Choose a country:
Denmark
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czechia
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom

National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

Denmark consists of the Jutland peninsula and more than 400 islands. It has a total area of 43,098 km2 and lies at about 55º N and 11º E. The whole of the country is lowland. The surface was formed by Ice Age glaciers and glacial streams. The highest hill is approximately 170 metres above sea level.

The coastline has a length of more than 7,300 km. To protect low-lying land against flooding and storm surge, it has been necessary to build dikes or other permanent installations along about 1,800 km of coastline. In addition, sandbags, breakwaters and similar protect other parts of the coastline, which would otherwise erode because they consist of soft materials deposited during the last Ice Age. A rise in the water level due to climate change would obviously affect the protection of the coasts and create a greater risk of flooding and erosion.

The Danish climate is temperate with precipitation relatively evenly distributed over the year. The country lies in the zone of prevailing westerly winds, which is characterised by fronts, low pressure, and changing weather. Compared with other regions on the same latitude as Denmark, the climate is relatively warm due to the heat transport from the North Atlantic current.

Denmark has a distinctly coastal climate, with mild, damp winters and cool, unsettled summers. Average seasonal temperatures vary from about two degrees in winter to about 16 degrees in summer. However, the weather in Denmark is greatly affected by the proximity of both the sea and the continent. This means that the weather can change, depending on the prevailing wind direction. The westerly wind from the sea brings relatively uniform weather in summer and winter: mild in winter and cool in summer. When the wind comes from south or east, the weather in Denmark is more similar to that of the continent: warm and sunny in summer and cold in winter. The weather in Denmark thus depends very much on the wind direction and the season.
Today, Denmark has a population at around 5.8 mill. and the population growth has been relatively small in the last +30 years. The latest forecasts show that population growth will continue to be moderate in the
years ahead. It is estimated rising to approx. 6.3 mill. in 2050. Today, the population density is 137 per km2. To our knowledge no extensive research on how climate change adaptation affect different population groups.
One-twentieth of the area of Denmark is urbanised. 85% of Danes are town-dwellers, and most enterprises, institutions, etc., are situated in towns.

Almost 1 mill. Danes lives less than 1 km from the coast.

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-15

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • actual NAS - adopted
National adaptation plan (NAP)
  • actual NAP - adopted
  • being developed
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
  • Established
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
  • Established
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
Monitoring of the Danish climate is carried out through a wide array of atmospheric and oceanic observations. DMI carries out in situ observations of climate parameters (atmosphere and ocean) under the World Meteorological Organisation's (WMO) programmes and sub-programmes: the World Weather Watch Programme (WWW), Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), the Global Observing System (GOS), the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). DMI also participates in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC).

DMI has an extensive international scientific record within climate modelling and is the leading national authority on regional climate change projections. DMI also employs global climate models in order to investigate interactions and feedback mechanisms between atmosphere, ocean, land surface and ice, as well as for providing future projections. The future projections contribute to intercomparison projects such as CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) and CMIP (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), where they are freely available and contributing to international assessments studies, e.g. IPCC reports.

Danish observations and model results from international frameworks are combined to inform climate adaptation in Denmark through the Danish Climate Atlas. The Danish Climate Atlas provides data on municipality, drainage basin and coastal stretch levels showing future changes in temperature, precipitation, extreme precipitation, relative sea level and storm surge heights. It thereby gives an indication of areas with a particular future risk of being impacted by extremes. The tool provides fundamental climate data so municipalities can take the necessary precautions and guard citizens, infrastructure and buildings against the expected extreme weather in the future. Results are displayed for different future emissions scenarios, and the uncertainties illustrated as the range of projections from the different climate models employed.
Monitoring changes in the climate is based on decades and centuries of observations in the atmosphere and ocean. Climate monitoring has been a key task for DMI for around 150 years and today DMI's observation network consist of in situ meteorological weather and oceanic stations, weathers radars and use of satellite data. DMI has as part of the observation network century-long instrumental measurements of surface temperature, precipitation and ocean sea level, which are central in understanding changes in the frequency and severity of extremes.

Measurement of the climate is carried out with great consideration for the reliability and comparability of the data for instance in terms of the physical relocation of stations, changes in the station surroundings and measuring equipment etc. Climate monitoring is coordinated centrally by the WMO, who administrates the guidelines of observations, in order to promote standardisation of meteorological and related observations, and to strive for a uniform publication of observations and statistics.

The modelling activities at DMI has mainly emphasis on Denmark, Europe and the Arctic, but global research is also carried out. Specifically, the models include:
• Regional dynamic ocean models for calculating changes in regional sea level, ocean and sea ice. The focus areas are the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and Greenland waters.
• Regional dynamic atmosphere-climate models for calculating regional/local climate change and variations. Important focus areas for Denmark are changes in (extreme) precipitation, drought risk and heat waves. For Greenland, special focus is on the ice sheet and changes in snow accumulation, melting and refreezing.
• Global Earth System modelling: dynamic coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice models, which are used to study climate change and internal variability in the climate on decadal to centennial time scales. The work includes active coupling to ice-sheet models for studies of the changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
DMI assess the current and future state of the climate through monitoring, modelling, and related statistical analyses. Knowledge, data and assessments of the climate and climate change in Denmark is communicated to the public and to relevant users and authorities. These activities rely on DMI’s gathering, processing and analysis of data, as well as these data being made available for the relevant stakeholders. Observational data from DMI is gradually made freely available from 2020-2023. Similarly, future climate projections with high geographical detail are freely available (through the Danish Climate Atlas). The data lays the foundation for other authorities to assess the vulnerability and risks of climate impacts and the adaptive capacity of Denmark.
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Changing temperature (air freshwater marine water)
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Coastal erosion
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Changing temperature (air freshwater marine water)
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Coastal erosion
In 2012 the centrally convened Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation prepared an analysis called ‘Mapping climate change – barriers and opportunities for action’ conducted a sectoral and cross-sectoral analysis of climate risks/vulnerability . It analysed 14 sectors: construction and housing, coasts and ports, transport, water, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, tourism, nature, health, emergency preparedness, insurance, and spatial planning. For each sector, it presented a basic analysis of important effects of climate change, relevant division of responsibilities between the authorities and private citizens, possibilities for adaptation, initiatives planned and in progress, and barriers and opportunities for future action. A review of the significance of climate change up to 2050 for the individual sectors and industries shows that Danish society may experience both positive and negative impacts. The positive impacts will relate primarily to the higher temperatures that will result in, e.g a longer growing season and increased productivity for forestry and agriculture. Milder inters will moreover reduce energy consumption and construction costs, as well as the costs of winter-weather preparedness and road salt. The negative impacts of climate change will relate primarily to more frequent extreme rainfall, elevated sea levels and more powerful storms, which can lead to flooding and damage to infrastructure and buildings as well as erosion along coasts. The report was based on the scenarios used by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. In 2016 a detailed risk assessment regarding erosion and flooding was conducted for the entire Danish coastline by the Coastal Authority. The assessment was conducted in a cooperation between the Ministry of Environment and Food, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministyr of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs, the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate and the Ministry for Economic affairs and the Interior. The assessment was focusing on the effects of a future changing climate on the Danish coasts and has been used as a basis for the significant coastal adaptation initiatives being laid out in 2017/18. DMI estimates based on the IPCC 5th Assessment Report were used as a basis for the assessment.

