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The source of the information displayed on this country profile is the unofficial English translation of France's national adaptation reporting. The official French version can be accessed via the Reportnet3 website.

National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

The surface area of metropolitan France (550,000 km2) is the largest of the European Union countries (approximately 13% of the European Union's surface). Located between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, between latitudes 41 °N to 51 °N, France has about 3,200 km of coastline. A country of average altitude, where plains and hills occupy two thirds of the territory, it has however two mountainous barriers, to the east and to the south: the Alps and the Pyrenees. Mont Blanc (4,810 m), the highest point in France, is located in the Alps, on the border with Italy. The Massif Central, in the center of the country, plays a role in dispersing water into four main basins: the Seine in the north, the Loire in the northwest, the Rhone in the east and the Garonne in the southwest. On a global scale, metropolitan France has a temperate climate. It has a rainfall distributed throughout the year and relatively mild temperatures. These characteristics are due to the average latitude and the dominance of winds coming from the Atlantic.

However, the regional climates vary according to their latitude, altitude and proximity to the sea, reinforced by their position in relation to the three major mountain ranges (Pyrenees, Massif Central, Alps).

At first glance, there are five main types of climate in mainland France: oceanic, altered oceanic, semi-continental, mountainous and Mediterranean.

The climates of the French overseas territories are more contrasted. Most of the overseas territories are located in tropical or equatorial zones (Caribbean, South America, Indian Ocean, Polynesia...); the others have cold, harsh climates (Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), or even extreme climates (French Southern and Antarctic Territories, with a record at Dumont d'Urville of - 37.5°C in 1990).

Finally, overseas France in tropical regions is exposed to natural hazards such as cyclones (Oli and Tomas in 2010, Evan in 2012 and Hurricane Irma in September 2017).

Continuing with 2019, 2020 was again characterized by the predominance of a very mild weather throughout the year. Two heat waves occurred during the summer, followed by an exceptional late heat episode in mid-September. This year a succession of storms from late winter to early spring was also noticeable. There were also violent Mediterranean episodes that generated floods and locally devastating floods in January in Roussillon, in September in the Cevennes and in October in the Alpes-Maritimes.

The average annual temperature over the country reached 14.1°C, exceeding the normal (reference 1981-2010) by 1.5°C. The year 2020 thus ranked as the warmest year over the period 1900-2020, ahead of 2018 (13.9 °C) and 2014 (13.8 °C).

Metropolitan France is located at the crossroads of four terrestrial biogeographic regions (Alpine, Atlantic, Continental, Mediterranean) and two marine regions (Atlantic, Mediterranean), a position that explains the rich diversity of natural habitats and species it hosts. Within the framework of the European Habitats-Fauna-Flora Directive, the assessment of the conservation status of natural habitats of community interest shows that 20% of the 132 habitats present in France are in a conservation status deemed "favorable" over the period 2013-2018. Habitats in the Alpine region are in a better state overall (38% in a favorable state), while those in the Atlantic (terrestrial) region are the least well-conserved (only 11% in a favorable state). The national red list of the IUCN and MNHN assesses the risk of extinction of species, by taxonomic group, on the scale of the French territory. To date, 10,055 species have been evaluated, i.e. less than 6% of known species in France. Eighteen percent of the assessed species are extinct or threatened in France as of February 1, 2019. The risk of species extinction is significantly higher in the overseas islands (39%) than in mainland France (12%). Between 1989 and 2017, the populations of so-called "generalist" birds (populating a wide variety of habitats) are increasing (+19%). Conversely, the number of common birds known as "specialists" (dependent on a particular habitat: agricultural, forestry, built) has decreased by 22% in metropolitan France. The degradation or loss of habitats and the collapse of insect populations explain this phenomenon. These trends lead to a homogenization of bird communities and an impoverishment of species, which raises awareness of the need to act on all environments.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
As of January 1, 2021, France had 67.4 million inhabitants, of which 65.2 million resided in metropolitan France. The population remains unevenly distributed across the country: 30% live in one of the two most densely populated regions (Île-de-France and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes), but they represent only 13% of the territory. Île-de-France remains by far the most densely populated region with 1,011 inhabitants/km2, which is nearly 10 times more than the French average density (approximately 100 inhabitants/km2).

In 2020, the population increased by 0.2%. The natural balance - the difference between the number of births and deaths - is + 67,000. In 2016, it had reached its lowest level since the end of World War II. It has been falling ever since and will reach a new low in 2020. This decline is due to the continuing decline in births, but especially to the sharp increase in deaths during the Covid-19 pandemic. Half of the population growth in 2020 is thus due to the natural balance and the other half to net migration, estimated at + 87,000 people.

