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National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

Geographical:

Finland is situated at a latitude between 60 and 70 degrees north, with a quarter of the country extending north of the Arctic Circle. In the west and south, Finland has a long coastline with numerous islands along the Baltic Sea coast. It is Europe’s 7th largest country. The land boundary with Sweden is 614 km, with Norway 736 km and with Russia 1,340 km long. Finland lies between the Scandinavian mountains and northern Russian plains. Its terrain is a varying mosaic of low hills, broad valleys and flat, low-lying plains, with higher fells in the north. The landscape is a mixture of forests, lakes and mires. Nearly all of Finland is situated in the boreal coniferous forest zone, and 72 % of the total land area is classified as forest land, while only some 9 % of it is farmed. About 10 % of its total area is inland waters. There are some 190,000 lakes and 180,000 islands, with almost half of the latter existing along the Baltic Sea coast.

Climate:

Finland's climate displays features of both maritime and continental climates. The most common wind directions are from the south and southwest. Damage due to storms and strong winds occurs most often during autumn and winter, but also during summer in connection with thunderstorms.

The annual mean temperature in Finland is several degrees higher than in most land areas at these latitudes. The mean annual temperature is ca. 5.5°C in south-western Finland and decreases towards the north. The 0°C limit is near the Arctic Circle. The highest and lowest temperatures measured are +37.2°C and -51.5°C. The annual mean temperature has already increased over 2°C since the 19th century.

The mean annual precipitation in southern and central Finland is usually between 600 and 750 mm, except slightly lower near the coast. In northern Finland, the annual precipitation is 450 to 650 mm. The observed extremes of annual precipitation range from less than 300 mm to more 1,000 mm. The seasonal variation is similar throughout the country, with the driest months being February, March and April. The highest daily precipitation sums are measured during July and August exceeding 30-50 mm and rarely 150 mm. On average, more than half of the days have some precipitation, less near the coastal regions. In southern Finland, some 30% of the annual precipitation is in the form of snow, which remains on the ground for about four months. In Lapland, 50-70 % of the annual precipitation is snow and it remains on the ground for 6-7 months. Typically lakes freeze over in October in Lapland and in December in southern Finland. During extremely severe winters, the Baltic Sea may freeze over almost completely covering over 400,000 km², but during exteremely mild winters maximum ice area is less than 50,000 km².

Agriculture:

The thermal growing season (the period with an average daily temperature of more than +5°C) varies from nearly six months in the south to between two and three months in the north. The growing season in Finland is too short for many cultivars grown elsewhere, and, therefore, frost-resistant varieties have been developed. Because of the short growing season, the yield levels of the field crop species are considerably lower in Finland than in central Europe. The harsh winters also reduce productivity, as they restrict the cultivation of winter cereals. Climatic conditions are a decisive factor affecting the feasibility of crop production. In many parts of Finland, livestock farming, especially dairy farming, is the only profitable form of agricultural production. Finnish agriculture is based on family farms. Between 1990 and 2019, the number of active farms fell from 130,000 to 46,700. At the same time, the average farm size increased from 17 to 49 arable hectares. Total agricultural production as well as cultivated area have remained at almost the same level since 1990.

Forestry:

According to the national classification, forestry land covers 23 million hectares, or 75 per cent of the total area incl. inland waters. The total volume of Finland’s forest stock amounts to 2,473 million m3 according to the national forest inventory. The growing stock has increased almost by over 40 % in the last 40 years. The annual increment of growing stock was 107 million m3 (2009-2017). The annual increment has exceeded the annual fellings by about 30%. The most common tree species in Finland are Scots pine, Norway spruce and birches. There are approximately twenty indigenous tree species growing in Finland. More than 60 % of Finland’s forests are owned by private individuals, 25 % by the state, about 8 % by private companies and the rest by other owners (in 2019). Numerous protection programmes and decisions have contributed to a threefold increase in the area of protected forests over the last 30 years. The total area of protected forests and forests under restricted use is 2,7 million hectares, or 12% of all forests.
Population:

The population of Finland was 5.5 million at the end of 2020. It increased by an annual average of 0.39 per cent between 1990 and 1999, by 0.35 per cent between 2000 and 2009 and by 0.33 per cent between 2010 and 2019. The population density averages 18 inhabitants per km², but ranges from two inhabitants per km² in Lapland in northern Finland to 178 inhabitants per km² in the south of the country in the Helsinki-Uusimaa region. As a result of the low population density and the geographical extent of the country, the distances travelled for different purposes can be quite long.

Many rural communities have a declining population, particularly in northern and eastern Finland. The urban population made up 71.7 % of the total population in 2019. The corresponding figure in 1990 was 62.9 % of the total population of 5.0 million. The internal migration from rural to urban areas was strong in the late 1990's when urban municipalities gained over 10,000 migrations. The internal net migration to urban municipalities declined in the early 2000's but has increased steadily since, reaching the level of 8,000 to 10,000 internal migrations in 2015-2019. Net migration to Finland increased steadily during the late 1990’s and the 2000’s. In 1994, the migration gain for Finland was about 3,000 migrations, whereas in 2006 it reached over 10,000 migrations. Between 2010 and 2019, net migration to Finland has varied between 12,000 and 18,000 migrations.

The number of one-person households has increased and the average household size has decreased. The total number of households at the end of 2019 was 2.7 million. 45 % of households, or 1.2 million of them, consisted of only one person. The average size of a household was two people. In 1970, the average household size was still three people. Finland’s current average household size is low in comparison with other countries. The population is ageing. In 2019, the proportion of people aged over 65 was 22.3 %, while in 1990 it was 13.5 %. This trend will accelerate in the coming years and decades. Life expectancy has risen rapidly during the past 30 years. At present, baby girls may expect to reach the age of 84.5 and baby boys the age of 79.2. The proportion of elderly people out of the total population is increasing due to declining mortality rates and, therefore longer life expectancies. Despite this trend, population growth has slowed down, and it is expected that the natural increase in population will decrease in the coming decades. According to population projections made by Statistics Finland in autumn 2019, it is estimated that the Finnish population will increase to 5.6 million by 2030 but will decline after that. By 2040, more than one-quarter of Finland’s population is estimated to be above the age of 65 (Figure Population profile 1990-2040).

Finland has approximately 10 000 indigenous peoples population. Sami people are the only indigenous peoples in EU. The culture of the Sami people is strongly connected to the environment, including reindeer herding and fishing. Sami culture is ist own unique challenges from adaptation perspective.
Energy supply and consumption:

Finland is dependent on imported fuels and electricity. Accordingly, the cornerstones of Finnish energy policy are a diversified and reliable supply of energy and improved self-sufficiency. The energy-intensive basic industries, cold climate and long distances underline the significance of energy for the well being of its inhabitants and the country’s competitiveness. A gas pipeline from Russia to eastern Finland was completed in 1973 and later extended to the capital area and to some other cities. The first nuclear power unit was taken into use in 1977, followed by three other units in the years 1979 to 1982. A fifth unit is currently being commissioned and is expected to be completed in 2021. Its regular electricity production starts in 2022. A sixth unit is planned but has not yet been granted a construction license. The 1970s also brought peat form domestic sources into the Finnish energy mix. Balticconnector – a gas pipeline between Finland and Estonia – was taken in commercial use as of 1 January 2020. The Balticconnector enables the connection of natural gas markets of the Baltic countries and Finland, and allows the integration of these markets with the European Union’s common energy market. In 2019, total energy consumption was 1,36 PJ. Wood fuels is the biggest energy source covering 28 % of the energy supply. Oil and nuclear energy are second and third with 22 % and 18 %, respectively. Finland’s domestic energy sources are wood-based fuels, hydro power, wind power, waste, peat and ground and air heat-pump energy. Finland’s energy dependence, calculated as the proportion of imported net energy in the total primary energy supply, is 45 %. In reality, Finland relies more on imports than this energy dependency figure indicates, as the indicator considers nuclear energy to be domestic.

Nearly 38 per cent of total energy consumption and 43 % of final consumption were covered with renewable energy sources in 2019. As late as 1990, the share of renewable energy in total consumption was just 18 %, after which it has grown steadily, growing in the 2010s still clearly faster than before.

The electricity consumption totaled 86 TWh in 2019. The domestic electricity production was 66 TWh, 82 % of which was fossil-free. The volume of electricity produced with renewable energy sources amounted to 31 TWh, i.e. 47 % of total production. The electricity produced by hydro power amounted to 12.2 TWh and wind power to 6 TWh, and almost all the rest renewable electricity from wood-based fuels. 35 % of electricity was produced with nuclear power, 14 % with fossil fuels and 4 % with peat. Net import covered 23 % of the total electricity supply in 2019.

Combined heat and power production (CHP) provides opportunities for the cost-effective use of energy both by industrial producers and at district heating plants. The amount of energy Finland saves annually through CHP approximately corresponds to one-tenth of all primary energy used in the country. CHP accounts for about one third of all electricity production.

For several decades the use of primary energy, as well as electricity were increasing and they reached their peak values in 2006 to 2007. Increased energy efficiency has contributed to the positive development of energy intensity. Industry is still the largest energy consuming sector, with a 45 % share of final energy consumption. Space heating accounted for 26 % and transport for 17 % of energy consumption, while the share of energy used for other purposes was 12 %. Industry consumed 47 % of electricity, households 28 % and services and the public sector consumed 22 % of electricity.

