, p.r.i., Institute of Hydrodynamics AS CR, p.r.i., Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology AS CR, p.r.i. and Institute of Global Change Research AS CR, p.r.i. are involved. Universities involved are as follows: University of South Bohemia, Masaryk`s University - Faculty of Science, Mendel University in Brno and Charles University - Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. The involvement of these workplaces in climate change research is quite wide and varies over time depending on the success in grant competitions and the financial possibilities of their founders. For coordination with industrial entities, the Government of the Czech Republic created the Coal Commission as an advisory body to the Government and the Commission for Climate Issues, which is a professional and advisory body of the Research, Development and Innovation Council (RVVI).

PERUN project (Prediction, Evaluation and Research for Understanding national sensitivity and impacts of drought and climate change for Czechia, No. SS02030040) was launched in 2020 within the program Environment for Life funded by TA CR. Its aim is to build a sustainable research center with long lasting focus on research of climate change. The project leader is the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI, National Meteorological and Hydrological Service) which invited for cooperation the Institute of Global Change Research AS CR, p.r.i., Water Management Research Institute, p.r.i., Czech Geological Survey, Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, p.r.i., Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University and PROGEO s.r.o.

The main objective is to analyse ongoing and predict future change, including identification risks to the environment and society. The output of the project carried out between 2020-2026 will be the most up-to-date knowledge necessary for the preparation and updating of strategic documents and for decision-making processes not only in the field of adaptations to climate change, but also for the evaluation of mitigation measures prior its implementation. The essential output of the partial objectives described in the project will be a publicly accessible research summary report supplemented by publically accessible databases, certified methodologies and, of course, scientific publications.
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
Water
  • Snow and ice load
  • Precipitation and/or hydrological variability
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil erosion
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Changing temperature (air freshwater marine water)
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil erosion
n recent years, severe winter phenomena frequency decreased in comparison to conditions before 1980. It remains a significant hazard, according to Czech Statistical Office, 2 407 people died from exposure to excessive cold between 2000 and 2019. Associated death causes, such as heart attacks due to exposure to cold waves are not accounted. At least 25 fatalities were linked to winter snow storms since 1993, 10 people died in avalanches.

Windstorms caused significant damages e.g. in 1999 (Lothar), 2007 (Kyrill), 2008 (Emma) or 2017 (Herwart). There are 15 records of death due to windstorms since 1993. At least 15 people died due to strike of lightning.The area of the Czech Republic experienced other climate related hazards, including tornados, forest fires, hails or landslides. However, frequency of such hazards of considerable magnitude is limited. There are typically 1-3 tornados documented every year, rarely exceeding F1 intensity. The most severe tornado in the 21st century was Litovel 2004 tornado, which was estimated to reach F3 intensity. Forest fires occured during dry and hot summer conditions of 2015 and 2018. Recorded damages are so far limited to agricultural crops and forest harvest. Hails occurs regularly in summer convective storms with impacts on crops. In August 2010, large hail storm impacted south part of Prague, resulting in damage of cars and other property estimated to 1 - 2 bln. CZK.

Floods are naturally affecting area of the Czech Republic. Reasonable historical reconstruction of the flood regime of Vltava River in Prague can reach as long as to 15th century. Systematic instrumental observations started at Vltava River in Prague in 1824 and at Elbe River in Decín in 1851. Major rivers have more than 100 years long observation time series available. Older historical flood records for purpose of flood hazard assessment complement these observations. Long-term trends show decrease in frequency and magnitude of large-scale spring snowmelt floods that dominated flood regime during 18th and first half of the 19th century due to less snow accumulation during the winter. Summer large-scale floods occurred throughout the known history including the oldest known description of flood from 1118, or probably the most disastrous flood for Prague in 1432. Recent large-scale summer floods include flood events from 1888 (South Bohemia), 1890 (Vltava River), 1897 (Elbe River), 1903 (Odra River), 1954 (Vltava River), 196XX (Odra River), 1997 (Morava and Odra Rivers), 2002 (Vltava and Elbe River), 2013 (Vltava River). Years (1997-2013) belong among known flood rich period comparable to e.g. mid 16th century or late 19th century. Systematic records of flash floods are available only for period since 2000. Earlier, abilities of detection were limited. Nevertheless, many extreme and deadly flash floods records have been collected since 19th century proving significant decrease in number of fatalities as a result of enhanced early warning system and rescue system. All together 178 fatalities due to flood (including flash floods) were recorded since the origin of the Czech Republic in 1993. Number includes deaths recorded in direct connection to floods (e.g. heart attacks, but also drowned paddlers).