In 2020, 669,000 people died in France (according to estimates at the end of February 2021), 56,000 more than in 2019, an increase of 9.1%. The increase is particularly significant for people aged 65 or more, with 43,000 more deaths in 2020 than in 2019, representing an increase of 8.3%. Because of the arrival of large baby boom generations at high-mortality ages, the number of deaths has tended to increase in recent years (+0.7% per year on average between 2004 and 2014, then +1.9% between 2014 and 2019), but the increase in 2020 is out of line. The Covid-19 epidemic had a strong impact on mortality in the first wave between March and May and again in the second wave starting in October.

If recent demographic trends were to continue, France would have 74.0 million inhabitants in 2050, 8.2 million more than in 2013. By 2050, the population would increase in all metropolitan regions.

In 2050, the ranking of regions by population could change: Brittany would become more populous than Normandy, while Occitania and New Aquitaine would have more inhabitants than Hauts-de-France. The country's top two regions would consolidate their position: Île-de-France would have 13.2 million inhabitants (12 million in 2013) and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes 9.5 million (7.8 million in 2013).

The demographic evolution would be much more contrasted in the overseas departments (DOM). In French Guiana and Mayotte, growth is expected to be high, driven by fertility. On the other hand, in Guadeloupe and Martinique, the population would fall sharply, while Reunion Island would be in an intermediate situation.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
With a nominal GDP of approximately $3 trillion, France is the world's sixth largest economy behind the United States, China, Japan, Germany and the United Kingdom. In 2020, it ranks 45th for GDP per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP), above the European Union average of 28th. In ranking by GDP in PPP, France is the 10th largest economy.

The French economy suffered a massive recession in 2020 as a result of the Covid-19 epidemic, with a fall in gross domestic product (GDP) of 8.3 percent.

The French economy is primarily a service economy: in 2015, the tertiary sector occupied 76.7% of the working population, while the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, etc.) accounted for only 2.8% and the secondary sector (mainly industry) 20.5%. In terms of employment, the major economic sectors that could be most affected by climate change are:
- The building sector (about 2 million jobs), with the need to find solutions to increase resilience to climate change (thermal comfort, for example) while providing mitigation solutions (low energy consumption...)
- The transportation sector (approximately 1.2 million jobs), particularly with regard to infrastructure that can be affected by both extreme weather events (e.g. heat waves, floods) and climate change and its effects (e.g. drought, rising sea levels, traveler comfort in the event of heat waves).
- The tourism sector (1.5 million jobs) with 90 million foreign tourists in 2018 is of course very affected by climate change with an expected decrease in attendance depending on the region (too hot) and the season (lack of snow).
- The agriculture and fisheries sector associated with the agri-food sector (1.6 million jobs) which must meet the challenge of local climate change (such as the decline in water resources) for production and global impacts for the processing part, while meeting consumer demand.

In March 2007, the Ministry of Ecology set up an inter-ministerial group to assess the damage and measures to limit the cost of the impacts. In the absence of a long-term regionalized socio-economic forecast for France, it was decided to use the current French socio-economic situation (the "constant economy" scenario). This choice makes possible to isolate the impact of climate change from other effects and to not add macroeconomic uncertainties to the uncertainties related to climate aspects. However, this choice remains restrictive and limiting especially for some sectors for which socio-economic changes are already anticipated or for which these changes constitute a determining factor of vulnerability to climate change. Only a limited number of sectors have been studied and, within these sectors, the analysis has only focused on a selection of climate change impacts. The estimated costs must be considered as orders of magnitude due to the limitations of the methodologies used and the non-exhaustiveness of the evaluations carried out.

Economic sectors sensitive to water resources such as industry, agriculture and drinking water supply would be affected by a global deficit of 2 billion m3 of water per year. Projections indicate that the most affected areas would be those already affected today by structural deficits.

The analysis focused on four specific types of hazards: flooding, coastal risks, clay shrinkage and gravity hazards (avalanches, mudflows, rock falls, etc.). With constant urbanization, the average annual damage to housing generated by the risk of clay shrinkage and swelling could exceed 1 billion euros in 2100. In the absence of adaptation, the impacts of coastal risks (erosion and flooding), should ultimately affect several hundred thousand people and the destruction of housing.

The agricultural sector is clearly the most directly affected and as a consequence, the agri-food industry. Even if the growth models used for field crops project an increase in yield in the near future due to the capture of CO2, the increase in evapotranspiration associated with the decrease in water availability are factors that qualify the expected increase in yield. As an example, the multiplication of events such as the 2003 heat wave could represent in 2100 a cost of up to 300 million euros per year for some crops, for instance wheat, in the absence of adaptation measures. Wine growing will also be affected by climate change, with strong territorial disparities and effects on wine quality. In the case of grasslands, the exercise carried out for the peri-Mediterranean zone leads to a cost of compensating for losses of 200 million euros per year over the second half of the 21st century.

In terms of electricity production, due to the constraints related to water resources, we can expect a drop in productivity of around 15% in hydroelectric power plants, for which water is the "raw material", and losses in the efficiency of energy production and transport infrastructures.