Energy market:

A large number of actors characterizes the electricity generation sector in Finland. The total number of companies producing electricity is around 150 and the number of production plants is around 400. To serve Finland’s 3.3 million electricity customers, there are around 70 retail suppliers. There are about 140,000 km of medium voltage (20 kV) power lines and about 220,000 km of low voltage (0,4 kV) lines.

The Finnish electricity wholesale market is part of the Nordic and Baltic power market. The Nordic and Baltic power market is price coupled with the continental electricity markets. Physical day-ahead and intra-day trading takes place in the power exchange Nord Pool. Finland has strong power connections with neighboring countries allowing fluent functioning of the electricity wholesale market. The level of inter-connectivity is high with 3700 MW commercial transmission connections to the Nordic and Baltic neighbors and, in addition, (mainly) import connections to Russia.

The system operator, Fingrid Oyj, is responsible for managing the national power balance and ensuring that the transmission system is maintained and used in a technically appropriate manner. Together with the other Nordic system operators, Fingrid is responsible for safeguarding the necessary reserves for the operation of the power system. The total length of the Fingrid’s main transmission network in Finland is 14 400 km.

The natural gas market in Finland has been relatively isolated and small. Up till 2020 when the Balticconnector gas pipeline was taken in commercial use there was only one importer and wholesale supplier: Gasum Oy. A total of 23,5 TWh of natural gas was consumed in Finland in 2019. The largest natural gas user groups are the energy companies, the pulp and paper industry and the chemical industry; together, they use approximately 90 % of the gas. The retail supply of natural gas covers only about five percent of the total gas consumption.

Transport:

The Finnish road network comprises of roads, municipal street networks and private roads. The entire length of the road network is about 454,000 kilometers. Of this, private and forest roads account for about 350,000 kilometers and municipal street networks for 26,000 kilometers. There are a total of 78,000 km of state roads. The Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, together with the regional ELY centers, takes care of the maintenance and development of the state road network. Municipalities and cities are responsible for the street network in their own area and its condition. The maintenance of private roads is usually the responsibility of road municipalities, private landowners, communities or companies.

The length of the Finnish rail network is slightly less than 6,000 km, of which almost 3,300 km are electrified. The Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency is responsible for the maintenance, development and maintenance of the railway network. There are a total of about 16,300 km of waterways also maintained by the Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, of which almost 4,000 km are merchant shipping lanes. There are just under 8,300 km of coastal waterways and 8,000 km of inland waterways.

In the northern regions of the world, the biggest direct effects of climate change on transport systems are related to frost and sea ice. As the climate warms, seasonal frost fluctuations change and may cause the ground to break and waterlog. In the Baltic Sea, the average area of sea ice is declining and ice conditions are becoming more variable and more difficult to predict. These changes must be taken into account especially in the maintenance and development of the transport infrastructure in northern Finland. As frost fluctuations change, the construction of new roads may become more difficult and fairway maintenance will become even more challenging. It is also necessary to be prepared for high seasonal variations in snow cover in infrastructure maintenance throughout Finland. As conditions in the Arctic Ocean change, both freight shipping and cruise tourism on the Northeast Passage and other Arctic sea routes are likely to grow. Icebreakers are still needed in the Baltic Sea, but both the future icebreaker fleet and its operation are likely to require different characteristics and capabilities than the current one.

Functional communication connections and services are a vital condition for human activities and a basic precondition for economic development. Their importance may become more pronounced with climate change, especially in sparsely populated northern areas, where extreme weather events, forest fires and other exceptional circumstances due to climate change are likely to occur in the future. Communication services improve the safety and quality of life of people living in and visiting sparsely populated areas. The threats and opportunities of well-functioning broadband and satellite connections, mobile systems, low-frequency traffic and submarine cables must be prepared for in the face of climate change.

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-01

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • previous NAS - superseded
National adaptation plan (NAP)
  • actual NAP - adopted
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
  • being developed
  • actual SAP - adopted
  • actual SAP - adopted
  • actual SAP - adopted
  • actual SAP - adopted
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
  • completed
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
  • Established
  • Being developed
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
The Government research institutes, in particular the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the Natural Resources Institute (LUKE) all have activities linked to climate monitoring and modelling. FMI is the main insitute for physical climate variables, LUKE focuses on effects related to renewable natural resources, SYKE on hydrology and water management as well as impacts on ecosystems and THL on human health. The Finnish Museum of Natural History (Luomus) has a particular role in monitoring change in species and biodiversity. Examples of the activities related to scenarios include the following:

- FMI has constructed projections for the future climate at various temporal resolutions based on global (CMIP5) and regional (EURO-CORDEX) climate model simulations.
- SYKE has carried out joint work with other research institutes (LUKE, FMI, THL) on the application of the RCP-SSP framework for Finland and specific sectors (e.g. Lehtonen et al. 2021).
- THL has participated in joint work carried out by SYKE on the application of the RCP-SSP framework for the health sector.
Climate change projections have been mainly derived from the output of 28 global climate models that participated in the latest phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, CMIP5. The approach has enabled robust estimates for the inter-model spread of future climate changes in Finland and its subregions.

The base of the scenario work has recently been the global RCP-SSP framework that has been applied and interpreted through specific research, downscaling of RCPs and in particular co-development of SSP narratives. One of the main approaches in including uncertainties related to climate change has been use on multiple climate scenarios and sometimes also different methodologies in modelling and producing an ensemble of projected climate change impacts. Challenges associated with this approach include the possibility that the wide range produced with an ensemble of scenarios may make decision making based on the results more difficult. Impact response surfaces as a tool to analyze likelihood of impacts (Pirttioja et al. 2019) and identification of robust changes and win-win solutions (e.g. Ahopelto et al. 2020) have been used to counter this challenge.
A general assessment of vulnerability across sectors was the basis for the original National Adaptation Strategy 2005. For the revised NAS, a study of the impact of the climate change and vulnerability of sectors was conducted in 2013. The most recent national weather and climate risk assessment (SIETO-project, 2018) collated new and recent knowledge of risks and vulnerabilities generated in sectoral assessments. This assessment provides the basis for the governance model proposed for future use (Hildén et al. 2018a). The model helps with updating the climate risk assessment regularly and linking it to the existing systems (e.g. rescue and preparedness sectors) and in regional risk assessments. It supports general risk assessment steering the preparedness of society as a whole. It is intended to apply the basic data to producing sector-specific risk assessments, which will be combined cost-effectively into a national weather and climate risk assessment.
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Other: Freezing and thawing cycles
  • Temperature variability
  • Other: Freezing and thawing cycles
Wind
  • Tornado
  • other
  • Other: Compound (wind+snow)
Water
  • Snow and ice load
  • Other: Compound risk 0- temp. and rain
  • other
  • Other: Freezing and thawing cycles
Solid mass
  • Subsidence
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Tornado
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Snow and ice load
  • other
  • Other: ice cover, freeze-thaw cycles
Solid mass
  • Subsidence
Climate change is likely to exacerbate loss of biodiversity and poor agricultural harvests that are highly vulnerable to changing conditions at northern latitudes.
Increasing land use pressures from e.g. forestry and mining; change of vegetation from lichens towards shrubs; new pests and more harassment by insects.

Alien species, pests and diseases; changes in ranges of species (northern ones decline, southern ones move further north).

Compound hazards e.g. for buildings, wind blowing snow and other material on the rails and roads, for marine transport: the rigid ice conditions that increase ice breaker need. Compound risk also include rain at zero degrees temperature, as well as melting and thawing processes that road surface erosion.