Large landslides are rare phenomena in the Czech Republic occurring back to back with large flooding events (e.g. the largest recorded landslide in Gírová in May 2010). In 2013, large landslide damaged construction of Highway D8 close to Prackovice resulting in damage over 1 bln. CZK. Small landslide of steep slope of deep Vltava River valley in Trebenice resulted in damage of small cottage and death of two people during the flood in 2013.

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
medium
Agriculture is the most sensitive sector to weather and climate. Impacts are often related to temperature (spring frost) and precipitation (drought, wet spells) occurring in critical phases of crop cultivation.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Extreme (high) temperature and droughts are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude.
Vulnerability
high
High temperature stress during critical periods of growth during summer moths might effect corn or fodder. Lowland production areas are the most vulnerable to drought, where negative evapotranspiration budget occurs already.
Risk Future Impact
high
Highest risk appears to be connected to increased drought occurrence (frequency and severity) resulting in yields decrease. Risk of soil erosion will also increase. Droughts will expose soil surface to wind and torrential rain eroding effect.
Impact/key hazard
medium
Recent extreme drought period likely impacted forests heaths over the large territories and enabled bark beetle spread (see part on forestry). Increased temperature impacts biodiversity through shifting extent of area of ecologically suitable conditions for individual species.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Increased temperatures are very likely to occur as a main expected chronic hazard for ecosystems. Droughts are likely to increase stress on aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem dependent on water.
Vulnerability
high
Most vulnerable seems to be alpine and subalpine ecosystems depending on snow regime and cold temperature conditions.
Risk Future Impact
high
It is likely that high temperature will lead to increased pressure to biodiversity. Increased spread of invasion species from warmer areas is likely. Biotopes of alpine and subalpine flora might perish, similarly suitable condition for some bird species (e.g. drought and high temperature) might diminish. Water ecosystems might suffer by changed water regime and more frequent droughts.
Impact/key hazard
high
Hydrometeorological hazards are the most important hazards in the Czech Republic. For more details see text above.
Key hazard likelihood
high
It is expected that frequency and magnitude of floods will remain comparable to current conditions, on contrary, hot spells and droughts are expected to increase in magnitude and the frequency of occurrence. Convective events (summer storms including lightning, torrential rain and wind gust phenomena) might also become more frequent and violent increasing risks of outdoor activities in general.
Vulnerability
high
Vulnerability is well known in the case of floods, as flood zones are delimited and reflected in land use planning as well as for preparedness. In future, special interest must be given to urban environment and adaptation to hot spells, and to wild fires which frequency might increase as result of more frequent droughts. Effective Early warning system including coping capacity to respond to hazard occurrence will remain a key factor in building of resilience.
Risk Future Impact
high
As explained above, the risk of hot spells and wild fires will likely increase under climate change. Increase of risk resulting from convective storms and severe weather might also increase. Other hazards are likely to occur comparable frequency and severity as under current climate conditions. However, the overall risk might increase due to increase in value of property exposed to natural hazards as well as due to technological changes in particular related to critical infrastructure.
Impact/key hazard
low
Energy sector of the Czech Republic is extremely reliable. Interruptions of services are limited in area and duration, mostly caused by wind storms or snow storms impacts on grid. Drought and high temperature caused interruption of production of Melník power plant in 2003 (see text above). Recent drought caused significant decrease of production from hydro power plants.
Key hazard likelihood
medium
Droughts and hot spells will occur more frequently. Other hydrometeorological extremes that might affect the energy production and delivery are expected to remain of similar frequency and magnitude as under recent conditions.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Vulnerability of various energy sources differs. While hydropower generation depend on amount of water disponible and thus is vulnerable to drought. Snowy and cloudy winter eliminate contribution from solar panels. Distribution grid is vulnerable to windstorms, snowstorms and icing phenomena. Vulnerability of distribution grid is significantly affected by interconnection of distribution network in Europe. It helps substitute outage of sources from the Czech Republic. On the other hand it may impact Czech grid by outages and demands elsewhere in Europe.
Risk Future Impact
medium
Reliability of the network might decrease with changes of energy production mix as well as in case of increased demands, both chronic (e.g. electro mobility) and acute (e.g. cooling during hot spells or heating during winter blizzard like episodes).
Impact/key hazard
medium
Windstorms are the main hazard in the long term. Most famous impact on windstorm on forestry dates to 1870, when Šumava Mts. was damaged. Recently severe drought weakened coniferous forests in large areas of the Czech Republic and enabled spread of bark beetle.
Key hazard likelihood
medium
While for windstorms a robust estimate of change in frequency or magnitude can’t be made, droughts and temperature stress will increase in frequency and magnitude.
Vulnerability
high
The main production species Picea abies vulnerable to bark beetle outbreaks (and other pests) will increase due to increased drought occurrence and higher temperature.
Risk Future Impact
high
Temperature increase and drought will affect the main production species Picea abies, expecting increased vulnerability to bark beetle outbreaks and other pests and change in production areas.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Temperature extremes impact excess mortality. While cold spells frequency has decreased in recent decades, hot spells are becoming more frequent. However, its impact on mortality decreased over the period 1986-2009 due to adaptation (see text above for details).
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Cold spells are expected to decrease in frequency. Hot spells will occurr more often and will likely pertain for longer periods. Warmer conditions will likely be favourable for spread of infectious diseases (transmittable by mosquitos, ticks) and more occurrence of toxic algae in bathing waters. In addition, allergen season will prolong due to warmer conditions.