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
not applicable
Reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis. A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis, and the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures".
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Crops such as grass, sugar beets and maize will benefit from increases in temperature as the length of the growing season determines the yield. If the CO2 concentration doubles, the yield is likely to increase by around 20% for most crops. For field vegetables and fruit, higher temperatures, especially in the spring and autumn, will mean an extended production season. There will also be possibilities for new crops, e.g. more wine may be produced. Higher temperatures and winter precipitation will increase the risk of nitrogen and phosphorus leaching and run-off into the aquatic environment. Temperature increase will reduce the length of the active growing period for annual crops such as cereal and rape, and thereby reduce the yield as the crops will mature earlier. Increases in temperature may also lead to significant variations in yields. Increased winter precipitation and rising water levels in some areas will lead to flooding or to groundwater levels. This may be particularly relevant along a number of fjords and watercourses, but there may also be problems for other drained areas with poor drops to watercourses in the event of greater precipitation intensity. Longer periods of drought during the summer mean a greater need to water crops artificially, especially on sandy soil. More artificial watering may have an effect on summer flows in water courses. Higher temperatures might be more favourable for a number of plant diseases and pests, which therefore will become more widespread, potentially increase the need for use of pesticides. Rising temperatures could change conditions for the incidence of animal diseases which are currently regarded as 'exotic' in Denmark. Vector-borne diseases are an example of this, as small changes in temperatures and humidity can enable ticks and mosquitoes to establish themselves in new locations. Increase the rate of microbial digestion of organic material leading to a loss of carbon stock in agricultural soils. Excerpts from NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is currently not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
A national overview of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacity is currently non-existent.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Higher temperatures and increases in the air's content of CO2 will enhance biomass production. Rising temperatures provide for a longer growing season. At the same time, increased contents of CO2 in the atmosphere lead to more favourable growth conditions. In combination, these factors provide for enhanced biomass production in Danish nature. A higher sea level and more powerful storms could cause coastal erosion and recession, which will affect Danish coastal habitats. These problems, however, are projected to be limited up until 2050. Not only along coasts but also in low-lying areas, such as river valleys and meadows, and habitats and the biodiversity living there may come under pressure from more flooding events. There will also be pressure from the lack of opportunity to spread to other habitats and not enough time to adapt to new conditions. More non-native species will be able to exploit a warmer climate to expand their natural habitat to include Denmark, affecting the existing ecosystem and very likely supplanting current species. This applies to all types of ecosystems: terrestrial, freshwater as well as marine ecosystems. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available. Reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis, and the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
A national overview of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacity is currently non-existent. Reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
More extreme rainfall events will lead to more flooding: The most important challenge will probably come from increased precipitation. Heavy rainfall may lead to more basements being flooded by intruding rainwater and sewage water. Houses and buildings with entrances at terrain level may also be exposed. A rising sea level and more frequent storm-surge events in combination with heavy precipitation may put low-lying and coastal urban areas at risk.

Greater air humidity and less frequent sub-zero temperatures are significant for the wear on buildings: Milder winters with greater humidity may affect buildings and reduce the life span of individual building components. However, less frequent sub-zero temperatures may help reduce the wear and tear on buildings.

More powerful storms and changes in snowfall may damage buildings: Powerful storms may pose a risk of damage to buildings, including damage to roof constructions from storms and greater snow load. The latter will often be manageable through roof snow removal. In addition to this, there will probably be a need for increased maintenance and, in some situations, reinforcement of the building.

Less demand for heating during winter, but risk of poorer indoor climate: Milder winters may in general entail a reduced demand for heating. At the same time more humid winters may result in a more humid indoor climate providing better conditions for house dust mites and increasing the risk of mould. A more humid climate may also result in greater demand for maintenance of building envelopes.