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
There are issues related to cyclones and heavy rain, thunder and lightning. In those situations, the networks do not necessarily work. It depends on your location.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
E.g. by 2050 the hazards appear different than in 2100. For winds, mostly decadal variation and slight increase of weaterlies. However the storm track region south of Finland is visible with minor increases. Precipitation is expected to become heavier. Cloudiness to increase in the winter. For summer events, there is based on CAPE a risk increasing for the severe thunderstorms. During summer the heatwaves and drought episodes are gradually getting worse.
Vulnerability
not applicable
More work on vulnerabilities is needed.
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
More work on future impacts is needed.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Changes in biodiversity that can be attributed to a changing climate have been documented. Impacts have been assessed for various species and habitats across Finland, in particular changes in bird and butterfly specvies distributions have been observed.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Projections suggest increasing changes relevant for biodiversity, with significant variation across species, location and habitats.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Different components of biodiversity will have different vulnerabilities depending on local conditions, species and habitats. Especially species that are limited to specific habitats (e.g. Saimaa ringed seal and freshwater pearly mussel) are highly vulnerable to climate-induced changes in their habitats.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Changes in climatic conditions will be observable as changes in biodiversity. Depending on the magnitude of the change different impacts will be observed.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Rain with wind on the walls, wet land and ground problems, uncomfortable living during heatwaves without cooling, heavy snow loads on the roofs (risk of collapse). Storms and tornados blow off the roofs and other material from the buildings.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
The risks related to snow loads gradually decrease in the south and southwest. But in the east and north it is the opposite and an increase is expected. Problems with rain and wind on the other hand are expected to increase in the south and west. Humidity increases energy need. There are issues with old infrastructure and an increasing need for renovation and reconstruction. In some areas houses are built too close to watercourses resulting in flood risk (also in the spring from snow and ice melting). With the heavy rain, the landslides are possible.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
More work is needed on vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Currently assessment capacity is scattered and a full understanding of all ongoing changes is not clear.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
More work is needed to better understand changing risks to different types of buildings and structures under different climate scenarios.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Heat waves increase morbidity and mortality (anomalous high tempatures in winter: ice-related drownings); cold-related events include accidents caused by slippery conditions; extreme cold increases morbidity and mortality; wildfires increase need for fire control and protection of assets.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Different changes in likelihood depending on hazardous event as well as location and time period to be examined and their uncertainties analysed in more detail.
Vulnerability
not applicable
Insufficient information available at current.
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
Insufficient information available at current.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The water levels vary very much. There are also problems during heat waves with algae and other water quality issues. Storm related flooding in communities and on roads in coastal areas is prevalent already in the current climate.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
There is high geographic variation. In the north, land lift continues to balance impacts on the coast whilst in the south, land lift will play a smaller role and there is more likely to be more oscillations and issues with e.g. stormblown waters in the coastal areas. Blue algae issues are of concern in the Gulf of Finland, Sea of Archipelago with the heatwaves that also affect the water temperatures.
Vulnerability
not applicable
More work for the changes in the vulnerability are needed.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Impacts depend on trajectory of change and further assessments are needed.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The cold and the heat may last unexpectedly long. The nuclear power plants have had issues with warm waters (too warm for cooling) and with storm water levels. During the storms and snow fall episodes and there have been problems with the energy distribution network as the forests have grown too close to cables.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
There are possibilities related to renewable energies, especially wind but also solar. However, with new infra the risks also change. As stated for the forestry part, bioenergy production and harvesting is also at risk due to climate change. Cold conditions will continue in autumn and winter times, and very cold conditions are still possible even by 2100 leading to high demand for heating capacity (especially in Eastern and Northern Finland). Heatwaves can impact the country at any location.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
More work is needed on vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Currently assessment capacity is scattered and a full understanding of all ongoing changes is not clear.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Impacts will partly depend on the energy transition and how the energy system will change in the future. Impacts are likely to affect both energy production and consumption.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
There are emerging issues related to seasonal variation that is changing with respect to drought, heat, storm impacts, lack of soil frost, wet autumns, snowpack structure variation (giving shelter or not).
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
There are multiple issues to be considered. Temperature increase helps forests to grow faster. However, conditions for the tree species vary, and e.g. spruce does not tolerate the heat and drought which is becoming more frequent in the future. Soil frost is gradually disappearing from the cold season (from southwest towards the northeast) and conditions for harvesting change. On the other hand e.g. damaged trees must be harvested but there can be problems for achieving that with too wet soils.
Vulnerability
not applicable
More work is needed on vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Currently assessment capacity is scattered and a full understanding of all ongoing changes is not clear. More holistic assessments in the forestry sector that combine climate change mitigation and adaptation should be considered.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Changes in climatic conditions will be observable as changes in forests and forestry. Depending on the magnitude of the change different impacts will be observed. Overall risks are expected to increase as a result of rising temperatures and changing hydrological conditions. There is potential to adapt forestry to changing conditions.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
There are various issues for human and for animals (pets, live stock, fish). Heat waves affect especially people with diseases, and there are emerging issues related to vector borne diseases as the surroundings and micro-climate is changing.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
There are issues with health and people, health and environment, health and animals. There are findings already from the current climate that e.g. the temperature sum has risen faster than expected and e.g. the bark beetle occurrence is here likely already. These damage the trees. Forest health is of concern. As regards living in urban areas,there are already issues found related to increases in mortality and heatwaves in e.g. Helsinki. For the fish, the conditions in the water are getting worse. The temperatures have already risen in the waters (lakes and Baltic Sea) and will continue to rise. So various chains related to health are seen.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
More work on different vulnerabilities is needed.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
More work is needed and currently ongoing to better understand future impacts under various climate and socio-economic scenarios.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Changing precipitation patterns decrease the salinity of water in the Baltic sea, but storms can bring beneficial saline pulses to the Baltic sea. The increasing incidence of precipitation, flooding and runoff and changes in their timing will make it more difficult for migrating fish to run up the river branches to their spawning areas. Changes in rain patterns are expected to further increase eutrophication, and nutrients and soils will be washed to waters with runoff during heavy rains and floods. Water temperatures will increase, and heat waves cause stress to fish. These changes influence fish populations. Cold water species will suffer, but warm water species will benefit. There will be changes in the ranges of fish species. Weakening ice conditions make winter time fishing more difficult or prevent it. Fish farms are vulnerable to heat waves, as fish may die if cooler water is not available. Other risks to fish farms include alien species, diseases, increasing storms and sea level rise, and consequently the increase of costs and work.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Temperature increases are expected in all scenarios.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Fishing and fish farming are vulnerable to change in the aquatic environment, including those caused by climate change. Changes in water temperatures are beneficial for warm water fish species and harmful for cold water fish species. This will change the proportions of fish species and their range, possibly also the decrease of the economic value of the fish stocks. The profitability and attractivity of fishing and fish farming as livelihoods has declined for some time, even if the adaptive capacity is estimated to be mediocre. More research is needed on vulnerability.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Temperature increases are expected in all scenarios.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Lack of snow cover pose threats to species dependent on snow and ice: problems for reproduction due to lack of nests, decline of species that adopt a white coat during the winter time due to exposure to predators. Thin snow cover and freezing and thawing cycles make it impossible for e.g. willow grouses to dig dens in the snow. Species native to Finland move further North, new species (including those introduced by people) spread to new areas and leave native ones less space. Competition for food between species.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Thin snow cover and freezing and thawing cycles make it impossible for e.g. willow grouses to dig dens in the snow. Species native to Finland move further North, new species (including those introduced by people) spread to new areas and leave native ones less space. Competition for food between species. Decline of habitats for some species that live e.g. on the fells due to the Northward change in the tree line and the following decline of treeless fel tops; e.g. Arctic fox, willow ptarmigan. New insects and diseases will spread to Finland with alien species.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Climate change causes instability to hunting and related livelihoods. The vulnerability of game and hunting are increased by the unpredictability related to climate change. Good game management based on monitoring and comprehensive records increase adaptive capacity. Large nature conservation areas can help northern species to cope with climate change. The expected changes in game and their habitats are mostly irreversible. Some species won't adapt on a short time scale. Some changes will be "fixed" by natural dynamics. Some changes occur only regionally, and vulnerability to some changes are difficult or impossible to estimate. More research on game and hunting and their adaptation to climate change is needed.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
The likely impacts of climate change on game and hunting include changes in the ranges of game species and pests and diseases, difficulties due to thin or no snow cover or icy layers in it (dens, snow burrows, protective colour of coat), and changing ranges of species due to changing conditions. Many northern species will decline, while more southern ones will spread further north. Availability of nutrition for large predators is expected to improve. Besides climate change, also other environmental changes in the nesting and overwintering areas influence game species, particularly aquatic birds.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The changing snow and precipitation patterns, particularly freezing and thawing cycles and poor early winter conditions have already occasionally resulted in poor grazing conditions during some winters. Reindeer body condition decreases during winters with difficult snow conditions or icy snow winters, resulting in reduced calf production in the spring.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Changes in snow conditions are likely, and some of these are seen already now.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Reindeer herding has rather high adaptive capacity to the changes caused by climate change. Some adaptive strategies, including technological ones, may involve abandoning old culturally significant methods, which poses a risk of a transformation of the traditional reindeer herding livelihood closer to agriculture. Pressures from other land-use forms decrease reindeer pastures and hence increase herding costs, while profitability is decreasing. Adaptation measures in reindeer herding include practical planning on reindeer herding cooperative level, the adoption of additional livelihoods e.g. tourism, improving competitiveness by increasing the processing of reindeer meat and marketing, multiple-use land use planning with other livelihoods, development of legislation and subsidies to better accommodate adaptation to the changes, as well as research, education and counseling.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
As winters are expected to warm more than summers, many hazards are related to snow conditions. However, in the summer time, pests and diseases may become more frequent as summers become warmer. Also new pests may spread to the reindeer herding area. This causes stress to reindeer and lowers their weight and chances of recovering after difficult winters. Exceptionally thick or layered snow may lead to poor condition in reindeer, which reduces calf production. These influence negatively to the profitability of reindeer herding. Also reindeer herding work may become more difficult due to changes in the environment, including temperatures and insects, freezing of lakes and rivers, and the arrival of snow. Climate change is only one of the factors influencing reindeer herding. Reindeer pastures are strongly influenced also by other land-use forms like mining, forestry, tourism and transportation. Changes in vegetation seem likely, however reindeer herding also helps reduce the spreading of shrubs. Winter conditions, including the structure of snow, are essential to reindeer nutrition, as they influence whether reindeer can dig food from under the snow or whether the food is moldy or covered by heavy ice and snow layers.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Snow conditions have weakened, including the number of snow cover days, which is seen particularly as the delay of the arrival of snow cover in the early season. This is already impacting winter tourism, especially in southern parts of the country.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Snow cover days will decrease even further in the season, particularly in the beginning of the season. Long delays of the winter onset are expected to become more common in the future, which poses challenges for Christmas times and other Arctic nature-based tourism, including downhill skiing and other winter sports.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Winter tourism is highly dependent on reliable winter conditions, and adaptive measures susch as snow storage and snowmaking can cause too much costs or GHG emissions, depending on the energy sources. Other strategies include alternative activities and technical solutions like indoor sports arenas.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Snow cover days in Finland will decrease by at least 30% by the end of the century, however less than in other winter tourism areas in Europe. Winters will become shorter. Magnitude of change varies according climate scenario and time horizon.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Key climate risks in the transport sector include e.g. complications in seafaring and shipping due to ice conditions, difficulties in air traffic due to storms and increased rainfall, challenges in road and railroad network due to erosion and poor weather conditions and problems in conveyance dependability. The risks vary depending on the season, section of the transport sector and the region of the country.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
The risks vary depending on the season in the future. E.g. the freezing rain risk is seen to increase during winters. However, the autumn and spring risk is decreasing. For the sea areas, the ice cover in Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Bothnia will continue to form during the winters, however, later and later. But the movement in the ice due to winds will be difficult for ships. For rail, the wind impacts during autumn are expected to cause harm more often. For the aviation, fog is an issue with increases in humidity. and freezing rain is another risk factor. During the heatwaves on land, there are other issues impacting also the staff who take care of the transport. This could be a health topic or then a transport topic.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
The topic of vulnerability is challenging and varies depending of which season and functions are of concern.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Transport sector and its infrastructure are highly vulnerable to changeable weather conditions, and disturbances in the transport sector affect other sectors. Due to weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain and snowfall), accidents and/or delays in transport chain may occur which means goods are not delivered on time, commuters cannot rely on timetables and businesses suffer from loss of earnings. Besides rain and snow, roads, railways and airports in Finland are constantly subjected to other weather conditions such as storms, floods, extreme cold and heat waves. However, conditions vary within the country and they tend to affect different parts of the country, as well as the modes of transportation in different ways, e.g. due to distribution of population and condition of road network. Altogether, extreme weather conditions and unpredictable changes in weather lessen safety and traffic flow in the transport sector. Therefore, tackling risks caused by the climate change in the transport sector should be done by considering comprehensive security and reliability performance of the society as a whole.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The impacts are created as for roads, buildings, health and the surroundings. Especially precipitation causes problems for traffic and for pedestrians. Both during warm season as well as the cold. Slippery conditions have caused a lot of injuries for pedestrians and traffic accidents.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Complexity of the urban areas imply equal complexity of hazards.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Different vulnerabilities depending on the geographical location, urban form etc.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Different impacts depending on the hazards and vulnerabilities.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate change impact is difficult to separate from natural variability. Heavy precipitation and floods cause risks to water management. Droughts in 2002-2003 and 2018 caused damages locally.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Heavy precipitation is likely to become more common. Floods may increase or decrease depending on the timing, watershed properties and flood-producing mechanisms. In some parts of the country, drought may become more common, but the change is not expected to be large. There are large differences between different climate scenarios and for different parts of the country.
Vulnerability
low
Mainly the vulnerability is low and adaptive capacity is high. However, risks and vulnerability in water management vary in different locations. Small water utilities with limited resources in rural areas and old infrastructure may increase vulnerability locally.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Climate change will have impacts on water management due to changes in precipitation and timing of runoff. However, adaptive capacity in water management is generally high.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The institutional set up for assessing climate vulnerability and risks is based on work by research institutes and universities that carry out research on climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation. The national climate panel has been established based on the Climate Act. It is an expert panel that brings together high level researchers on climate change and it also has some resources to carry out synthesis work.