Water extremes might be seconded by epidemics in cases of floods as well as droughts if water scarcity develops.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Large cities (Prague namely) are most vulnerable locations to impacts of hot spells. On the other hand, development of air conditioning, prevention and rescue system capacity provides adaptive capacity to manage the risk.

Lowland inundation areas seems to be most vulnerable to spread of infectious diseases due to most favorable conditions for host organisms like mosquitos.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Cold connected risks are expected to decrease. Risks of impacts of hot spells will increase, similarly as risks of spread of infectious diseases and allergies.
Impact/key hazard
medium
Winter sport resorts has experienced worsening of natural snow conditions for skiing in recent decades. Start of the winter is delayed often to end of December; several melting episodes typically occur even in mountains during the winter.
Key hazard likelihood
high
It is likely that snow condition will further worsen due to increased temperature including highest elevation of mountainous regions.
Vulnerability
high
Winter resorts are dependent on favorable conditions for skiing. Artificial snow generation has become standard measure for resorts to ensure its operation, however, water availability might become limiting factor in some regions. In addition, rising temperatures will increase demand on technological solutions to enable snow generation during temperatures > C° affecting economic plausibility of such measures.
Risk Future Impact
high
Due to higher temperatures, snow conditions will significantly worsen threatening winter sport resorts sustainability.
Impact/key hazard
medium
Road transportation is affected quite regularly during winter weather events and windstorms. Large flood events damage smaller bridges and roads at embankments of streams. The most extreme case was a destruction of highway D8 at underpass of local road during disastrous 2002 flood. Railroad transportation faces interruption is rare, mostly due to windstorms and fallen trees. Inland navigation has been limited in recent years due to low flow conditions at critical reach of Elbe River at Decín. Air traffic at Prague airport is vulnerable to windstorms and snowstorms mostly.
Key hazard likelihood
medium
Likelihood of occurrence of hazards for transportation is expected to remain at comparable level to current climate. While there might be fewer snowstorms, other winter conditions hazard typically occur due to freezing phenomena developing in conditions of temperature around (or crossing) 0 °C, frequency of which might increase. In addition, extreme heats might affect the constructions of railroads and roads more frequently in the future.
Vulnerability
medium
A significant factor of adaptive capacity will be enhanced and targeted meteorological prediction for transportation, that would enable preventive operational measures to decrease vulnerability of transportation.
Risk Future Impact
medium
Floods will remain the most important future risk to roads, as their effect on interruption of transportation is often of a long duration. Increasing extreme temperatures (heats) represents increased risk of degradation of road surface and railroad construction. More frequent convective events during warm part of the year brings increased threat to operation of air traffic and Prague airport with potential increased delays and diversions.
Impact/key hazard
high
Impacts of hazards are more severe in urban areas due to concentration of people and property. That is in particular valid for floods. In case of hot spells, impacts are augmented by urban heat island in large cities.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Floods will remain the most significant natural hazard in the Czech Republic affecting urban areas located in the flood plain. Hots spells occurrence will increase, similarly drought are likely to occur more often.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
About 4 % of inhabitants live in the flood zone, mostly in the urbanized areas. Urban areas are protected typically for 50 years flood (100 years flood for city centers, more than 500 years flood for center of Prague). Concerning hot spell, most vulnerable is Prague (1,3 mil inhabitants), Brno (381 thousands), Ostrava (288 thousands) and Plzen (175 thousands), where urban heat island is most significant.