Greater risk of overheating: Large window sections facing south, and longer periods with warm weather in the summertime may pose a risk of overheating in buildings, which will have to be addressed when designing buildings. The problem has already been addressed in the building regulations' provisions on energy efficiency classes 2015 and 2050, which stipulate requirements on maximum indoor temperature. Excerpt from NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is currently not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
A national overview of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate is currently non-existent.
Vulnerability
not applicable
A national overview of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacity is currently non-existent.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Climate change could demand a greater number, as well as more resourcedemanding, emergency responses and assistance from municipal as well as national fire and rescue services. Responses to storm and water damage include efforts to fortify and identify vulnerable buildings and infrastructure, prevent flooding with sand bags and pump water away from low-lying land areas. Other responses include assisting in establishing an emergency power supply. Moreover, an important task is to protect the environment when e.g. sewers are at risk of flowing over with sewage water, or when industrial areas have been flooded, tank systems have leaked, etc. In situations when flooding leads to contamination of drinking water, the Danish fire and rescue service can assist with the distribution of clean drinking water. There is moreover a series of rescue assignments related to serious road accidents and other accidents involving personal injury, e.g. during storm or cloudburst events. In the event of particularly intense storms, snow storms and flooding, it may also be necessary to rescue and provide housing and food relief for those in need (e.g. when public transport, roads and bridges have been closed down and similar). More frequent and longer-lasting periods with drought in summer may lead to greater risk of forest fires. This may result in a greater number of and more comprehensive tasks for the Danish fire and rescue service, including fire guarding, emergency drinking water supplies, fire extinction and fire-damping operations. Furthermore, an increase in maximum day temperatures during summer could lead to heatwaves of an intensity, scope and duration which may require the Danish fire and rescue service to assist in home-nursing efforts and in the public health emergency response. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
high
The coastal areas are mainly affected by hazards during surges and storm surges, which can result in severe flooding of low-lying areas and coastal erosion. The observed surges have been reported as part of the Floods Directive in 2019, where some of the recent surges and storm surges that resulted in flooding happened in November 2011, December 2011, December 2013, January 2015, December 2016, January 2017, October 2017. The only storm surge not reported yet happened in January 2019.

The frequency of these events differ between a 1/20 yr. event to a less likely than 1/1.000 yr. event.

The measured sea level rise have resulted in an increased water level during the storm surges, which have increased the flooding/coastal erosion and the resulting consequences.

As part of the Floods Directive, the coastal flood hazard, vulnerability and risk are mapped nationally based on observed events. Data are available here: https://oversvommelse.kyst.dk/

During the project Kystplanlægger (Coastal Planner), current coastal flood and coastal erosion hazards, consequences and risks are mapped nationally in 2020 based on statistical events. Data are available here: https://kystplanlægger.dk/
Key hazard likelihood
high
The rising sea level will result in more frequent critical coastal water levels, resulting in more frequent floods and a larger coastal erosion, resulting in more frequent and larger expected annual damage.

More winter precipitation combined with higher sea level, will increase the likelihood of compound fluvial-coastal flooding as well as compound groundwater-coastal flooding. The larger amount of precipitation may also increase the soil instability in the coastal areas, thus increasing the coastal erosion.

The changes in the wind caused by climate change are still uncertain, but a general or seasonal increase in the western winds or more frequent and stronger storms, will increase the impact on the coastal areas, thus increasing the extent and frequency of both coastal flooding and coastal erosion.

During the project Kystplanlægger, future coastal flood and coastal erosion hazards, consequences and risks are mapped nationally based on statistical events and climate scenario RCP8.5 in 2070 and 2120. Data are available here: https://kystplanlægger.dk/
Vulnerability
high
Many cities and values are located in the coastal areas in Denmark, thus making them vulnerable to coastal flooding and coastal erosion. The tangible and intangible vulnerabilities are mapped as part of the Floods Directive and the current and future economic consequences of coastal flooding and coastal erosion are calculated as part of the national project Kystplanlægger. Data are available at https://oversvommelse.kyst.dk/ and https://kystplanlægger.dk/

There are no national data or reviews on the adaptive capacity of Denmark.
Risk Future Impact
high
The future risk of coastal flooding and coastal erosion are expected to increase due to climate changes, as the hazards increase. The risks are mapped nationally in the project Kystplanlægger. The mapping include the expected changes on the hazard from climate scenario RCP8.5 for the years 2070 and 2120. Changes in the vulnerabilities are not included. The risk map is based on six hazard calculations each year, with potential coastal flooding for six statistical storm surges and both chronical and acute coastal erosion based on sea level rise and the same statistical storm surge water levels. The statistical waterleaves are those of 1/50, 1/100, 1/500, 1/1.000, 1/5.000 and 1/10.000 yr. events.