The Government’s analysis, assessment and research activities is a funding instruments supporting policy relevant analyses and has funded focused projects exploring aspect of climate change and assessments of vulnerability and risks. In addition the Strategic Research Council and the Academy of Finland have funded several projects exploring adaptation to climate change.

The monitoring of climate change risks and impacts is integrated into the monitoring activities of the research institutes. Cuts in the resources available for monitoring of e.g. natural resources and biodiversity have created challenges (Peltonen-Sainio et. al 2018).
The National Monitoring Group of the National Adaptation Plan was appointed in 2015 and in 2019 and 2020 the group was reappointed with an updated mandate and broadening membership. The group is responsible for implementation, monitoring and communication relating to the NAP. The group is chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and its members represent relevant ministries, national agencies, research institutes and regional and local actors. In total more than 20 key stakeholders are represented in the group that meets 4-5 times each year.
A study devoted to improving in particular the regional authorities‘ capability of monitoring and guiding environmental impact assessment procedures has been commissioned by the Ministry of the Environment and carried out by the Finnish Environment Institute. The study report (to be published in 2021) features checklists and key principles for identifying and screening potentially significant climate change related issues to be addressed in the environmental impact assessment procedures (Hildén et al. 2021, MS.)
The National Risk Assessment (NRA) 2018 describes the transformation of the security environment. Among other things, the risk assessment examines climate change as a driver of change in the security environment. In 2018, climate change adaptation was linked to the NRA by describing the diversity of weather and climate risks and the challenges posed by growing risks to society. As risks and conditions vary in different parts of Finland, the management of weather and climate risks is of high relevance in regional risk assessments.
 

The risks assessed at the national and regional levels create the framework for the types of risks that different administrative branches and other actors must prepare for, as well as helping to identify development needs and supporting prioritisation. Furthermore, each actor assesses its risks more specifically in the context of their tasks and activities and in compliance with the legislation applicable to their activities.
Many research institutes monitor and collect climate change risks and impacts data. Challenges have been encountered due to more limited access to data or cuts in the resources available for monitoring of e.g. natural resources and biodiversity.

FMI has set up a weather and climate impact database which contains eight different impact data sources (air traffic, maritime and land area rescue missions, traffic accidents etc.). These historical and archived data will be used in the development of novel impact-based forecasting products.

SYKE collects flood damage information annually from the largest insurance companies. Previously this information was given in detailed level allowing identification of damages caused by certain flood situation but currently all damages are reported as total annual damage without location, date or flood type. Number of inhabitants living in the 1/100a flood hazard area are used as a risk indicator.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

Main coordination network is the National Monitoring Group of the NAP. Additionally, the environmental administration has a dedicated network on adaptation to climate change, concerning built environment, environmental protection, biodiversity, and water protection. The Ministry of Transport and Communications coordinates adaptation work on a national level in the Ministry's administrative sector. Sector-specific policy coordination at a national level is in its infancy, but climate change adaptation is part of standard preparedness work in all government agencies in the transport and communications sector. The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment chairs the network of officials and is in charge of the overall coordination and compilation of the strategy work. Each sectoral ministry is responsible for the preparation concerning its respective remit.
At the regional level, the ELY Centres' climate network develops communication and cooperation around adaptation issues relating to the environment, economic development (incl. rural development and transport). The network geographically covers the whole country, allowing for best practices to be shared across different regions. Finland's Regional Councils have also recently formed a collaboration network on climate issues.

New networks for municipalities have been formed, e.g. in the Tampere City Region but Helsinki Metropolitan Area‘s Climate Change Adaptation Monitoring Group (ILSE) has guided the regional adaptation and strategy monitoring since 2013. The group consists of representatives of the region’s cities, Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki Region Transport and 10 municipalities surrounding the Helsinki metropolitan area.
The key priories of the Finnish national adaptation activities are formulated as objectives for the NAP:

A. Adaptation has been integrated into the planning and activities of both the various sectors and their actors.

B. Actors have access to the necessary tools and methods for the assessment and management of climate risks.

C. Research and development work, communication, and education and training have enhanced adaptive capacity of the society, developed innovative solutions and improved citizens’ awareness on climate change adaptation.

These are interpreted and applied in the different societal sectors based on the principle of sector responsibility, and supported by national coordination across sectors.
According to climate projections Finland is likely to experience greater than average warming due to its northern location. Until now climate extremes and weather have not, however, been disastrous, and some areas have also benefitted (e.g. lower heating costs in winter time, accelerated forest growth, extended growing season and better wintering conditions for species living on their northernmost edge). As a consequence, climate change induced risks and adaptation needs have not been recognized in all sectors. More information about risks, as well as practical information and guidance about adaptation measures are needed. The decision-making and operational time spans of some livelihoods are significantly shorter than those of the expected climatic changes relevant for them. More proactive approaches are needed in adaptation, instead of reactive ones. Stakeholders may not know which authorities in their field are in charge of the adaptation measures. On the other hand, climate issues may be understood as relevant only for those working in the environmental administration. Adaptation plans and policies should allow flexibility and self-organisation as well as culturally appropriate, localizable and cross-sectoral solutions, instead of uniform, centrally regulated and sectoral approaches. (Tennberg et al. 2017; Mäkinen et al. 2020.)
National adaptation plan (adopted in 2014)

The long-term aim of the national adaptation plan is that Finnish society has the capacity to manage risks associated with climate change and adapt to changes in the climate. Based on the aim, three objectives are set until the year 2022:

A. Adaptation has been integrated into the planning and activities of both the various sectors and their actors.

B. Actors have access to the necessary tools and methods for the assessment and management of climate risks.

C. Research and development work, communication, and education and training have enhanced adaptive capacity of the society, developed innovative solutions and improved citizens’ awareness on climate change adaptation.