Risk Future Impact
high
Hot spells will increase in frequency and magnitude affecting physical, as well as mental comfort of inhabitants. It might increase mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, decrease the productivity of works in exterior. In combination with drought, it might negatively affect the urban green areas.
Impact/key hazard
high
Water management infrastructure was developed to ensure water supply to population and important industry sectors. It proved to be robust and reliable in water supply even during extreme drought period 2014-2019. It is estimated that up to 2 mil. people had to rely on substitute water supply.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Drought will increase especially due to increased temperature and evaporation. Floods are expected to remain to be a significant threat. Predicted increase in extreme precipitation will be compensated by increased evaporation resulting in lower initial saturation of soil as important factor of flood generation.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Capacity of water infrastructure that had been built before 1989 was usually overdesigned due to estimated growth of demand of heavy industry. Since then the water use for households decreased by nearly 50 % (at the same time 94 % of inhabitants are supplied via water supply infrastructure). Infrastructure is robust in ensuring water supply even in droughts. Additionally, drought and low flows mean an increased vulnerability to contamination of water (due to smaller mixing ratio).
Risk Future Impact
high
There’s no relevant data for considering change of flood hazard. Potential change in the risk of flood is expected to be caused by changes in exposure. On contrary, droughts occurrence will increase with expected increase in impact on groundwater availability and risk of pollution of surface and groundwater.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The most recent assessment of climate vulnerability and risk is covered in the Updated Complex Study on Impacts, Vulnerability, and Sources of Risk Related to Climate Change in the Czech Republic (2019, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute) and Vulnerability Assessment of the Czech Republic Related to Climate Change (2019, Czech Environmental Information Agency). Both documents represent a knowledge base of the ongoing update of NAS and NAP (both document to be submitted until the end of June 2021).
Within the planning and revision of adaptation policy formulated in NAS and NAP, the MoE cooperates with six working groups consisting of about 140 experts from the public and private sector and academia. Four of these working groups focus on one of the key climate change impacts, i.e., long-term drought, floods, rising temperatures, extreme meteorological events, and wildfires. The two remaining working groups are cross-cutting and focused on finance and monitoring.

Implementation of adaptation policy formulated in NAS and NAP is a responsibility of the MoE and respective ministries, indicated within every single task of NAP.

The MoE also conducts monitoring and evaluation of NAS/NAP in cooperation with other ministries responsible for implementing specific tasks.

There are two essential strategic documents in disaster risk management: Concept of population protection until 2025 with an outlook to 2030 and the Strategy of environmental Security 2021-2030 with an outlook to 2050.

Furthermore, there are two fundamental acts. The Crisis Management Act N. 240/2000 Coll. provides institutional arrangements and governance.

This Act specifies the domain and jurisdiction of state authorities and authorities of territorial self-governing units and rights and obligations of legal and natural entities during preparedness for crisis situations (disaster).

Another act is the Integrated Rescue System Act and amendments to certain acts 239/2000 Coll. This Act specifies the Integrated Rescue System, its components and their powers, powers and competences of state authorities and authorities of the self-governing territorial units, and self-governmental authorities, rights and obligations during preparedness for emergency events and during rescue and relief work, during population protection under and after the state of danger and the emergency state.