In 2100, a significant impact on summer revenue is to be expected, due to a downward trend in the attractiveness of tourism, except in the north of France and in some Alpine departments. On the other hand, conditions will improve between seasons. According to an OECD study, in the French Alps, 143 ski areas had reliable snow cover in 2006. In the case of a global warming of 1 °C, this will only be the case for 123 resorts; for 96 resorts if the warming reaches 2 °C and only for 55 resorts in the case of a warming of 4 °C. Studies conducted in 2019 by Météo-France and IRSTEA confirm that with too much global warming (above 2°C), artificial snow will no longer be able to compensate for the loss of natural snow, whether in the Alps or in the Pyrenees. In general, this work indicates that in all geographical areas of metropolitan France, the tourism sector will have to adapt to future manifestations of climate change in order to limit the negative impacts and seize the potential opportunities.

Projected climate change may require adaptations to road infrastructure. While the 2003 and 2019 heat waves did not appear to cause widespread damage to road structures or engineering structures, the effects of recurrent heat waves are not known at this time. The risk of a permanent marine submersion, linked to a one-meter rise in sea level, would represent a cost to the assets of national roads in mainland France (excluding freeways and other roads), excluding loss of use and excluding the "network" effect (for example, the submergence of a limited section of road may lead to the unavailability of an entire section, but only the asset value of the submerged section has been calculated), in the range of 500 million to 1.2 billion euros. It could reach 2 billion euros if the current protections are proven insufficient.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version

Reporting updated until: 2021-07-30

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • actual NAS - adopted
National adaptation plan (NAP)
  • actual NAP - adopted
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
Météo-France is the national weather forecast and climate service. Its annual budget is 393 M€ (2019). Its primary mission is to ensure the meteorological safety of people and property by making observations throughout the national territory (metropolitan France and overseas territories) and weather forecasts. Météo-France plays a significant role in the main meteorological cooperation organizations: the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Eumetsat, the operator of European meteorological satellites, and Eumetnet.

The research activities of Météo-France represent a significant contribution to the efforts of the French, European and international scientific community in the fields of meteorology and climatology.

The National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM) is a joint research unit between the CNRS and Météo-France. It includes about 80 researchers, 150 engineers, technicians and administrative staff. It is responsible for most of these activities and coordinates all of the R&D activities of Météo-France. It is composed of six research units and a set of common services spread over several sites in France: mainly the Météopole (Meteorologic metropole) in Toulouse (about 80%) and Grenoble, with the Snow Study Centre. To carry out its missions and perform the experiments essential to the acquisition of new knowledge, CNRM relies on high-tech resources: supercomputers, satellites, instrumented aircraft, drones, fixed or mobile measuring stations, instrumented sites in the mountains, wind profiler radars, anchored and drifting buoys, and cold storage. Since the end of 2020, Météo-France has had two new supercomputers that can be used to carry out weather forecasting and to reconstruct past climatic conditions from observation archives or to simulate future changes. They are also used in research on atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. The total investment of the project is 144 million euros, including the rental of supercomputers, electrical infrastructure and cooling, power consumption, renovation of storage systems, pre/post data processing and dissemination of these data internally and on the Internet. Given the importance of the issues related to meteorology and climate, this investment is the subject of a specific additional grant from the Ministry for The Ecological Transition to Météo-France for a total amount of 27.1 million euros over the years 2019-2022.

France has a recognized scientific expertise in the field of climate modeling and observation systems targeting the planet's major fluid envelopes (atmosphere, oceans, continental hydrosphere) and the biosphere. French scientists, who are grouped together in the Climeri-France platform, have participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) with two climate models, one developed by CNRM in association with Cerfacs, the other at IPSL. The two new French models, but also other foreign models already available, simulate a more significant warming by 2100 than the previous versions established in 2012. The climate models are also used as a basis for downscaled climate modeling over metropolitan France and overseas territories. Thus, several simulations carried out within the framework of CMIP6 have been "zoomed in", over Europe and the Indian Ocean. At these scales, scientists have succeeded in representing phenomena such as heat waves, cyclones or dust transport in a more realistic way than before.

Such results have been obtained thanks to the improvements made to the climate models since the previous exercise. Their spatial resolution is finer, the modelling of the different physical compartments of the climate system (ocean, atmosphere, continental surfaces, ice, etc.) is more accomplished, and current evaluations show that the French models simulate the observed characteristics of the climate better than the old versions.

The work carried out by the French community has mobilized about a hundred scientists from various disciplines (climatologists, oceanographers, glaciologists, specialists in the atmosphere, vegetation and soils, and experts in intensive computing), and has required significant computing resources: 500 million hours of computing provided by the supercomputers of GENCI (Grand Equipement National pour le Calcul Intensif) and Météo-France, and 20 Petabytes of data generated.

The future investment program has enabled the strengthening of national research resources through the creation of laboratories of excellence and equipment of excellence.

Thus, the capacity of French research on climate and the environment has been strengthened by the creation of fourteen laboratories of excellence (labEx) supported by €133 million over 10 years.