To meet these objectives, actions are prescribed in twelve main fields of action:
1. Studies are conducted on climate resilience on the national level.
2. Action plans for specific administrative branches are drawn up and implemented, taking account of the international impacts of climate change.
3. Drafting of regional and local adaptation studies is promoted.
4. Adaptation is promoted in international cooperation.
5. Adaptation is included in EU policies and international region-based cooperation projects.
6. Climate risk assessment and management is improved.
7. Instruments applicable to the management of financial risks caused by climate change are developed.
8. Adaptation research is reinforced.
9. Business opportunities related to adaptation are developed.
10. Tools are developed in support of regional adaptation work.
11. Communication on adaptation is developed.
12. Education and training content on adaptation is developed.

The NAP also describes actions for the coordination, follow-up and evaluation of its implementation. The Plan describes the actors responsible for the actions and their implementation, along with timeframes and resources.

The mid-term evaluation of the NAP was completed in 2019. In response to the recommendations presented in the evaluation, the National Monitoring Group for Climate Change Adaptation promoted additional actions for the remaining implementation period leading by 2022 to strengthen implementation of the NAP towards its objectives.

The NAP focuses primarily cross-sectoral actions. Many of the action fields, in particular the second one on ‘action plans for specific administrative branches’ entails that sectoral assessments and action plans for adaptation are developed and implemented. These sectoral action plans contain more detailed actions to be implemented at the national level and in many sectors also by regional and local level actors. The timelines, responsible actors and implementation resources are included in varying levels of detail in the specific action plans.

In addition to the NAP, there are sectoral adaptation (action) plans that detail more specific actions in different sectors. These include:

- Ministry of the Environment’s Action Plan in 2016 (Adaptation to Climate Change in the Administrative Sector of the Ministry of the Environment Action Plan 2022). This replaces the Ministry of the Environment’s Action Plan in 2008, which was later supplemented by an update in 2011. The action plans were assessed in 2013 (Assessment of the Environmental Administration’s Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change) with contributions from the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Tangible measures within the environmental administration’s action plan focused on biodiversity, land use, buildings and construction, environmental protection and the use and management of water resources.
- Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry adaptation plan (2011, revision ongoing)
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (being developed)

Furthermore, adaptation has been integrated into broader climate/environmental policy programmes in other sectors including transport and communications and defense.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


According to a 2015 survey made to Finnish municipalities (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities), 60 % of municipalities have a climate policy strategy, mainly local, in some cases regional. 63 % of those strategies cover both mitigation and adaptation, others only mitigation. There are 14 Finnish municipalities that have signed the Covenant of Mayors initiative with 2030 targets including climate adaptation as part of Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan. According to the 2020 survey made to Finnish municipalities (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities) on climate change adaptation, the emergency plans are most common on water management, other plans include emergency plans on storms and flood risk mappings.

In municipalities preparedness to extreme weather events and other disaster risk reduction is linked to Emergency Powers Act. According to the, Act municipalities shall ensure, by means of emergency plans, prior preparation of emergency operations and other measures, that their duties will be performed with the least amount of disruption also in emergency conditions. The importance of the preparedness regarding various climate risks is also noted in the National Security Strategy for Society and triennally updated National Risk Assessment (most recent update 2018), in which for example urban stormwater floods, heath waves and snowstorms are threats requiring maintaining and improving preparedness in local level.

Helsinki Metropolitan Area's Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (HSY 2012) was divided into two parts: strategic starting points and policy guidelines common to the region, and set of shorter-term (2012-2020) policy measures. In the strategic guidelines, adaptation was to be integrated in urban planning as key starting point; they also emphasised the region’s forerunner position compared to the rest of the country as well as data gathering and sharing to strengthen climate resilience. The policy measures were defined for the following sectors and cross-sectoral issues: 1) Land use, 2) Transport and technical networks, 3) Building and climate proof local environment, 4) Water and waste management, 5) Rescue services and safety, 6) Social and health services, and 7) Cooperation in producing and disseminating information. The 2012 strategy was complemented in 2017 with new focus areas: Green infrastructure, Social and health services, Climate proof housing, Storm water management, Preparedness of water services, Preparedness for climate risks, Adaption of public transport system, and Cooperation with businesses and NGOs.

The Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY) is currently preparing a sustainable urban living programme for the Helsinki metropolitan area that implements the HSY’s 2025 strategic vision „Together we will create the most sustainable urban area in the world“. One of the programme’s themes is climate change adaptation, hence it will acts as the next regional adaptation strategy. The proposed adaptation measures are linked to four major themes in the programme: food (e.g. preparing an urban agriculture guide), urban planning (e.g. mapping and developing green and blue infrastructure), building (e.g. piloting of green urban retrofitting) and wellbeing (e.g. developing instructions to prevent impacts of hot weather in home care, daycare centres and schools). The programme is expected to be finalised in the spring 2021.
Water resources:

In water resources sector climate change has been integrated to the implementation of EUs water framework and flood directives, national dam safety legislation, water supply site risk assessment and review process of water course regulation permits. The selection and prioritisation of measures proposed in the 2nd flood risk management plans and 3rd river basin management plans include estimation of climate resilience of different strategies and measures. The Finnish Environment Institute has produced preliminary storm water flood maps for municipalities’ storm water risk assessments and regional ELY-centres prepared flood maps to enhance preparedness and take into account in land use planning. Methodology for assessment of drought impacts on water resources and water sufficiency has been developed and pilot for regional drought management plan was carried out in 2020. Watershed regulation and permits require reassessment due to seasonal changes in water levels and discharges. Adaptation may require changes in the regulation permits. Dam safety legislation requires the estimation of the design floods for classified dams. The climate change affects the magnitudes of the design floods and it should be taken into account in the estimation of the design floods in the watersheds, where the floods are expected to increase.

Forestry:

Climate sustainable forestry is an integral part of the National Forest Strategy 2025. The main goal is to maintain and improve forests‘ resilience by integrating climate change considerations in forest management. This is achieved by improving knowledge on and practical tools for the enhancement of carbon storage and sequestration in forests as well as on the impacts of forests and forest management on climate change adaptation. Increased financing for research as well as updated legislation and guidelines on forests and climate change also contribute to improved risk management carried out by forest owners, operators and authorities.

Transport:

Adaptation is part of standard sectoral policies, plans and programmes in the transport sector. The Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, which operates under the Ministry of Transport and Communications, is responsible for road, railway and waterway construction and maintenance. One of the Agency's challenges for infrastructure management is to plan required adaptation measures for the transport network due to the impacts of climate change. This involves examining the functional limits, resilience and vulnerability of existing structures and technical systems.

Built environment:

In the built environment sector, the legislative steering of adaptation to climate change is based on the Land Use and Building Act. Another important method for steering land use in regard to adaptation has been the national land use guidelines (Government Decision 2008), one of the main focus areas of which is adaptation. According to the Land Use and Building Act, the national land use guidelines must be taken into account in regional level planning, municipal land use planning and in the operations of the authorities. In 2014, the Land Use and Building Act was amended with provisions on stormwater management. Increasing rain levels have been taken into consideration through the issuing of a decree on the preparation of moisture control plans in construction in 2014. Urban flood management is also covered by the Flood Risk Management Act (620/2010). A reform of land use and planning is currently ongoing and its main targets are mitigation and adaptation of climate change.

Disaster risk reduction:

In 2018, climate change adaptation was linked to the National Risk Assessment by describing the diversity of weather and climate risks and the challenges posed by growing risks to society. There is no single national disaster risk reduction strategy in Finland but there is legislation, government resolutions, different strategies and programmes that form together the necessary preparedness of the society to the different kind of disasters (legislation: Emergency Powers Act, Rescue Act, Act on Security of Supply, other relevant documents: Security Strategy for Society, National Risk Assessment, Internal Security Strategy).

Energy and climate:

Preparation of the new national climate and energy strategy takes into account and coordinates the Government Programme’s energy and climate policies, the long and medium term climate change policy plans referred to in the Climate Change Act (2015) and the EU’s energy and climate targets for 2030 as well as the Energy Union Strategy. It takes into account also security aspects as appropriate.
As a part of the reform of the Finnish Climate Change Act, which includes also updating of the regulation on adaptation, vulnerable groups to climate change, such as children and youth, elderly and indigenous peoples Sami have been consulted. There were for example official negotiations with the Sami Parliament, where the Sami emphasised the support for adaptation. The consultation was held in Northern Sami language and Finnish in order to protect language rights. In addition, there was a specific workshop consultation for Sami youth, which was held in Nothern Sami language and Finnish. In addition, the Minister of the Environment has met with youth groups several times. Special local workshops conducted in cooperation with the Erätauko Foundation have emphasised representation of different age groups and backgrouds. Online consultations have been available in 6 languages (Finnish, Swedish, English, 3 Sami languages) in order to take into account language minorities.