Currently, the government has approved a proposal of the Act on Hydrometeorological Service, which regulates the institutional and organizational provision of hydrometeorological services, such as Forecast service.
Climate change impacts as possible results of an implementation of assessed plans or programmes (“PP”) are included cross-sectionally in all phases of the SEA procedure (Act no. 100/2001 Coll., on the Environmental Impact Assessment). The possible PP impacts on climate change, i.e. the current state, development trends and risk assessment, should be discussed already within a scoping procedure in so-called notification of PP (i.e. scoping report). In strategic environmental assessment (in an SEA report) itself, the impact evaluation on the climate or climate change is a part of a comprehensive assessment of the PP impacts on the environment. The quality of the climate change impact assessment should be at the same level as impact assessment of other components of the environment. If this is not the case, the competent authority can return the SEA report to the applicant for completion.
There are two main ways of strategies and policies implementation at the regional and local level, the top-down being guided by national document and the bottom up, originating from local initiatives directly. Both ways are interconnected.

At the regional level, most of the 18 existing regions already have their specific policies and strategies of climate change adaptation and realize region-specific governances. The regions potentially strongly influenced by necessary transformation due to low-carbon economy (e.g. Moravia-Silesia, Northwest region) interlink climate change adaptation with economy transformation, other regions as South Moravia or Central Czechia adapt to drought.
The collection of relevant data on adaptation is conducted by the MoE and its subordinate organizations, Czech Environmental Information Agency, and Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Evaluation of NAP, Updated Complex Study, and Vulnerability Assessment are all publicly available on the website of the MoE. Comprehensive information about the state of the environment and respective pressures, including those related to climate change and its impacts, are publicly available in the Information System of Statistics and Reporting (https://issar.cenia.cz).

As mentioned above, the acts 239/2000 Coll. and 240/2000 Coll. also stipulate obligations for regions (regional authorities) and municipalities in disaster risk management.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

The collaboration of the MoE and other stakeholders on adaptation is established primarily through the Adaptation platform, including, among others, members from the ministries engaged in the implementation of NAS and NAP, and also members of the Union of Towns and Municipalities, Healthy Cities, and National Network of Local Action Groups (LAGs).

Until the end of 2020, 22 Czech municipalities joined EU Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy. Another structure with a significant impact is the Network of Healthy Cities, which also runs Good Practices Programme: Gallery of Sustainability. An institutional arrangement directly focused on local strategies and actions are LAGs. 179 LAGs are unified in the LAG network. LAGs also participate directly in climate adaptation projects, often with international cooperation and networking.
The collaboration on adaptation across local and regional authorities is happening mostly by sharing good practices within the Union of Towns and Municipalities, Healthy Cities, and National Network of Local Action Groups.
NAS (2015) identifies the priority areas, which are expected to be the most affected by climate change: Forest management, Agriculture, Water regime in the landscape and water management, Urban landscape, Biodiversity and ecosystem services, Health and hygiene, Tourism and recreation, Transportation, Industry and energy sector, Emergency events and protection of the population and the environment. NAP (2017) identifies priority climate change impacts: Long-term drought, Floods, Rising temperatures, Extreme meteorological events, and Wildfires. The most important principles of adaptation to climate change in the Czech Republic are described below.
There are two types of challenges. The first one is related to the recent assessment of climate vulnerabilities and risks for the Czech Republic, identifying areas where priority measures should be taken (namely the sectors of forestry and agriculture). The second one is related to the organization of adaptation on the national level, the need for reaching a consensus between the ministries on proper adaptation measures in some of the key sectors, and the need to strengthen personal capacities dedicated to climate change adaptation at all levels of governance (incl. MoE in terms of ensuring national coordination, and all the ministries concerned, regional and local state authorities in terms of their responsibility).
On the national level, the adaptation action is guided by NAS and NAP, which are recently being updated. The main goals and objectives of both documents are set according to the already mentioned climate vulnerability and risk assessments and NAP evaluation.

As the update process is still in progress, the final version of the NAS and NAP is not available. However, it can be mentioned that the updated NAS, compared to the previous version, won't be structured by the sectors or areas but by the major climate change impacts (long-term drought, floods, rising temperatures, extreme meteorological events, and wildfires) that often cross the lines between these sectors. There is only one strategic objective - to reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience of society and ecosystems to climate change and thus reduce the negative climate change impacts. On the level of specific objectives, every of the seven climate change impacts (long-term drought, floods, abundant precipitations, rising temperatures, extreme temperatures, extreme wind, and wildfires) is attributed to 3-5 of the specific objectives. There are three specific objectives focused on ecological stability and ecosystem services in agricultural, forest, and water ecosystems, one on the resilience of human settlements, and one on the early warning systems incl. responsible reaction.