In 2010, the Ministry for The Ecological Transition called on the expertise of the French climate science community, including researchers from CNRS/INSU/IPSL and LGGE, Météo-France, BRGM, CEA, CETMEF and CNES, to produce a scientific assessment of France's climate conditions in the 21st century. The "Climate of France in the 21st Century" series provides reference climate indices to serve as a basis for developing climate change adaptation policies.

This tool is essential for the many actors involved in adaptation, including local authorities, the private economic sector, associations and government departments. For this reason, the production of this reference data is one of the key actions of the first National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (NAP), which came into force on July 19, 2011. The National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC) organizes and disseminates this scientific information under the title "France's Climate in the 21st Century".

Volumes 4 and 5, published respectively in 2014 and 2015, of this series provide an update of volumes 2 and 3, based on the results available from the DRIAS, futures of climate, portal. This first climate service is the result of the Drias project (Giving Access to French Regionalized Climate Scenarios for the Impact and Adaptation of our Societies and Environment) funded by the Management and Impact of Climate Change (GICC) program of the Ministry for The Ecological Transition (MTE). It responds to an important need expressed by all actors concerned by climate change, to have easy access to information and assistance to study the impacts and decide on measures to adapt to climate change.

By providing some of these elements in a simple way for users, the "Climate of France in the 21st Century" series is an essential first step in the development of a French climate service, since it facilitates and simplifies access to and use of information on French regionalized climate projections. This expertise also contributes to enhance the research work and to harmonize the productions of the French modeling groups, which are now accessible in a single place.

An agreement between the Ministry for The Ecological Transition and the CNRS on the allocation of financial support for climate services will allow the free dissemination of a set of data, methods and training materials to help decision-makers and industry interpret climate projections, extreme events and national contributions to emission reductions.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
The DRIAS Futures of Climate portal, is intended for a wide range of users, from experts (researchers, academics, etc.) to non-specialists (project managers, decision-makers, etc.), involved in impact and adaptation studies on climate change. Thus, it is intended for territorial actors, who act within the framework of a plan or scheme related to the climate, or an observatory, for private actors who are confronted with climate forecasting within their company, for professionals in environmental and adaptation consulting, for researchers, who are involved in impact studies or work on adaptation, as well as for teachers who wish to access information from climate projections. Access to these data is essential to allow vulnerability studies of territories necessary for the definition of climate change adaptation policies by local authorities.

Since the beginning of 2021, the DRIAS Futures of Climate portal has a new dataset that has been developed within the framework of the climate services agreement supported by the Ministry For The Ecological Transition, with the scientific support of the CNRM, Cerfacs and the IPSL. Thirty regionalized simulations from the Euro-Cordex ensemble covering the three climate scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 were selected to constitute a set that is more easily usable for impact studies than the full ensemble, which includes several hundred simulations. A companion report was developed to provide a scientific and practical guide to the use of this dataset.

This service has been completed for the public by the web application "Climat HD": (Climat d’Hier et de Demain), which offers an integrated vision of past and future climate change, at national and regional levels. Climat HD synthesizes the latest work of climatologists: key messages and graphics to better understand climate change and its impacts.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Tornado
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Snow and ice load
  • Water scarcity
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil erosion
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Tornado
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Snow and ice load
  • Water scarcity
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil erosion
An increase of 2°C in global average temperature by the end of the century, the hypothesis adopted for the NAP-2, will have different consequences on the average temperature at a regional or a local scale and will be accompanied everywhere by significant changes in precipitation patterns and in the frequency and severity of extreme events. These changes will have strong impacts in all socio-economic sectors and on the global natural environment. The best possible knowledge of these changes, their impacts and the associated uncertainties is essential to identify the most relevant adaptation measures and to develop them as our knowledge progresses.

In line with the fifth IPCC assessment report published in 2014, several projects initiated within the framework of the first NAP have made it possible to specify the changes to be expected in the various regions and to make the corresponding quantitative data available to all adaptation stakeholders. From a qualitative point of view, the main climate changes expected in France, consistent with the changes already detected, are as follows:
-An increase in temperature of 2°C above the global average, particularly in the most continental regions, with increasingly frequent and severe heat waves extending beyond the traditional summer periods; cold waves will be less severe and less frequent, but without reducing the risks associated with spring frosts, which are favored by an earlier start to vegetation;
-more intense precipitation, even in regions where the annual amount of precipitation will decrease, increasing the risk of floods; at the same time, drought episodes will be more frequent and more severe, with sharply decreasing low water flows in rivers and streams, increased pressure on water resources necessary for ecosystems and human activities, and an increase in the risk of forest fires;
-the warming of the ocean and the acceleration of the rise in sea level, associated with an increase in the risk of flooding;
-uncertain changes in the frequency and severity of storms, except in tropical overseas regions where the severity of cyclones is expected to increase.