Data are available at: https://kystplanlægger.dk/
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is currently not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures".
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
With higher average temperature and milder winters, energy needs in the winter will drop. The difference in energy consumption between mild and cold winters is about 20%. However, warmer summers will also mean more needs for cooling, but the effect of this is expected to be less than the effect of milder winters. More extreme weather with more powerful storms may lead to a need to secure installations against changed weather conditions. The effects are limited, however, as wind turbines have been secured against high wind speeds and the vulnerable electricity supply grid will more or less be buried underground. In high winds, wind turbines are cut off which means electricity production will also stop. With stronger winds there is a potential for better exploitation of wind turbines for greater electricity generation. The expected increase in average speeds of 1-2%, however, will only lead to limited additional production with no significant effect on the economy. Changed precipitation patterns in Sweden and Norway will mean production of more hydropower. Higher temperatures in Norway and Sweden will also reduce electricity consumption for heating in these countries. Both these factors will reduce electricity prices in Denmark. Higher temperatures and higher CO2 content in the atmosphere may cause greater plant growth and thus greater domestic biomass production. Biomass production can be incorporated in electricity and heating supply and can replace fossil fuels as well as increase security of supply. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
A national overview of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacity is currently non-existent.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
When weather and climate change impacts are less predictable, the insurance companies, in turn, have less possibilities for predicting damages and thus also for addressing the risks. As a consequence, the companies will try to minimise the uncertainty through measures like the ones mentioned below. Danish insurance companies are typically reinsured in large international reinsurance companies that also insure against financial losses from earthquakes, tropical storms and other large natural disasters, and to some extent also acts of terrorism. An increase in the intensity of cloudbursts and other extreme weather events in Denmark will lead to an increase in the costs of reinsurance. For example, the international reinsurance company Swiss Re has announced that the cloudburst that hit Copenhagen in July 2011 will lead to higher reinsurance premiums. These higher premiums will very likely trickle down to Danish insurance customers. For both citizens and enterprises, climate change will entail a risk of higher premiums, lower coverage or the introduction of special terms for taking out insurance. Differentiated premiums (so-called "micro tariffing") might be used more extensively, which means premiums will be determined based on where buildings are located, the special characteristics and technical design of buildings, as well as their history of damages. This will entail that particularly exposed properties may be at greater risk (e.g. if the sewer system is under-dimensioned or if the property is in a low-lying area, and if potential damages cannot be prevented through ordinary preventive measures such as backflow blockers) and therefore cannot be insured or can only be insured against paying extremely high insurance premiums. This, in turn, may affect loan opportunities. Owners of such properties will have a hard time selling their property. In the city of Odense, the local water utility company ultimately had to buy seven houses. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures".
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Higher temperatures and higher CO2 content in the atmosphere may cause greater plant growth and thus greater inland biomass production. Because of the warmer climate, the growing season for trees will also be lengthened. Increased storm intensity (5-10%), as well as increased storm risk, may lead to more trees being blown down (especially conifers, which comprise about one-half of the Danish forest area) and more frequent forest storm damage. This can affect wood production and cause a loss in biodiversity in forests, if forest storm damage occurs in large, cohesive areas. Forest trees are vulnerable to climate change (drought stress and storms). This also increases their vulnerability to harmful diseases and pests. Pests and diseases can attack trees more easily, weakening the wood and rotting or drying it out. As a result of the warmer climate, there is a risk of more forest fires, which are already widespread in southern Europe. Rising temperatures change the species composition of forests. Tree species have different ways of dealing with climate change. Norway spruce, which covers about 17% of Danish forest land, is threatened by temperature increases as the species cannot cope very well with mild winters and summer droughts (other, non-indigenous conifer species such as Sitka spruce will cope with increases in temperature better). In contrast, deciduous forests will have better conditions as a result of rising temperatures. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
A national overview of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacity is currently non-existent.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
The greatest health-related impact is expected to occur closer to the year 2100 when climate change. Noticeable consequences may however occur earlier, e.g. in connection with extreme weather events. Heathwaves can lead to e.g. heatstroke and dehydration which at worst may be life-threatening. The elderly, patients in hospitals and individuals suffering from certain diseases are at high risk. Infants and young children will also require extra attention. Spending more time outdoors can have positive effects, e.g. in the form of more outdoor physical activity, fewer problems with indoor climate and less disease transmission in kindergartens etc. However, it may also cause more symptoms in people with pollen allergies and possibly also lead to more people becoming allergic to pollen. Flooding of built-up areas has been documented to increase the risk of infections in connection with e.g. work to clear up basements flooded by polluted wastewater. There is a risk of health problems if the building is damp and possibly also mould infested. Temperature increases and increased risk of extreme weather events will increase the risk of food- and water-borne infections. Outbreaks of a number of tick-borne diseases like inflammation of the brain and Lyme disease will also be a risk. In the long term, there will also be risk of insect-borne diseases that are restricted to tropical or subtropical areas today. After longer periods with warm seawater, an increased concentration of certain marine bacteria will comprise an infection risk for fishermen and swimmers, and there may be more incidents of algal blooms and dangerous jellyfish. Milder winters may lead to fewer cold-related diseases and deaths and fewer injuries from ice and snow. Warmer summers and more precipitation enhance the risk of damp and mould in buildings and can cause health problems and exacerbate asthma and hay fever. A longer growing season will mean a greater risk of pollen allergies etc. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures".
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Fish are generally adapted to a single temperature interval and rising temperatures will mean a general change in the composition of stocks in Danish waters and thereby also in the resource base for fishing. It is likely that there will be an increase in species preferring warmer waters (e.g. sardine and brisling/sprats) and species preferring colder waters will retreat (e.g. cod in the North Sea). Rising sea temperatures, for example in the Baltic Sea and in coastal areas, could lead to more and more serious problems with oxygen depletion, which can cause poorer living conditions for cod, for example. Similarly, increased precipitation and run-off from watercourses could increase run-off of nutrient salts and the risk of oxygen depletion (hypoxia). These factors will also affect fishing. Rising sea temperatures can underpin the incidence of new disease-promoting bacteria and toxic algae, which can threaten fish and shellfish stocks as well as food safety. Rising sea temperatures could accelerate the occurrence of populations of invasive species which may lead to significant changes in ecosystems and thus affect production conditions and therefore fisheries for a number of fish and shellfish species. Populations of a number of important fish species in Danish coastal waters are demonstrating local adaptation to the existing salt gradient from the Baltic Sea out to the North Sea. Changes in salt concentration may mean changes in the geographical and temporal distribution of the fisheries resources. More frequent weather events with strong winds and precipitation may impact the possibilities to develop marine aquaculture and may periodically obstruct shellfish harvests in coastal areas because of discharges and consequential problems for food safety. Acidification can affect the production of a number of organisms, including fish and shellfish, because of reduced calcium formation. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national overview or register of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is currently non-existent.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
A national overview of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate is currently non-existent.
Vulnerability
not applicable
A national overview of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacity is currently non-existent.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
The municipal councils are responsible for spatial planning in municipalities. The municipal development plan is an overall plan for land use in the individual municipality. The municipal development plans must not conflict with overall planning and governmental interests. Furthermore, local development plans in the municipality must be in accordance with the overall municipal development plan and with any national planning directives that relate specifically to the area in question. In addition to the legally binding provisions (national planning directives), the Minister for the Environment can influence the municipalities' planning through political statements in the national planning report, and through an report on national interests in municipal planning published every four years for use in the municipalities’ revision of their municipal development plans. Furthermore, the Minister for the Environment has specific powers to intervene in local planning to ensure national interests. These powers include, in particular, power to object to proposed municipal development plans on behalf of all central government bodies whose interests are affected by the municipal plan (i.e. the concept of national interests). Changes in or new land use, for example in connection with adaptation to climate change, could fall under the concept of national interests. Spatial planning is an effective instrument of control, which can contribute to reducing or eliminating the negative effects, as well as exploiting the positive effects, of climate change in a number of sectors and industries. In 2012, a new bill allowed municipalities to incorporate climate considerations in local development plans, and guidelines on local development plans that incorporate climate change. In 2018 an amendment to the Planning Act was adopted so that all municipalities how to identify areas at risk of flooding and erosion and ensure remediation measures in their municipal plans. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
A national overview of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate is currently non-existent.
Vulnerability
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures".
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Denmark will be an attractive holiday destination for a larger part of the year. At the moment, 75% of all tourists visit Denmark in the summer, i.e. June, July and August. With a warmer climate, it is likely that the Danish tourist season will extend towards the whole year, and Denmark will be even more attractive in the high season. An analysis by Deutsche Bank highlights Denmark, with its wide beaches, as the country in northern Europe with the best conditions to meet the future European demand for sun and sand. the Mediterranean is currently is the most popular region for tourists in Europe, with a very hot and dry climate, it is expected that, especially in high summer, the Mediterranean will attract fewer tourists. More days of heat waves will increase the probability that it will be so hot that tourists from primarily the north-western part of Europe will seek alternative holiday destinations, and as a replacement for Cyprus, Greece, Malta and Spain, Deutsche Bank45 points to Denmark amongst other destinations in the temperate zone as an attractive country for summer holidays. In the medium term, sea-level rises will make a number of current holiday areas along the coast, with holiday centres, holiday houses and camp sites, unusable or less attractive. The heavy downpours expected in the summer will affect many of the outdoor activities and attractions tourists often demand in Denmark. These also include the large amusement parks such as Tivoli, Dyrehavsbakken, Bonbonland and Fårup Sommerland, which will have to invest in facilities to manage increased amounts of rain. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national register of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available. Reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis, and the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
Reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Fewer occurrences of sub-zero temperatures may serve to improve the life span of the asphalt. However, asphalt surfacing becomes softer at higher temperatures and its carrying capacity and friction decreases. For the underlying gravel and sand layers of the roadbed, the increases in temperature will have a limited but positive effect on the life span. Increased precipitation and groundwater level, leading to more flooding events, will be a problem for traffic safety and passability. This will place greater demand on road drainage systems and monitoring of the road network. Flooding not only reduces the carrying capacity of roads, it also shortens their efficient life span. For bridges and tunnels, there is a greater risk of reduced carrying capacity of foundations, supporting walls and sheet piles due to higher groundwater levels, particular for constructions founded on sand. For the permanent links cross the Great Belt and the Sound an increase in precipitation will mean a greater amount of surface water which will have to be pumped and there may be a greater demand for pumping capacity. A rising water level and more powerful storms may combine to enhance the risk of flooding of tunnels and lead to longer periods of interruption. More storms may also mean that bridges will have to be closed down temporarily more often. Flooding events and rising groundwater level will enhance the risk of landslides and embankment failures. A rise in the mean sea level could pose a problem for rail services where embankment and slope drainage systems divert the water into nearby watercourses that are affected by the rise in sea level. Damming up of water in the watercourse could affect the water level in trenches. On electrified railway lines, powerful storms and greater wind speeds may lead to greater frequency of breakdowns of overhead wires and to more incidents with trees falling across the tracks. This may result in interrupted train services. Excerpts from the NC7.
Impact/key hazard
not applicable
A national overview or register of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude is not available. However, the municipalities incorporate flood hazards in their municipal planning. In addition, reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Municipalities and utilkities incorporate flood hazards in their planning. Reference is made to the replies under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis, and the replies under "Climate monitoring and modelling framework".
Vulnerability
not applicable
The municipalities and water utilities incorporate flood hazards in their planning. Reference is made to the reply under "Overview of existing pressures", and the 2012 sectoral and crossectoral analysis.
Risk Future Impact
high
More frequent events with extreme precipitation could mean that the capacity of sewers is exceeded more often, leading to greater risk of overflow events and subsequent flooding of terrain, buildings and basements, posing a risk to human health. More overflow events will also lead to greater strain on vulnerable aquatic areas from pollution. An increased seal level will deteriorate the drainage capacity of drains close to the coast, as reduced water flow in the sewerage system may lead to local flooding events. Increased precipitation will affect watercourses and low-lying land, resulting in a higher risk of local flooding events. The increase of groundwater recharge could also mean more frequent flooding from wastewater. The increase in annual precipitation will increase groundwater recharge, and this will increase the size of the groundwater resource available for water recovery. However, seasonal variations mean that this will primarily be in the winter and there are regional variations between east and west Denmark. In the summer there will be less flow into lakes and rivers. Increased groundwater recharge in the upper strata could give more local flooding problems. Longer periods of drought are expected in the summer periods and these will put more pressure on the water supply, especially in areas, which are already affected by water catchment for larger cities and to irrigate fields. Higher temperatures may mean a slightly higher content of bacteria and amoeba in drinking water compared with current levels. Today it can already be difficult for some waterworks to comply with the recommended requirements for the temperature of drinking water of max. 12°C at the tap. Higher sea levels will move the current freshwater boundaries further inland. Locally, this could cause problems with saltwater infiltration into coastal extraction wells and create a need for new wells. Excerpts from NC7.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