Farmer community is as a whole vulnerable to climate change impacts. Crop production is directly prone to exceptional, harmful weather conditions strenghened by climate change and animal farms both directly (animal health issues) and indirectly (availability and quality of feed). At high-latitudes fast and large scale adaptation is needed, which requires prioritization of potential adaptation measures by acknowledging regional differences not only in growing conditions per se but also depending on local farming systems and farm types.

Reindeer herding is vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change, such as changes in snow patterns that make it difficult for reindeer to find food from under the snow. The CLIMINI project (LUKE, IL, LaY 2020-2022) studies adaptation to climate change in reindeer husbandry and management, including national and regional authorities. The project aims at identifying and establishing/rooting good, sustainable and climate-friendly practices in adaptation. The project supports the implementation of the National Adaptation Strategy Plan 2022 and responds to the needs risen in the first interim evaluation for increasing awareness and developing means of steering mechanisms and adaptation tools for reindeer husbandry.
As a part of the reform of the Finnish Climate Change Act, there has been wide consultations that have been open to also private sector during 2020. A specific workshop was also prepared for private sector representatives. Adaptation has been discussed as part of the consultations that covered in total over 3000 individuals.

Winter tourism industry is vulnerable to changes in winter conditions, particularly those related to snow in the early season, such as the delay of natural snowfall. Adaptive strategies increasingly in use include snowmaking and snow storage, skiing tubes, and the development of alternative services. A climate service in the form of an interactive desktop application for winter tourism industry that provides reliable 4-week forecast on snowmaking conditions was co-designed in the Blue-Action: Arctic Impact on Weather and Climate (H2020) project in 2017-2020 by LaY and Rukakeskus Ltd. (project consortium leader: DMI). The climate service supports sustainable adaptation to climate change in the winter tourism sector and can be replicated in other geographical locations. The development of climate services responds also to the EC Roadmap on Climate Services (2015).

The preparation of the new sustainable urban living programme for the Helsinki metropolitan area included in 2019 thematic workshops (one of them on adaptation) in which private sector representatives working in the area of sustainability were among the invitees. They were also given an opportunity to comment on the programme draft in 2020.
The government research institutes deliver the basic monitoring and evaluation of climate impacts, vulnerabilities, risks and adaptive capacity through their general weather/climate monitoring (FMI), hydrological monitoring (SYKE), monitoring of natural resources and biodiversity (LUKE, SYKE) and monitoring of health (THL). These monitoring activities are based on standard approaches in their respective areas. The evaluations of climate impacts, vulnerabilities, risks, and adaptive capacity are mostly carried out in ad hoc projects that use the monitoring data coupled with auxiliary information. Examples of such projects include the following:

Projects related to general weather, climate and hydrological monitoring have for example produced an operational service to forecast the number of customers who might encounter power cuts due to storms and heavy winds and the cost of such events (SASSE). Another ongoing project (UHKA) focuses in improving better situation awareness and anticipatory information on the possibility of extensive forest fires in Finland. One project aims to help the Rescue Services to have a better situational picture in connection to forest fires (MAST) with information from the wild fire propagation and the small-scale wind models.

One project focused in collecting, harmonizing and archiving weather and climate impact data and the primary outcome of the project was a usable impact database with more than one million records of impact events from eight different data sources (SILVA). Another project (RASMI) elaborated weather data files that can be utilized in assessing energy demand and physical functioning in buildings in the current and future climate. Project pilots under E-SHAPE tailored sub-seasonal and seasonal climate forecast services for the City of Helsinki and tire companies to adapt operations to largely varying snow conditions in a warming climate. Snow damage risk assessment was also a part of a project (Säätyö) that developed a service product, which provides info of the current situation and a 10-day forecast describing the forest harvesting conditions of trees based on the soil moisture assessment.

Two projects (PREDICT & EXWE) have focused on reducing potential risks imposed to nuclear energy production due to extreme weather and sea level events in the current and future climate by improving probability estimates of exceptional events. A newly initiated FINSCAPES –project aims to develop new integrated scenarios of socioeconomic and climate change during the 21st century for use in climate change research and policy making in Finland.

Projects related to monitoring of health have for example improved the treatment of key uncertainties in climate change impact, adaptation and vulnerability analysis, with a focus on Finland and two sectors, agriculture and human health (PLUMES). The impacts of climate change on the frequency and intensity of heat waves in Finland as well as the the predictability of prolonged warm periods are examined in HEATCLIM –project. The relationship between weather variables and health are the studied in CHAMPS through data on hospital admissions, sickness absences and mortality. The risks arising from vector-borne diseases in relation to climate change are currently also being examined (VECCLIM). Cost-efficient intervention strategies in the Finnish building stock are studied in BALANCE –project by modelling the effects of climate change and energy efficiency interventions on the carbon footprint, on moisture damage risk and other effects on indoor air quality, on building occupants’ health, and on associated costs. The impact of the changes on children’s nutrition, the climate impact of the diet, and the cost of food services will be assessed in an ongoing project, which aims to develop a sustainable model for food system that reduces climate impacts of the food system in early childhood education and care (FOODStep). The model can later be applied to Finland’s climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy.
National adaptation actions are guided by the National Adaptation Plan of 2014. A mid-term evaluation of the NAP was published in spring 2019. The evaluation followed a two-phase process. In the first phase, a facilitated self-evaluation process was carried out with sectoral administrations at the national level, consisting of group interviews with representatives of ministries and associated agencies and national research institutes in eight sectors, as well as key regional and local level representatives. The second phase focused on engaging stakeholders beyond the national level administrations. Regional and local stakeholders from 11 different sectors were consulted via an online survey, and five regional stakeholder workshops were organised around the country to discuss progress of adaptation work from a regional perspective.

The development of the monitoring and reporting of the NAP has aimed at setting up a monitoring system and identify adaptation indicators. A preliminary list of key adaptation indicators was compiled in 2015-2016. The list of indicators was discussed in a dialogue with stakeholders in 2017 and its further development is an ongoing process lead by the cross-ministerial monitoring group set up to support implementation and monitoring of the NAP. There are not yet any fixed agreed indicators that would be used routinely for the adaptation action. Instead the focus has been on tracking the actual actions.

The Ministry of the Environment has followed up its own adaptation programme by systematically tracking the actions and identifying progress and challenges. The monitoring does not use specific indicators.

At the regional level the implementation of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (HSY 2012) has been monitored almost yearly since its inception. Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY) has coordinated the monitoring and developed six monitoring reports between 2012 and 2020. The monitoring reports collate data from the regions‘ cities, HSY and Helsinki Region Transport (HSL) on the implementation of the strategy’s policy measures. The final evaluation report at the end of the strategy period has not yet been developed. While the monitoring reports follow up the implementation of the strategy measures, the state of adaptation is not touched upon in those. For this purpose, a set of climate change adaptation indicators was started to be developed in 2016 as a cooperation of the HSY and region’s cities, and published for the first time in 2019 on the HSY website. The indicators include e.g. change in mean temperature, number of hot weather days, annual rainfall, and days of heavy rain.
In 2018-2019, a mid-term review was conducted to assess the status of implementation of the NAP and to identify needs for development in order to achieve the stated objectives (Mäkinen et al. 2020). The review demonstrated that awareness of climate change and the need for adaptation has increased among the relevant actors, especially at the national level. The effects and risks associated with climate change are being discussed more broadly when producing information. However, measures to manage climate-related risks are still partly lacking. Investing and focusing more on the planning and implementation of adaptation actions makes it possible to mitigate the negative consequences of climate change more effectively than what is currently being done.

The most important needs for development were found to be in increasing awareness of weather and climate-related risks and the possibilities to adapt to them, clarifying the roles and responsibilities related to adaptation and ensuring well-functioning coordination. The review concluded that is is important to develop sector-specific guidance, along with tools and instructions that regional and local operators in particular can use to strengthen their adaptive capacity at their own initiative. Furthermore, additional resources are needed to ensure climate resilient development in different sectors and levels of administration.

The Action Plan for the Adaptation to Climate Change of the Environmental Administration 2022 was adopted in 2016. Results of its monitoring (Mäkinen and Hildén 2020) show that the implementation of almost all measures described in the Action Plan (for which a specific timetable had been set) has progressed as planned and they have been completed. In terms of the steering instruments, progress has been made in taking the needs for adaptation into account, but consistency of the guidance should be further improved. There is more information on the possible impacts of climate change, but work needs to be done in terms of the planning and knowledge base of adaptation measures. There is still information missing about the consequences of changes in ecosystem services to livelihoods and ways of life that depend on them.
A guiding principle for implementing adaptation policies since in 2005 has been mainstreaming of adaptation into regular planning processes and activities in different sectors. As a result, specific funding earmarked for adaptation is not routinely identifiable and is difficult to track in state budgets, since actions regarding adaptation are mostly done with basic funding as a part of official duties both in national and subnational level. Funding that primarily or significantly contributes towards climate adaptation can be identified in multiple sectors, including transport, agriculture, forestry, urban, civil protection, health, energy, water management and ICT.