Global warming is accelerating the loss of biodiversity, whereas, conversely, measures to protect biodiversity could mitigate the impacts of climate change. The disruption of major ecological balances is already observed: a physical environment that is changing and living beings that are struggling to adapt or disappear under the combined effects of climate change and human pressure on their environment. Climate change is now the main threat to the World Natural Heritage.

Agriculture is one of the first sectors of activity impacted by the consequences of climate change because of the rise in temperatures, the decrease in water resources, the increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, the proliferation of pathogens and pests that result, the accentuation of certain extreme events, including intense rainfall, heat waves and tropical cyclones with immediate impacts on crops and livestock, and even the risk of stubble fires. In the future, cold spells in mainland France will be less severe and less frequent, without reducing the risks associated with spring frosts, which are favored by an earlier start of vegetation.

All these impacts are already visible and their severity will increase as global warming increases. Thus, if the decrease in yields of certain crops is for the moment partially compensated by the fertilizing effect of an increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, a decrease in yields is already visible on certain crops and a generalized decrease is expected in the coming decades.

Forests, both deciduous and coniferous, could be impacted by climate change in the near future and very significantly, regardless of the site in France in the distant future. Edaphic and atmospheric drought are the main constraints. Unlike all other cropping systems, it is not possible to reduce water stress by irrigation. Thermal effects on phenology do not lead to sufficient evasion strategies, contrary to annual crops. Temperature plays a negative role by increasing atmospheric dryness. The only beneficial effect is the increase in atmospheric CO2 content, that improves photosynthesis, but without compensating the negative effects of the increase in water stress.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Among the impacts of climate change, a worsening of coastal flooding events, as well as a sharp increase in the risk of fire can be anticipated. By 2060, most of the country is expected to be subject to several weeks of extreme fire risk each year, which is currently limited to the Mediterranean region. Another alarming phenomenon to be prepared for is the occurrence of more frequent, longer and more severe heat waves.

Finally, mainly because of the increase in evapotranspiration, we must fear the appearance of severe soil drought situations, which will exert a very strong constraint on agricultural production, including livestock. Over the period 2021-2050, the duration of soil drought in France is expected to increase from the current average of 2 months (from mid-July to mid-September) to 4 months (from mid-June to mid-October), while becoming more intense.

Heat waves are the cause of significant excess mortality. For example, the 2003 heat wave caused 15,000 deaths; the 2015 heat w

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
not applicable
work in progress

Please refer to "Overview of existing pressures"
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
work in progress

Please refer to "Overview of existing pressures"
Vulnerability
not applicable
work in progress

Please refer to "Overview of existing pressures"
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
work in progress

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Each year, ONERC publishes a report to the Prime Minister and Parliament that provides a review and synthesis of the risks and challenges enhanced by climate change in a particular area and provides advice on adaptation options. For example, an in-depth assessment of sectoral impacts, costs and possible adaptation options was published in 2009, after a two-year interdepartmental work process.

In order to make the effects of climate change easier to perceive, several indicators are published on the ONERC website. Some of them are aggregations of available data in order to show the influence of climate change.

Since 2015, the law on the New Territorial Organization of the Republic (NOTRe) reinforces the territorial aspect of adaptation. The diagnosis prior to the development of territorial policies includes an analysis of the vulnerability of the territory to the effects of climate change.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Published on July 6, 2017, Axis 19 of the French Climate Plan, "Adapting to Climate Change," sets the scene: "Climate change is accelerating and its impacts in France will be significant over the coming years. The Government is committed to protecting French people and the economy, particularly the most exposed sectors and regions, such as agriculture, forests, coastal regions and mountainous zones.”…”France will increase its dedicated funding for the adaptation of its territories and its economy throughout the five-year term to take action in metropolitan and overseas territories on the prevention of the impacts of climate change, resilience and the mobilisation of adaptive solutions based on nature.”

Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the first NAP (2011-2015), the NAP-2 was developed according to one of the main principles governing the French Climate Plan, namely the mobilization of the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders, which drove the co-construction of the actions included in this Adaptation Plan. The consultation was organized according to six areas of action that structure the priorities of the NAP-2: Governance, Prevention and resilience, Economic sectors, Knowledge and information, Nature and environment, International:
- the actions in the "Governance" area aim to effectively articulate the national and territorial levels and to involve society in the implementation and monitoring of the NAP-2, with a particular focus on the French overseas departments and territories; they ensure cohesion between adaptation and mitigation;
- the proposed measures are based on the best scientific knowledge and on the awareness of the whole population of the need to fight against climate change and to adapt to it ("Knowledge and information" domain)
- various measures to protect people and property from climate risks ("Prevention and resilience" area) and to prepare economic sectors for anticipated changes ("Economic sectors" area), which will accompany development and strengthen the potential for job creation and innovation
- as far as possible, use of measures that promote nature-based solutions ("Natural environments" area);

Finally, specific actions aim to benefit from the experiences of other countries and to strengthen the capacities of French actors in order to support developing countries in their own climate change adaptation policies ("International" area).