In 2012 the centrally convened Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation prepared an analysis called ‘Mapping climate change – barriers and opportunities for action’ conducted a sectoral and cross-sectoral analysis of climate risks/vulnerability. In 2016 a detailed risk assessment regarding erosion and flooding was conducted for the entire coastline by the Coastal Authority. The assessment was conducted in a cooperation between several ministries. The assessment has been used as a basis for the significant coastal adaptation initiatives being laid out in 2017/18. In 2020 a new nationwide risk assessment, Kystplanlægger, has been completed for the entire Danish coastline. It includes mapping of erosion and flooding and suggestions for strategies and specific initiatives that can be applied directly by municipalities in their planning.
In the NAP, the Government commits to creating the basis for continued technological and knowledge development, so that Denmark will have a strong position on the global market for climate adaptation. The NAP presents 64 new initiatives within five general areas of initiative: an improved framework for climate adaptation; more consultation and a new knowledge base; strengthened collaboration and coordination; green transition; and international climate adaptation. A few national sectors, such as transport, roads and coastal protection, have dedicated adaptation plans In 2017, the Danish government decided to carry out a number of initiatives to support municipalities and property owners in establishing cost-effective and holistically planned flood and erosion protection. A cross-ministerial committee was set up and 15 new initiatives were decided (Denmark's 7th NCC, p. 297). In 2017 a new national mobile team with a focus of flooding and erosion was established by the Ministry of Environment and Food (MEF) to help share knowledge, best practices and enhance cooperation, primarily with municipalities. In 2018 an amendment to the Planning Act was adopted so that all municipalities how to identify areas at risk of flooding and erosion and ensure remediation measures in their municipal plans. The amendment was in January 2019 followed by national guidelines and examples on how and what data to use in local-government spatial planning.
Projects that require an Environmental Impact Assessment undergo a screening, where an assessment of climate change impacts is included.
The municipalities are responsible for ensuring that the municipal emergency services (typically the fire brigade) are dimensioned according to local conditions. The vast majority of municipalities handle the tasks in joint municipal emergency services, which include two or more municipalities. The local risks must be identified and analyzed and must be used as a basis for the dimensioning of the emergency services. The plan is reviewed by the Danish Emergency Management Agency, however, does not approve the plan proposal. The final plan is adopted by the municipal council or the joint emergency services commission. The plan is revised when the development makes it necessary, however, at least once in each municipal election period.
National datasets relevant for climate change adaptation are distributed amongst authorities according to areas of responsibility. E.g. DMI's Klimaatlas for climate change projection down to a 1 km grid scale and HIP (The Hydrological Information and Prognosis system) exhibits public hydrological data, model calculations and forecasts. Other national datasets include watercources, a 40x40 cm terrain model, groundwater. On a local level the municipalities collect and distribute data on their own platforms as well as contributing to national data platforms.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