The list of specific measures within these areas, including the budget, will be part of the updated NAP. However, due to the ongoing update process, it is still not finished and thus not available.

According to NAS (actual and updated), the most important principles of adaptation to climate change in the Czech Republic are considered to be an integrated approach both to assessing the synergy of adaptation and mitigation measures and to assessing the suitability of the proposed measures for the individual components of the environment, the economy and the social sphere, also the priority implementation of solutions with multiple effects on the side of benefits (the so-called "win-win" solutions) and with low negatives on the side of risks or costs (so-called "low-regret" options), identification of opportunities associated with the adaptation process, prevention of inappropriate adaptations, and finally building the knowledge base and providing objective information for decision-making processes at all levels.

The updated NAS will be valid for the period 2021 - 2030, the updated NAP for the period 2021 – 2025.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Description
The Study on Rainwater Management in Urban Areas was developed in 2019 within the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic in cooperation with experts as an outcome of a specific measure defined in NAP.The Study includes 6 strategic objectives, 3 models of precipitations (light/moderate/heavy), and list of suitable “green” or “gray” measures. There are also legal, technical, and other deficiencies concerning the current situation identified, including suggestions for their improvement.
Status
implemented/completed
Key type measure (KTM)
A: Governance and Institutional
Sub-KTM
A1: Policy
Description
The National Programme Environment is a programme of aid financed from the State Environmental Fund. This programme is supplementary to the Operational Programme Environment and other grant and subsidy programmes. It provides mainly grants to a wide range of entities, including public and private legal persons as well as individuals. Adaptation to climate change is one of the fields of support, it focuses on retention of rain water by individuals, building capacities for new water resources, and development of green vegetation in urban areas.
Status
being implemented
Key type measure (KTM)
B: Economic and Finance
Sub-KTM
B1: Financing and incentive instruments
Description
The PERUN project focuses on the research of climatic extremes, drought and the consequences of climate change in the Czech Republic. The project is guaranteed by the Ministry of the Environment and carried out by wide consortium of research institutions. Main objective of the project is to create a research center that would focus on the research in the field of climate change in long term. This includes an analysis of the ongoing change and predicting future trends, including the identification of threats for the environment as well as for the society.
Status
being implemented
Key type measure (KTM)
E: Knowledge and behavioural change
Sub-KTM
E1: Information and awareness raising


Development of local or regional adaptation plans and strategies is optional, as there is no such obligation. However, the MoE supports the municipalities and regions in developing their adaptation plans, strategies, and SECAPs through respective subsidy schemes of Norway grants and National Programme Environment.

Out of 14 regions, 2 of them have their adaptation strategy, but there are other regions in the stage of developing their adaptation strategy.
The main documents regarding the adaptation on the national level are NAS and NAP, which define adaptation priorities also for the sectors outside the responsibility of the MoE. There are both new measures that responsible ministries adopt into respective sectoral strategies and existing adaptation measures adopted to NAP from sectoral strategies to avoid duplicities.
In the updated NAP, there is only one strategic objective - to reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience of society and ecosystems to climate change and thus reduce the negative climate change impacts. On the level of specific objectives, every of the seven climate change impacts (long-term drought, floods, abundant precipitations, rising temperatures, extreme temperatures, extreme wind, and wildfires) is attributed to 3-5 of the specific objectives. There are three specific objectives focused on ecological stability and ecosystem services in agricultural, forest, and water ecosystems. One objective is focused on the resilience of human settlements (including the vulnerable groups), one on the early warning systems and the responsible reaction. Aside from adaptation measures included in NAS and NAP, there are various subsidy schemes to promote adaptation on local and regional level. More specifically, the elaboration of strategies and plans is supported through the National Programme Environment (development of local or joint Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans within the Covenant of Mayors) and Norway Grants (development of local or regional adaptation strategies). The implementation of various adaptation measures (flood protection, establishment and regeneration of public greenery, landscape management, etc.) is supported through the National Programme Environment, Norway Grants, Operational Programme Environment, and Landscape Management Programme.