The steering and monitoring of the NAP-2 are entrusted to the specialized commission of the French National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of the orientation of the ONERC. This commission acts as a national adaptation monitoring committee to ensure annual monitoring of the detailed implementation plan and to select relevant adaptation indicators.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Since the first law of July 1976 on the protection of nature, the law on environmental assessment has been modified by the law of July 12, 2010 on the national commitment for the environment. The climate is a theme explicitly mentioned by article R 122-20 II 5°a) of the environmental code on which to study the "likely significant effects of the implementation of the plan, scheme, program or other planning document on the environment". Thus, the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions but also the adaptation of other environmental themes and more broadly of the territory to the effects of climate change are part of the considerations that must feed the strategic choices developed.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
At the national level, the Ministry For The Ecological Transition is responsible for the policy of adaptation to climate change and prevention of natural risks. It relies on the Ministry of Territorial Cohesion for the consideration of risks in urban planning and the control of compliance with construction rules. Thus, the application circular of July 2011 relating to the consideration of the risk of marine submersion in the plans for the prevention of natural coastal risks reminds us that in view of the strong foreseeable impact of climate change, it is appropriate to integrate the impact of climate change on the "marine submersion" hazard in the plans for the prevention of coastal risks.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
The Geoportal called Géorisque allows easy access to data related to natural hazards. These data come from 14 databases of which 6 are related to climate change:
1 Administrative procedures related to risks (BD GASPAR),
2 The Flood Zoning identifies the Territories at High Risk of Flooding (TRI),
3 The Flooding by rising water table corresponds to the location of areas where there is a high probability of observing overflows by rising water table,
4 The Land Movement Database (BDMvt),
5 The map of exposure to the phenomenon of clay shrinkage and swelling,
6 Plans for the Prevention of Natural Risks produced by the departmental instructive services.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

The implementation of the second national plan for adaptation to climate change (NAP-2) is organized around a monitoring mechanism involving the departments of the pilot ministries and the representatives of civil society concerned.

The Ministry has also set up an internal working group on water and climate change involving the departments of the central and decentralized administration, operators (water agencies, French Office of Biodiversity) and partner research institutes (INRAE).

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Within the framework of the National Adaptation Plan, a resource center on adaptation to climate change has been developed in collaboration with some State operators, making the best use of new technologies to facilitate the sharing of experiences, access to good practices and a presentation of stakeholder mapping, in particular at the territorial level. This resource center deals in particular with the following themes: health (including at work), water, agriculture, forestry, soils, biodiversity, natural risks, urban planning, mobility, fishing and aquaculture, tourism, and the financial sector.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
France must adapt to the amount of climate change that past emissions of greenhouse gases accumulated in the atmosphere now make inescapable. The general objective of the National Adaptation Plan 2018-2022 (NAP-2) is to implement the actions necessary to adapt, by 2050, the territories of metropolitan and overseas France to the expected regional climate changes. Its objective is therefore to better protect French people from extreme weather events, but also to better adapt the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism) to future climate conditions and improve their resilience to expected changes.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
An external evaluation of the first National Adaptation Plan (2011-2015) was entrusted to the CGEDD in June 2015. This evaluation was able to highlight the issues, gaps and obstacles to the implementation of adaptation policies.

This evaluation had concluded that the first NAP responded well overall to the main issues related to adaptation to climate change identified by the IPCC, but that the next plan should pay sufficient attention to the territorial declination, to the consideration of issues specific to the Overseas Territories and to a greater involvement of actors who are outside the public sphere.

The first adaptation plan was also deemed insufficiently prioritized.

The difficulties or barriers encountered vary according to the actions but can be summarized as follows
- Feasibility difficulties that may stem from a lack of resources, whether human or financial, a lack of prior knowledge;
- a certain lack of involvement of the entities in charge, such as insufficient political mobilization; sometimes due to
- The consequences of climate change, often considered abstract, need to be better explained,
- The difficulty of the communities to apprehend the stakes which refer to the long time and to mobilize the political and economic actors concerned.

The same is true for most economic sectors, which often find it difficult to conceive what an adaptation strategy for their activity could be, especially when it comes to small businesses.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
The national adaptation strategy is the State's response to address the issue of adaptation to climate change. This strategy was developed in the context of a broad consultation, led by the National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC), involving the various sectors of activity and civil society under the responsibility of the interministerial delegate for sustainable development. It was validated by the Interministerial Committee for Sustainable Development on November 13, 2006, chaired by the Prime Minister. This strategy was considered still relevant when the elaboration of the second plan started in 2016.