For instance, the Ministry of Interior reported that in their administrative branch there is no earmarked funding to increase climate resilience and adaptation. Some funds allocated towards preparedness and disaster risk management can be linked to adaptation and disaster risk reduction, such as spending on rescue operations linked to forest fires and other extreme weather events. The importance of adaptation and the need to prepare for catastrophic events has been recognized and measures to improve resilience and climate adaptation are part of basic funding in the sector. The same applies to the Ministry of Defence.

Another example of mainstreaming of funding is through allocation of state budget to national agencies operating under steering from ministries. For example, the Ministry of Transportation and Communications steers authorities and actors to implement climate adaptation as a part of their official duties. The authorities include Finnish Transport and Communications Agency, Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment and Finnish Meteorological Institute. The Ministry requires agencies under its steering to provide information and research data on climate change impacts and to increase levels of preparedness and adaptation.
A substantial amount of funding related to climate adaptation is not earmarked, since measures and actions regarding climate change adaptation are mostly done with basic funding as a part of official duties both in national and subnational level, and some funds are only allocated when needed. The share of spending used to support climate adaptation in the sectors cannot be reported in exact terms, as the ‘adaptation component’ of resources generally cannot be identified in monetary terms. The following examples are not exhaustive and do not represent all of the funds directed to support climate change adaptation in the mentioned sectors, but rather provide some examples of recent adaptation spending.

In the transport sector, funding that primarily of significantly contributed to adaptation was approx. 27 M€ in 2019 and 42 M€ in 2020. A large portion of the spending was allocated to improving the transport network (incl. roads, railroads and waterways) to endure changing weather conditions e.g. heavy snowfall and rain, icing and floods.

In civil protection and emergency management sector, funding has been allocated towards different projects in which emergency systems have been developed, information on extreme weather conditions and especially on forest fires has been collected. In 2019 such projects were funded by nearly 200 000 € and in 2020 by over 500 000 €.

In the agriculture and food sector, one project was funded to develop climate indicators for the agriculture sector and to help Finland’s agriculture and tourism sectors with the development of long term forecasts funds. The project funding (nearly 500 000 € in 2019-2020) was supplemented by EU funding. In 2020, some 400 000 € was allocated towards collecting and comparing climate data in order to produce information on different scenarios to help the planning of health care services and to develop various advance-warning systems.

In the water resources sector, examples of funding that contribute significantly to adaptation include spending on flood risk management and prevention, automation of groundwater monitoring systems, water management in agriculture and forestry, and renovation of water supply infrastructure. Spending on improvements to water supply infrastructure is typically not allocated from national budgets but covered by municipal and water supply operator funds.

In municipalities, amounts of spending on adaptation cannot currently be assessed. State funds are allocated to municipalities but they are free to decide on how they spent their state funds, which are routinely supplemented by their own budgets. At the municipal level, funds are directed towards land use planning, mapping flood areas and development of storm water systems.
As noted under 4.2, the mid-term evaluation (Mäkinen et al. 2020) demonstrated that the awareness of climate change impacts has increased throughout the Finnish society. The twelve fields of actions (main elements) in the NAP are the following:

1. Studies are conducted on climate resilience on the national level.
2. Action plans for specific administrative branches are drawn up and implemented, taking account of the international repercussions of climate change.
3. Drafting of regional and local adaptation studies is promoted.
4. Adaptation is promoted in international cooperation.
5. Adaptation is included in EU policies and international region-based cooperation projects.
6. Climate risk assessment and management is improved.
7. Instruments applicable to the management of financial risks caused by climate change are developed.
8. Adaptation research is reinforced.
9. Business opportunities related to adaptation are developed.
10. Tools are developed in support of regional adaptation work.
11. Communication on adaptation is developed.
12. Education and training content on adaptation is developed.

The progress in these areas contribute to a general reduction of vulnerabilities and risks, but it is not possible to quantify how great reductions have been achieved. There have been no disastrous climate/weather based impacts. However, weather extremes cause, for example, economic impacts in the current climate in several sectors (agriculture, forestry, electricity distribution), but an exact quantification has not yet been possible (Tuomenvirta et al. 2018)
Adaptive capacity has generally increased through the increased awareness of possible climate change impacts. Concrete actions have been taken for example in the built environment both at the level of regulation and in the practical implementation of, for example, storm water management in built areas (Mäkinen and Hildén 2020). In water resources and flood management, the capacity to adjust water flow and to react to flood risks has been increased by setting up a dedicated flood centre run jointly by SYKE and FMI. Flood risk maps are also being produced for areas subject to potential fluvial or sea surge floods. In energy distribution the Act on Electricity Markets (588/2013) requires the network operators to prepare for extremes and also to compensate users for failures to maintain distribution of electricity. This has made network operators invest in ways to reduce the risk of distribution failures due to for example storms.

In the agricultural sector farmers have diversified crop rotations by introducing novel crops for cultivation, shifting cultivation of crops northwards and even substantially expanding field areas under minor crops like pea, faba bean, caraway, oilseed rape. These measures not only improve long term sustainability and diversify agricultural land use, but also support improvements in adaptive capacity and resiliency of agricultural systems.
The long term aim of the NAP is to ensure that the Finnish society has the capacity to manage the risks associated with climate change and adapt to changes in the climate.

The following objectives set the priorities:

A. Adaptation has been integrated into the planning and activities of both the societal sectors and their actors.

B. The actors have access to the necessary climate change assessment and management methods.

C. Research and development work, communication and education and training have enhanced the adaptive capacity of society, developed innovative solutions and improved citizens’ awareness on climate change adaptation.

The mid-term evaluation (Mäkinen et al. 2020) has documented progress towards these priorities. Priority A can be documented in an increasing recognition of the need for adaptation. For example the Health Sector has drafted its first adaptation plan in 2021 and climate change is referred to in the detailed planning of many sectors. Priority B has been advanced in a growing number of studies highlighting different aspects of climate change, but as of yet there is no single depository for assessment and management methods. The national portal Climate Guide (ilmasto-opas.fi) provides information and also some tools, but is not yet a fully fledged source for all actors. Priority C has progressed in R&D activities in studies directly funded for policy support by the Government’s analysis, assessment and research activities (SIETO project, Tuomenvirta et al. 2018), SAAMI-project (Näkkäläjärvi et al. 2020) and the ongoing KUITTI-project (2020-2021) that focuses on calculating the costs of adaptation v. not adapting. Further academic research has and is being funded by, for example, the Academy of Finland and the Strategic Research Council. The Finnish Climate Change Panel has also launched a synthesis project on adaptation (SUOMI, 2019-2021).
The identification of barriers was one of the evaluation criteria in the mid-term evaluation of the NAP (Mäkinen et al. 2020). It concluded that the most common barriers to implementing the NAP were inadequate identification of climate risks, low priority given to climate work and adaptation, a lack of financial resources, a lack of information and expertise, as well as the available information not being sufficiently applicable to practical work.

Insufficient awareness of the potential impacts of climate change is a barrier in particular to the integration of climate change adaptation in the sector planning of those sectors in which weather has so far had little effect on planning the activities, the health sector being a case in point. This barrier is being addressed by national sector specific planning such as that of the health sector. Progress in this respect is expected to improve also coordination and integration of adaptation, which by its nature is challenging (Russel et al. 2020).

Awareness of the NAP has been relatively low at the regional level and local levels. There have been bottom-up activities fostering adaptation, but greater integration and more learning could be achieved. This barrier is currently addressed by emphasising the role of the regional Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment and also the Regional Councils. The drafting of Roadmaps for climate change action have been initiated and are likely to reduce the barriers. Also a number of municipalities, including the Helsinki Metropolitan Region, have been active in formulating adaptation strategies.
To improve efficiency a CCA and DRR governance model has been proposed that is designed to produce sector-specific risk assessments from inter-operable basic data; ultimately combining them cost-effectively into a national climate risk assessment at regular intervals. It can also guide regional and municipal risk assessments. It is suitable for assessing the consequences of harmful weather events, emerging risks and cross-border effects. (Hildén et al. 2018)

The proposed operational model consists of 1) cross-sectoral, joint monitoring and anticipatory work that monitors and anticipates hydro-meteorological and climate hazards, and general societal development with the help of scenarios; 2) sector-specific risk assessments in which exposure, vulnerability and risk realisation and management are assessed; and 3) a joint, synthesising, climate risk assessment that merges sector-specific risk assessments into a national climate risk assessment.

The climate risk assessment is linked to the preparation and evaluation of policy measures. It utilizes scenarios on societal development for exposure and vulnerability assessments and provides a knowledge base for developing climate change adaptation measures and governmental security and foresight activities.

The governance model requires nationwide coordination with wide range of expertise, e.g. key ministries, research institutes and other stakeholders. Each sector would be responsible for its own risk assessments, but the model would ensure that monitoring and forecasting information of risk management is common across sectors.

The model suggests an update of the national climate risk assessment every six years. It is thus possible to integrate the climate risk assessment with the National Risk Assessment, which is carried out every three years in accordance with the national Security Strategy for Society.