Since 2009, the Danish portal for Climate Change Adaptation, Klimatilpasning.dk, presents the existing knowledge on climate change and climate change adaptation within a number of areas. The portal is continuously updated in corporation with the web portal group who is jointly responsible for the development of this site. Members of the web portal group include: Danish Metrological Institute, Danish Ministry of Climate, Ministry of Defense, Danish Emergency Management Agency, The Environmental Protection Agency, The Danish Coastal Authority, The Danish Agricultural Agency, Danish Health Authority, Ministry of Transport, Building, and Housing, Danish Regions, GEUS, Local Government Denmark along other relevant actors.
In 2020, a large number of public and private organizations chose to gather their effort in a new National Network for Climate Adaptation. The networks unites the former Vand i Byer, CALL Copenhagen, KLIKOVAND and INUNDO. During a transitional period, they will consolidate their activities into the new, common network, where they will aim at develop and market innovative Danish climate solutions. The network has created a strong, common framework for a large number of professional activities within the three main areas: Research and development, projects, and competence development.
The Danish work with climate adaptation revolves around key priority sectors. The overarching goal is to gather and create knowledge in these particular areas for further use. The sectors are: Coastal management Buildings and construction Water Energy Agriculture Forest Fisheries Planning Health Preparedness Nature Insurance Transport In addition to the 13 sectors, the web portal Klimatilpasning.dk collects and presents technologies and technological development in the field of climate adaptation and combines it with prospects of financing and government subsidies.
A new mapping of challenges and gaps are being developed in spring 2021 and will be integrated in the new NAP.
A National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) was adopted in March 2008. A National Adaptation Plan (NAP) was adopted in 2012. The Action Plan for a Climate-Proof Denmark was launched in December 2012 and is the first Danish NAP. The NAP is based on the notion that a responsible climate policy must do more than just work to address climate change in the long term, it must also ensure necessary action is taken now to adapt our society to a climate that is already changing, and that all parts of society contribute to climate adaptation. A new NAP is expected to be adopted in 2022 focusing on hazards related to water.

In the first cycle of the EU Floods Directive, 10 risk areas were designated in 2011 on the basis of an overall screening of the risk for floods from selected streams and floods from the sea. The screening was made from historical data on previous floods as well as an assessment of the potential consequences flood events must be expected to have in the future.

The reassessment of the risk areas in the second cycle in 2018, which led to the significant expansion of two risk areas and designation of four additional areas, was done on the basis of an adjusted methodology for national risk assessment. In the adjusted method, the risk is calculated in 100 m grid for the whole country in a risk index. Thereby, the assessment of significant negative consequences for human health, environment, cultural heritage and economic activity better integrated into the risk assessment to meet the objectives of the Directive. It remains the historical highs flood events or a statistical 1000-year event that is the basis of the national risk assessment and designation of risk areas.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Description
The national government is responsible for the PFRA, APSFR and FHRM phases, whereas municipalities are responsible for the FRMP phase. In the first cycle, Denmark has reported 28 measures across the two UoMs with APSFRs. The majority municipal FRMPs, have identified measures, which diverge in relation to the concretisation. The risk management plans have focus on both the need for further analyses for the further work as well as specific security measures.
Status
being implemented
Key type measure (KTM)
A: Governance and Institutional
Sub-KTM
A2: Management and Planning


Apart from the 14 designated areas in substantial risk of flooding (EU Floods Directive), adaptation strategies have not been adopted at the subnational level but all municipalities have adopted local adaptation action plans in line with the national adaptation plan (NAP). Local municipality plans and risk management plans can be found on the web portal: https://www.klimatilpasning.dk/kort/kommunekort.