The National Adaptation Plan 2011-2015, PNACC, was adopted in 2011. It defined a series of actions and implementation processes covering a wide range of sectors. The NAP was developed in interaction with stakeholders. The revision process of the NAP started in June 2016. Announced in the national climate plan (Plan Climat) published in July 2017, the second National Adaptation Plan (NAP-2) was presented by the Minister for The Ecological Transition on 20 December 2018. With its second National Adaptation Plan, France aims for effective adaptation as early as the middle of the 21st century to a regional climate in metropolitan France and the French overseas departments and territories consistent with a global temperature increase of 2°C compared to the pre-industrial temperature. Its objective is to better prepare French society for climate change by integrating adaptation into public policies, involving the territories and the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism, etc.). Compared to the first NAP (2011-2015), the NAP-2 is distinguished by the following major orientations:
- greater involvement of territorial actors within a coherent, coordinated, shared and closely monitored national approach to climate change adaptation ;
- priority given to nature-based solutions wherever it makes sense;
- a strong focus on the overseas territories, which is reflected in specific measures for these regions that are highly vulnerable to climate change;
- the involvement of the major economic sectors, starting with systematic prospective studies;
- the implementation of a close monitoring of the measures by a specialized Commission of the French National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) representing the stakeholders and society and chaired by a senator. The annual progress report on the plan is presented to the Specialized Commission, which issues an opinion each year and submits it to the CNTE.

The 58 measures included in the NAP-2 are divided into 6 major areas of action that take into account all the issues involved by the current and expected impacts of climate change:
- governance: territorialization of the NAP-2 and evolution of standards and regulations to take into account the future climate;
- prevention and resilience: improving prevention and strengthening resilience to the expected increase in extreme events;
- Nature and environment: adapting and preserving environments to ensure the favorable evolution of biodiversity and our environmental heritage;
- Economic sectors: adapting the major economic sectors impacted by climate change, including tourism, agriculture, fishing and aquaculture, forestry and its wood sector, as well as the finance and insurance sector;
- knowledge and information: improving knowledge and the means of training and informing stakeholders and the general public in order to accelerate France's adaptation and consolidate the basis on which decisions are made;
- international dimension: development and export of French know-how in this area and the influence of French diplomacy in climate negotiations.

In total, 8.7 billion euros should be mobilized over five years for the period from 2018 to 2022.

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Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


Law No. 2015-991 of August 7, 2015 on the new territorial organization of the Republic, known as the NOTRe law, requires each metropolitan region, excluding the Île-de-France region, to draw up a regional plan for land use planning, sustainable development and equality (SRADDET). The SRADDET defines, among other things, medium- and long-term objectives relating to climate, air and energy, including climate change mitigation and adaptation. The SRADDET integrates and simplifies the pre-existing regional climate, air and energy plan (SRCAE) and the other plans relating to ecological coherence, transport, infrastructure and waste by taking up "the essential elements" with the aim of better coordinating regional planning policies. These documents are designed as tools for integrating the various development policies; they are forward-looking and prescriptive. In Île-de-France, Corsica and the French overseas territories, the regional climate guidelines, and in particular those concerning adaptation to climate change, must be included in the corresponding planning tools, respectively the SRCAE (Regional Climate, Air and Energy Plan for Île-de-France and Corsica) and the SAR (Regional Development Plans for the French overseas territories).

The Region must set medium and long-term objectives and general rules for sustainable, balanced and resilient development at the intermediate level between the national and local levels. This comprehensive tool, which is ultimately approved by the regional prefect, therefore requires broad consultation and dialogue with all the actors involved in sustainable land use planning, in particular the actors and decision-makers who draw up sub-regional planning documents (territorial coherence schemes, territorial climate-air-energy plans), as they are the ones who will have to implement the regional guidelines at the level of the inter-municipalities.

Ecological transition and adaptation to climate change are key cross-cutting themes of the SRADDETs, and concern in particular the economical management of resources and land and the fight against the consumption of agricultural, natural and forest areas.

At the level of inter-municipalities, the territorial climate air and energy plans (PCAETs, which are mandatory for all public establishments of intercommunity with more than 20,000 inhabitants) are tools for coordinating the territory and defining strategic and operational objectives in order to mitigate climate change, adapt to its effects, develop renewable energies and control energy consumption and reduce air pollution. They include a diagnosis, a territorial strategy, an action plan and a monitoring and evaluation system. The strategy identifies the priorities that the community has chosen and the objectives it has set for itself. The action plan covers all sectors of activity and is the operational tool for coordinating the energy transition in the region. The monitoring and evaluation system covers the implementation of actions, governance and steering. It describes the indicators to be monitored in relation to the objectives set. The objectives and priorities must be explicitly linked to the existing regional plan. In total, more than 750 PCAETs are expected, not counting the voluntary PCAETs prepared by communities under 20000 inhabitants. All the PCAETs are public and are available at the following address http://www.territoires-climat.ademe.fr.

Many other documents can also contribute to climate change adaptation on smaller scales of themes or territories. This is notably the case for:
- the Territorial Coherence Scheme and the Local Urban Plan
- natural risk prevention plans
- urban transport plans
- regional health and environment plans
- strategic plans of the façade or action plans on marine environments on the coast
- park charters in certain territories.
- Water development and management (master) plans.