As the adaptation action on the sub-national level is optional and is not guided by any binding rules, the MoE can provide only information available from sub-national adaptation strategies and plans. Thus, for example, in the adaptation strategy of the Moravian-Silesian Region, there is an identified need for improving thermal comfort in the settlements and facilities where vulnerable groups reside.
In the updated NAS, there are also 13 cross-cutting instruments and measures. One of them is the cooperation with the private sector in terms of risk-sharing within the market.

On the sub-national level, for example, in the adaptation strategy of the Moravian-Silesian Region, there is an identified need to prevent accidents a releases from facilities due to the extreme conditions (e.g. floods).
As mentioned before, the most recent assessment of climate vulnerability and risk is covered in the Updated Complex Study on Impacts, Vulnerability, and Sources of Risk Related to Climate Change in the Czech Republic (2019, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute) and Vulnerability Assessment of the Czech Republic Related to Climate Change (2019, Czech Environmental Information Agency).

Both documents have a slightly different methodology. Updated Complex Study represents a compilation of relevant data and research outcomes on climate change impacts in various sectors, including the economic consequences. The vulnerability assessment of total 98 indicators was developed within the framework of vulnerability, its relation to the specific climate change impacts, and areas or sectors. The concept of vulnerability consists of the element of exposition, sensitivity, and adaptation capacity.
The assessment of the implementation of adaptation actions is included in the evaluation of NAP. The MoE conducted the evaluation by collecting information from the institutions and the MoE departments responsible for implementing a total of 350 measures of NAP. Then, the data was delivered to the Czech Environmental Information Agency to add the assessment of respective indicators and formulate recommendations for the upcoming update of NAS and NAP.
There is no overview of the subnational level adaptation efforts, as NAS and NAP are focused only on national level.
Information on spending for climate adaptation is included in the Evaluation of NAP. In the evaluation process, ministries and MoE departments were asked to provide information on the state of implementation of the measures, including relevant finance provided for the implementation. In this way, the Evaluation includes information on adaptation finance, but not in the form of precise analysis, as the main goal of the Evaluation was to monitor implementation and compliance.

Unfortunately, the Evaluation does not provide a complete picture of climate adaptation finance in the Czech Republic.
In the Buildings sector a support for construction of passive buildings, adapted to climate change, was introduced for residential, public and commercial buildings. Specific adaptation measures such as shading systems, gray water recycling, rain water collection and green roofs are also supported. However, there has been no significant progress in introducing adaptation into buildings regulations and standards.

In the Energy and Industry sectors the measures related to security of energy supply and safety in industrial installations are regarded as implemented or ongoing. There are some shortcomings in implementation of measures aimed at providing sustainable supply of biomass and increasing reserve capacity in power grids.

In Forestry sector the measures of NAP relating to natural forest regeneration, increased ecological stability of forests and gene pool protection are regarded as implemented or ongoing. The exception is the measure relating to improved game management which was not yet implemented. There has been good progress in implementation of measures relating to restoration or improvement of forest water regime which are supported by several subsidy programmes.

Adaptation measures are supported in combination with mitigation measures in the New Green Savings Programme, including green rooftops or active and passive outside shading. Both new houses and houses undergoing refurbishment are eligible.

Also the requirements for passive houses include the value of maximal internal temperature without the utilisation of artificial cooling.
According to the latest vulnerability assessment from 2019 and its comparison to the previous assessment from 2017, the Czech Republic is still very vulnerable to climate change. Conclusions from the assessment were taken into account in the update of NAS and NAP.
Out of total 98 indicators of vulnerability assessment, 26 indicators are measuring adaptive capacity. As mentioned above, the Czech Republic is still very vulnerable to climate change, and conclusions from the assessment were taken into account in the update of NAS and NAP.
Information on the progress towards meeting adaptation priorities is included in the evaluation of NAP. Out of 350 measures, 70 % were implemented or accomplished. The highest rate of implemented or accomplished measures was identified within the sectors of extreme events, education and raising public awareness, and forestry.
There are two types of barriers to adaptation.

The first one was explicitly addressed in the NAP in the form of specific measures requiring, e.g., revision of specific norms or legal requirements. Most of these measures were successfully implemented.