Since February 2018, the municipalities are obliged to map for future erosion and flood hazards in the municipal development plan. The plan is updated every fourth year. Although not a formal responsibility or obligation, four of five regions have incorporated adaptation into their regional climate strategies: South Denmark , North Jutland, Region Zealand and the Capital Region . Central Denmark Region leads the EU-funded project ‘Coast to Coast Climate Challenge’, which has a goal of formulating and implementing a coordinated adaptation strategy for the region between 2017 and 2022 .
The NAP (2012) required all municipalities to develop an action plan for climate change by the end of 2013. The Government formally agreed with the association of Danish municipalities in 2012 that all municipalities should develop an adaptation action plan by the end of 2013. To support municipalities and local-level decision makers in their work, the Government provided support through the establishment of a national task force with specific expertise in local adaptation issues as well as a web-based mapping of risks for flooding, rain fall and storm surges in various time perspectives, modelled according to IPCC 2007 scenarios. All 98 Danish municipalities finalised their action plans by 2014. Each plan includes a flood risk mapping and sets the priorities for local climate adaptation measures. The Copenhagen Climate Adaptation plan was adopted in 2011 in response to the extreme, water-related consequences of climate change to which the city is exposed. Heavy rainfall in July 2011 prompted the city to develop a specific Cloudburst Management Plan in 2012 . The plan was used to develop 300 specific projects and a detailed management plan approved in 2015 to be implemented over 20 years. In the plan was followed by seven catchment areas plans with surface solutions for each of the areas. In 2017 a storm surge plan for Copenhagen was launched. Two out of five Danish regions have carried out studies on the impacts and risks of climate change, as the basis for regional strategic planning for adaptation. Sectors most covered include health, water management, transport, and buildings. The Capital Region of Denmark has established a cooperation organisation with the aim of supporting municipalities, water utilities and hospitals in their effort to move from plan to action within the field of adaptation. Denmark currently has 6 signatories to the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy with a target for adaptation.
On the webportal Klimatilpasning.dk an overview of all relevant municipal plans are regularly updated (In Danish only: https://www.klimatilpasning.dk/kort/kommunekort). Additionally, the portal include guidelines and examples on how to update relevant in the municipal plans, e.g. mapping flooding hazards (In Danish only: https://www.klimatilpasning.dk/kommuner/kortlaegning/).

The use of mobile teams has also been used in order to engage with local authorities. A mobile team (2012-2013) was established as part of the Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation. This team offered guidance and facilitated collaboration between municipal authorities and other stakeholders in the field, for example, with regard to preparing the municipal climate adaptation plans.

A new mobile team (2017-2019) of subject specialists on adaptation, flooding, and erosion has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency and Coastal Authority . Its purpose is to advise, guide, support, and help coordinate municipalities in implementing adaptation solutions. The team is at the disposal of municipalities and offers training, workshops, seminars, and customised advice throughout the country at the request of municipalities. The mobile team also encourages cooperation across municipalities and bring in knowledge from other ministries.
On Klimatilpasning.dk a catalogue of technologies and methods has been established and updated in collaboration with Danish Industries. Both well-known and new, effective technologies and methods is describes, in particular solutions to manage the implications of rising sea levels and more frequent and more intense rainfall. The catalogues are not exhaustive and will be updated on a regular basis as new technologies become available. Under each topic, you can find inspiration from examples of climate change adaptation by municipalities and a list of relevant partnerships and support schemes. Website: https://en.klimatilpasning.dk/knowledge/technologies/
Every fourth year the Danish EPA has been publishing a report on the environmental status in Denmark which also contains a chapter on climate change. In 2019, the report was updated to an online format (Miljøtilstand.nu) and will be updated annually. It describes the effects on climate change on e.g. precipitation, temperature, sea level rise and drought. The analysis is available on website (https://xn--miljtilstand-yjb.nu/temaer/klimaforandringer/).

In the period February to August 2016, a working group with representatives from the Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark, the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate and the Ministry of Business and Growth carried out an evaluation of municipal climate change adaptation efforts. Every municipality in Denmark has prepared a climate change adaptation plan, which mapped the risk of flooding, specified priorities and gave an overview of the efforts. 22 municipalities also had to prepare a risk management plan pursuant to the Danish Flood Risk Act, that relates to the EU Floods Directive. The evaluation reveals that incorporation of climate change adaptation in municipal development planning has served as a basis for coordination of climate change adaptation efforts with other spatial planning efforts, and that it has provided a picture of local flood risks throughout Denmark.
Except for the analysis on the environmental status in Denmark (Miljøtilstand.nu) , there is not currently a methodology for monitoring, reporting and evaluation of reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities, risks, and increasing adaptive capacity in Denmark. However, an initial research project was initiated in 2020 by the Danish EPA on how to develop relevant indicators for monitoring, reporting and carried out by Aarhus University.
A national overview of the disbursement of funding to increase climate resilience is currently not available.
A national overview of spending earmarked for climate adaptation is currently not available.
A national overview of the share of spending used to support climate adaptation in each sector is currently not available.
A national overview of the share of spending used to support climate adaptation in each sector is currently not available.
A national overview of the progress towards increasing adaptive capacity is currently not available.
A national overview of the progress towards meeting adaptation priorities is currently not available.
A national overview of the progress towards addressing barriers to adaptation is currently not available.
In 2012 the centrally convened Task Force on Climate Change Adaptation prepared an analysis called ‘Mapping climate change – barriers and opportunities for action’ conducted a sectoral and cross-sectoral analysis of climate risks/vulnerability . It analysed 14 sectors: construction and housing, coasts and ports, transport, water, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, tourism, nature, health, emergency preparedness, insurance, and spatial planning. For each sector, it presented a basic analysis of important effects of climate change, relevant division of responsibilities between the authorities and private citizens, possibilities for adaptation, initiatives planned and in progress, and barriers and opportunities for future action. The report was based on the scenarios used by the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. In 2016 a detailed risk assessment regarding erosion and flooding was conducted for the entire Danish coastline by the Coastal Authority. The assessment was conducted in a cooperation between the Ministry of Environment and Food, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministyr of Industry, Business and Financial Affairs, the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate and the Ministry for Economic affairs and the Interior. The assessment was focusing on the effects of a future chanling climate on the Danish coasts and has been used as a basis for the significant coastal adaptation initiatives being laid out in 2017/18. DMI estimates based on the IPCC 5th Assessment Report were used as a basis for the assessment. A new National Adaptation Plan is currently under development and will provide an additional overview of the climate change adaptation challenges. The plan is expected to be adopted in 2022.
In 2017, the Danish government decided to carry out a number of initiatives to support municipalities and property owners in establishing cost-effective and holistically planned flood and erosion protection. Several of the initiatives build on the work of a cross-ministerial committee set up at the beginning of 2017.