The operational model also provides input for other reports and assessments that are required by, for example, the Climate Act, the Energy Union Governance Regulation of the EU, reporting on the planned implementation mechanism of the Sendai Framework, the EU Civil Protection Mechanism, the National Rescue Service Reform and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The model has not yet been put fully into practice, but forms a framework for ongoing development work within and across sectors.
The Climate Act (609/2015) Section 8 specifies that a national adaptation plan should be drafted at least once in a decade. The current NAP was adopted with a time horizon until 2022. A revision of the NAP will therefore be undertaken in 2021-2022. At the same time the Climate Act is being revised and may include more specific requirements for the NAP, which in the current Act is specified at a very general level. Section 8 of the current Climate Act specifies that it should include a risk and vulnerability assessment and, to the extent considered necessary, action programmes for different administrative sectors.
The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities published a guide for municipalities to support developing climate adaptation on local level in 2020.

Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (HSY 2012) was complemented in 2017 with a report that studied new adaptation challenges and solutions, and developed new focus areas to supplement the 2012 policy measures. This document (HSY 2017) produced background information for adaptation planning of cities and municipal authorities. The evaluation of the implementation of the 2012 strategy is yet to be carried out (planned for spring 2021).

Good practices and lessons learnt

Climate change impacts have not previously been systematically included in the selection and prioritisation of flood risk management measures in Finland. For the 2nd planning cycle, a framework was developed to evaluate adaptability of the planned and proposed measures to the expected changes in climate and land use. This nationally consistent approach helps to identify robust measures that are applicable in a variety of conditions and include regional data for flood risk managers. Similar approach has been adopted for river basin management. Regionally tailored data on hydrological impacts was found useful in planning and communicating with stakeholders.
Adaptation indicators have been developed for the Helsinki metropolitan area to understand the need for adaptation and the effectiveness of adaptation measures. The indicators are classified into hazard/weather, exposure, adaptability and vulnerability composite indicators (following EEA indicator classes). The adaptation indicators are developed and supplemented according to monitoring needs. Some of the indicators can be updated more frequently, but most of them are such that changes are only visible in the longer term or monitoring data is more difficult to obtain.
In late 2020 the Ministry of Agriculture in cooperation with stakeholder groups participating in the National Monitoring Group on climate change adaptation published a new newsletter in Finland dedicated to climate change adaptation. The thematic newsletter is published 4-5 times per year and each letter contains articles and recent reseach results related to adaptation. Anyone can subscribe to the letter, and each letter will be promoted in social media in order to gain a broad audience. Furthermore, the Finnish Meteorological Institute publishes a monthly e-magazine (Ilmastokatsaus) on weather and climate.
The National Risk Assessment 2018 examines climate change as a driver of change in the security environment. Climate change is examined in various threat scenarios and disruptions linked to other drivers. Risks and conditions vary in different parts of country. Management of weather and climate risks is of high relevance in regional risk assessments, where impacts of climate change have been identified clearly. The risks assessments create the framework for the types of risks that different administrative branches and other actors must prepare for, and helps to identify development needs and support prioritisation. Furthermore, each actor assesses its risks more specifically.
During the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy period (2012-2020) (HSY 2012), the focus of adaptation planning has shifted from the regional strategy to city level strategies and plans. Currently all four Helsinki metropolitan area cities have signed up to the Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy initiative. Therefore their vulnerability assessment and defining adaptation measures is integrated in the SECAP process.

In the 2019 monitoring report, it was found that the 2012 strategy measures have mostly been realised, and that the climate change and future climate risks are increasingly taken into account in the region‘s urban planning and as the cities grow.
Under the Finnish Flood Risk Management Act, there are Flood Management Groups for significant flood risk areas. These groups set objectives for flood risk management, prepare and follow up implementation of the regional flood risk management plans and organise stakeholder participation. Flood risk management will be integrated into general preparedness planning and industry plans. These mandatory plans and processes are better established than non-binding flood risk management plans. Climate change is in the focus of all of these plans in flood risk areas and is used to promote the need for flood risk management.
The network formed in the regional climate strategy process (ILSE, see 2.3. c) in the Helsinki metropolitan area has been regarded important and useful by its members. The group has concluded that it acts as a good source of information and discussion platform, and supports cooperation the advancement of the adaptation work in cities and municipalities. Representatives from different municipal organisations have added diversity in the group. New sustainable urban living programme is proposing strengthening cooperation of adaptation by adding actors from city departments and other stakeholder groups such as research institutions and NGOs.
The Finnish Adaptation Platform ‘Climateguide.fi’ provides research-based information on climate change, its impacts and other adaptation and mitigation relevant information (articles, map tools, visualisations and case studies) applicable at multiple levels. It became operational in 2011, with support received from the EU LIFE+ project 'Climate Change Community Response Portal'. The portal is currently under re-construction. The platform links to sector-based adaptation programmes and national adaptation policy. The main content is published in Finnish, while some key information is available also in Swedish and English.
Finnish development policy is grounded in the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The main goal is to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities. Climate resilience is one of the cross-cutting objectives, mainstreamed in all activities. Finland supports adaptation to climate change through development cooperation at all levels: from international policy making to individual projects at grassroot level. In addition to climate-specific actions, all development cooperation supported by Finland must be climate proof and climate smart.

Finland is committed to the objectives of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, which is coordinated by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), and reports regularly on the indicators agreed upon in the strategy. Rather than having a separate strategy for disaster risk reduction based on the Sendai Framework, several national strategies and programmes add up to the necessary strategic preparedness for disasters of Finnish society.

In Finland the Finnish Cooperation Network was appointed in 2010 to act as a cooperation body and to prepare a National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. The Cooperation Network consisted of a steering committee and an expert committee. The Cooperation Network aimed to reduce risk factors of disasters caused by natural hazards and to improve society’s preparedness for disasters caused by natural hazards. Its purpose was to compile and draw on the work carried out by various parties to mitigate the damage of natural disasters and to achieve more effective cooperation in order to mitigate the damage of natural disasters. The aim of the Cooperation Network was to clarify the overall picture of preparedness for natural disasters and to identify areas that require further action or development. The mandate of the network ended in 2018 and at the moment Finland is preparing to set up the Cooperation Network again as there is a need for more cooperation between different stakeholders in the UNDRR-questions.
European JPI FACCE MACSUR and FACCE MACSUR 2 in addition to international AgMIP project have been key networks to share information and strengthen science e.g., in means of developing modelling tools and reduce their uncertainties to assess impacts of climate change on agriculture at different scales, identify region specific adaptation means and support breeding for well adapted cultivars. The family of H2020 projects on diversification of agriculture has provided new understanding on contribution of diversification for climate smart agriculture.

SYKE is a member of the European Topic Centre on Climate Change and Adaptation (ETC CCA) of the European Environment Agency and a member of the European Environment Agencies‘ interest group on climate change adaptation and has contributed to reports and analyses in these capacities. SYKE has also been involved in the strategic planning supporting JPI Climate and in several EU funded research projects focusing on adaptation, for example BASE, IMPRESSIONS and CASCADES.
Finland together with the United States is leading a project on Arctic Marine Protected Areas under change within the Arctic Council‘s Working Group on Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment. The aim is to prepare two information briefs: Marine Protected Areas in a Changing Arctic and Indigenous Food Security in the Arctic – Implications of a Changing Ocean.

Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC) is updating its Plan on Climate Change for the Barents co-operation to be approved at the BEAC Ministerial Meeting in October, 2021. Finland as the current Chair of the BEAC Working Group on Environment is coordinating the update process.

Within the Barents Region Finland has launched in 2020 a project on Impacts of the climate change on the biodiversity in the Barents Region – from knowledge to mitigation and adaptation. The project will continue in 2021 with a possible extension for the next years.

Finland, Russia and Norway are cooperating on Green Belt of Fennoscandia (GBF), which consists of unique boreal forests and tundra areas along the borders of Finland, Russia and Norway. The GBF is an ecological network producing valuable ecosystem services and supporting adaptation to climate change.

As part of regional transboundary cooperation, adaptation questions have been discussed particularly within the framework of cooperation concerning transboundary waters with Sweden, Norway and Russia with special focus on water protection and the management and use of transboundary waters, including water regulation, flood risk management, dam safety, combating invasive alien species.

Finland supports climate change adaptation internationally through official development assistance (ODA) and its different instruments:
• Multilateral funds, such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), the Nordic Development Fund (NDF) and the Climate Risks and Early Warning Systems Initiative (CREWS)
• Bilateral development cooperation projects in long-term partner countries.
• Finland-IFC Blended Finance for Climate Program.
• The Public Sector Investment Facility (PIF)
• The Inter-Institutional Cooperation Instrument (ICI)
• Through civil society project and programme funding.

2019 was a peak year for Finnish international climate finance for developing countries (EUR 147 million), of which 36 % was for adaptation. The current government program puts emphasis on scaling up climate finance, and having equal distribution of funding between adaptation and mitigation.

Additionally, Finland contributes to the following international partnerships:
• the Risk-informed Early Action Partnership (REAP)
• the Least Developed Countries Group on Climate Change LDC Initiative for Effective Adaptation and Resilience (LIFE-AR)
• the Water and Climate Coalition

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

Coordination of national adaptation policy
Ms. Kirsi Mäkinen
National Focal Point for Climate Change Adaptation
[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'