The second one is related to the organization of adaptation on the national level, the need for reaching a consensus between the ministries on proper adaptation measures, and the need to strengthen personal capacities. These barriers are addressed directly in the development of NAS and NAP through long-term cooperation with all relevant stakeholders.
Vulnerability Assessment of the Czech Republic Related to Climate Change is supposed to be updated every four years.

In 2020, an ongoing research project PERUN (Prediction, evaluation, and research for understanding national sensitivity and impacts of drought and climate change for Czechia) started and is projected for 6,5 years. The project outcomes will also serve as a knowledge base for the future update of strategic documents on adaptation.
There is an ongoing update of the NAS and NAP.
At the end of 2018, the Moravian-Silesian Region (MSR) commissioned an Analysis of the Moravian-Silesian Region's Vulnerability to the Impacts of Climate Change in order to identify the region's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change for regions 2019-2027. The Moravian-Silesian Region Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change was approved in January 2020 and contributes to the fulfillment of the Development Strategy of the MSR 2019-2027, as it fulfills the Strategic Objective 4.3 Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change. Following this, the MSR prepared and submitted an application for the Integrated Project LIFE for Coal Mining Landscape Adaptation (COALA), the aim of which is to implement the MSR adaptation strategy and to share the experience with the MoE and other regions.

In December 2018, the MoE started an online prediction system for drought management called HAMR (Hydrology-Agronomy-Meteorology-Retention). The system aims at informing the general public about the current status and close prediction of drought(up to 8 weeks) and at serving as a basis for decisions of the Drought Management Commissions, which operate at regional and national level during the declared state of water scarcity.

Water Act amendment (2021) establishes operational solutions to water scarcity at regional and national level: Drought Management Commission at regional and national level, Plans for Drought and Water Scarcity Management, and authority for restricting water abstraction, emergency handling or emergency water supply.

The Adapterra Awards competition and campaign, which is supported by the State Environmental Fund of the Czech Republic and is asking the owners, authors, contractors or investors of an interesting adaptation measure to climate change to nominate their projects to the annual contest. The best adaptation projects are then included into the inspirational database and given appropriate publicity to spread the ideas and inspire experts and the general public. 78 inspiring projects entered the second year of the competition in four categories – Landscape, Urban areas, Working environment and Our home.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Not reported
There is a synergy between adaptation actions outlined in NAS and NAP, and mitigation efforts and activities, preferring measures with both adaptation and mitigation impact. One of the most recent and prominent example is the New Green Savings Programme, primarily focused on energy savings and mitigation, where, among other activities, construction of green roofs is supported. The synergy between adaptation and mitigation is one of the original ideas of Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy.

Besides that, adaptation action is also part of Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030 (based on global Sustainable Development Goals) and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
In the field of water management the Czech Republic closely cooperates with all neighbouring states via bilateral commissions in relation to transboundary rivers and their management (e.g. transboundary early warning systems, flood prevention measures etc.). Furthermore the Czech Republic actively participates in the activities of the international commissions for Elbe, Oder and Danube river basins. In these forums the Czech Republic actively shares information concerning climate change, water protection, and prevention and mitigation of extreme hydrological events. The Czech Republic was also actively involved in the 2018 update of the Climate Adaptation Strategy for the Danube River Basin.
The Czech Republic is supported by the Norwegian funds, whose main purpose is to reduce social and economic disparities in Europe and to strengthen bilateral relations and mutual cooperation. One of the supported programmes in the Czech Republic is the programme Environment, Ecosystems and Climate Change administered by the State Environmental Fund. It consists of 5 areas of support, and the total allocation amount is roughly 800 mil. CZK. Around one third of this allocation goes to "Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation"measures. These measures consist of development of new local or regional adaptation and mitigation strategies and plans, their implementation, and raising of public awareness on these issues, especially at local or regional level.

Since 2020 the Ministry of Environment is coordinating the Working group on climate education with the aim to publish the Policy paper for climate education as well as the Methodology for educators in the second half of 2021.

Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic

Department of Energy and Climate Protection
Katerina Suchá

Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic

Department of General Nature and Landscape Protection
Jakub Horecký

Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic

Department of Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development
supervising and cooperation on development of NAS and NAP, responsible for the evaluation of NAP, national coordinator of Covenant of Mayors
Pavla Vidanová

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'