The initiatives include: Establishment of a new flood and erosion task force to serve for a three-year period and guide municipalities in the establishment of holistically planned solutions; Development of a central-government risk analysis tool, which will be based on previous events and guidance; Mapping of all dykes in order to give the emergency management authorities access to up-to-date knowledge about the height and strength of dykes in connection with storm surges; Amendment of the Planning Act, so that municipalities can identify areas in their municipal development plans that are at risk of flooding and erosion and ensure that remediation measures are put in place when urban development is planned in these areas; Preparation of a revised climate scenario on the basis of the UN IPCC AR5, as well as preparation of a climate atlas with data on temperature, precipitation, sea level, etc.; Simpler and faster processing of coastal protection cases; Amended object clause in the Coastal Protection Act, which gives property owners greater freedom to choose methods of coastal protection, and preparation of guidelines for various methods of coastal protection; Preparation of guidance models to allocate costs across owners in large coastal protection projects; Guidelines for development projects in coastal areas; Fast-track case processing of appeals in coastal protection cases; Co-financing rules for local-government climate change adaptation projects will be addressed in discussions in spring 2018.

In 2018 an amendment to the Planning Act was adopted so that all municipalities how to identify areas at risk of flooding and erosion and ensure remediation measures in their municipal plans. The amendment was in January 2019 followed by national guidelines and examples on how and what data to use in local-government spatial planning. In January 2021 new rules on how the wastewater utility companies can invest in climate change adaptation against cloud burst etc. came into force, hereby replacing the co-financing rules. The new rules will provide an overview of the local utility spending on adaptation measures for future projects.

A new National Adaptation Plan is currently under development and will provide additional steps facing climate change adaptation challenges. The plan is expected to be adopted in 2022.
In the period February to August 2016, a working group with representatives from the Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark, the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate and the Ministry of Business and Growth carried out an evaluation of municipal climate change adaptation efforts. Every municipality in Denmark has prepared a climate change adaptation plan, which mapped the risk of flooding, specified priorities and gave an overview of the efforts. 22 municipalities also had to prepare a risk management plan pursuant to the Danish Flood Risk Act, that relates to the EU Floods Directive.

Outcome of the evaluation of the municipal climate change adaptation efforts:

The evaluation reveals that incorporation of climate change adaptation in municipal development planning has served as a basis for coordination of climate change adaptation efforts with other spatial planning efforts, and that it has provided a picture of local flood risks throughout Denmark.

The tool will therefore be useful for municipalities in their future planning and prevention of the consequences of cloudbursts and other sources of flooding. The evaluation reveals discrepancies in the level of detail in the municipalities' climate change adaptation plans, as well as differences in the scope of the topics included in mapping. For example, many municipalities have not included flooding from watercourses and groundwater flooding in their risk mapping.

The evaluation analysed the financial aspects of, and experience from, co-financed projects. This analysis assessed that the co-financed projects budgeted and applied for during the period examined were, on average, almost four times cheaper to implement than traditional projects delivering the same level of service. This shows that water utility companies can potentially reap substantial costs savings by choosing co-financed solutions. Through agreements or through their ownership in the company, the municipalities can decide to raise the level of service without this burdening the financial framework of the wastewater companies, as they will receive a supplement to their financial framework, which will be approved by the Water Division. Without municipal co-financing, increased investment in climate change adaptation will also not burden the municipalities finances. This presents an incentive problem, which may lead to over-investment and, thus, failure to secure a socio-economically optimal level of investment. In January 2021 new rules on how the wastewater utility companies can invest in climate change adaptation against cloud burst etc. came into force, hereby replacing the co-financing rules.

Good practices and lessons learnt

The Danish charitable association Realdania and the Ministry of the Environment have established a partnership in 2018, whose overall purpose is to support the development of innovative, integrated and holistic solutions. These solutions set a new agenda for how to plan for protection of cities against floods in the short term, while taking into account the necessary long-term planning and the impact of climate change.
The case collection on the Danish web portal Klimatilpasning.dk share knowledge from selected adaptation projects across sectors and the country. Currently, more than 70 specifically selected cases represent lessons learned from the actors involved. For each project we provide a description of the status, background, solution, gains and added value, financing, process and stakeholder involvement as well as barriers along the way. https://www.klimatilpasning.dk/cases-overview/.
The Danish Coastal Authority participates in the EU Interreg co-financed project on adaptation in the North Sea, ‘Building with Nature’ with funds from the ERDF. Furthermore, a number of Danish municipalities and stakeholders are participating Interreg adaptation projects, including in (FRAMES) dealing with flood resilience, and TOPSOIL dealing with soil and water resilience. Finally, several recent LIFE projects in Denmark have adaptation dimensions , particularly the Inter-municipal cooperation on ‘Water Management and Climate Change Adaptation for The Stream of Usserød’, and the Central Denmark Region leads the EU-funded project ‘Coast to Coast Climate Challenge’, which has a goal of formulating and implementing a coordinated adaptation strategy for the region between 2017 and 2022 .
According to the EU Floods Directive, Denmark has annual bilateral meetings with the Federal Government in Schleswig Holstein, Germany, to inform about the process of implementing the Directive in both countries and exchanging information about climate change related issues.
Since 1978, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands have been cooperating to protect the Wadden Sea as an ecological entity. Under this cooperation, the three countries continue implementing the Trilateral Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and update the priorities contained therein where needed.

Danish Environmental Protection Agency

Water Ressources
Coordinating climate change adaptation initiatives and responsible for reporting
Mia Holmbo Lind
Web portal coordinator Climate Change Adaptation

Danish Environmental Protection Agency

Water ressources
Coordinating climate change adaptation initiatives and responsible for reporting
Malde Volmer Beinthin
National Contact Point

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'