In France, water resources are managed by river basin, delimited by the surface water divide. For each basin, a basin committee decides on the major orientations within the framework of national and European water policies. This assembly is composed of a broad representation of all categories of water stakeholders: 40% elected representatives of local authorities, 40% representatives of water users, 20% representatives of the State. The Water Agencies contribute to securing water bodies and aquatic environments in the face of climate change through strong decisions, investments or developments and by promoting useful tools and methods to take action. Within the framework of the first national adaptation plan (PNACC 2011-2015), one action consisted in strengthening the integration of climate change issues in water planning and management, in particular in the intervention programs of the Water Agencies (2013-2018) and in the Master Plans for Water Development and Management (2016-2021). This action aimed to integrate the expected impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptation measures into the intervention tools of the Water Agencies and the planning tools for water management at the scale of large river basins. The SDAGEs and the intervention programs of the water agencies that have been developed since then thus make it possible to ensure that climate change issues are sufficiently taken into account. All the water agencies have adopted climate change adaptation plans that specify the adaptation actions to be prioritized by territory area. Through their 11th action program for 2019-2024, the water agencies have thus planned to devote €500 million per year to operations that contribute to climate change adaptation. Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
The first National Adaptation Plan was intended to facilitate the integration of adaptation into various sectoral policies. According to the NAP evaluation report, the integration of adaptation considerations into key land use and resource management policies is well progressing in the areas of biodiversity, forestry, agriculture and urban planning, as well as in coastal and mountainous areas. Integrations into the river basin management strategy have also been achieved.

For example, the first national strategy on flood risk, published in October 2014, and the national strategy for integrated coastal management have taken into account the impact of climate change.

The second National Adaptation Plan (PNACC-2) has the same objective of strengthening integration in sectoral policies and also creates cohesion between adaptation and mitigation measures. In particular, the level of adaptation to be achieved is directly linked to the ambitions to limit temperature increases; conversely, some greenhouse gas mitigation measures depend on the expected evolution of climate conditions. With foresight exercises at different levels, which are in progress, the NAP-2 also makes possible to raise awareness and mobilize stakeholders to develop their capacity to cope with change by integrating climate change into the analysis of economic and financial risks.

The prevention of natural risks is based in particular on the Plans for the Prevention of Natural Risks (PPRN), which are examined by the decentralized services of the State and are valid as a public utility easement. They are therefore enforceable and must be annexed to the Local Urban Plan (PLU). The objective of the PPRN is to delimit the zones exposed to risks and, according to this evaluation, to prohibit or authorize new constructions or developments under particular prescriptions. They also define prevention, protection and safeguard measures, and measures relating to constructions and developments already present in risk zones. The PPRN are available for different hazards, including coastal hazards. The coastal risk prevention plans systematically integrate a rise in the average sea level of 20 cm to take into account the short-term consequences of climate change and a rise in the average sea level of 60 cm in 100 years (circular of July 27, 2011 and decree of July 5, 2019). Indeed, the rise in sea level will make marine submersions more frequent.

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Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the first National Adaptation Plan (NAP 2011-2015), the second national adaptation plan (Nap-2) was developed by mobilizing the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders. The consultation was organized according to six areas of action that structure the priorities of the NAP-2. The work thus began in 2016 with a consultation phase aimed at identifying the necessary measures in a resolutely transparent, open and partnership-based collective exercise. The State, under the responsibility of the Directorate General for Energy and Climate (DGEC), set up a working group for each of the six components, each chaired by the central administration directorates most concerned by the themes addressed. Members of the National Council for Ecological Transition were invited to join the working groups, which were also joined by qualified individuals from various backgrounds (scientists, economic actors, associations) and representatives of government departments. The most vulnerable populations are represented through the State services or via their representatives within associations. During a twelve-month work period, nearly 300 participants divided into six groups met in parallel 3 to 4 times depending on the group. A seminar organized on July 4, 2017 brought together the participants of all the groups to collectively discuss the conclusions of each of them. The various thematic sheets of recommendations resulting from the consultation have been finalized under the direction of the group chairmen with the support of ONERC for the secretariat and coordination of the work. This exercise was finalized with the publication of the second National Adaptation Plan in 2018.

For the development of regional climate policies, the regions generally have a regional network either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or more rarely with the other themes of the regional plans for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). These multi-stakeholder networks aim to encourage regional stakeholders to take adaptation issues into account and to get them moving on these issues. The most vulnerable populations are involved through their representatives in national, regional and local associations.

Identical structures have also been set up at a local scale (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air and Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories in PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the realization and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

For example, in Normandy, an "energy transition" working group led by the DREAL brings together the DDT(M), ADEME, the bank of territories, the DRAAF and the Region. In particular, a working group has been set up to support a collective increase in skills on adaptation to climate change (setting up training courses, developing shared language, identifying available resources and data, supporting new teams, etc.). In this context and for a better articulation of the approaches, the work is shared more widely with other Norman actors (ANBDD, OFB, Region, etc.). A thematic council on adaptation is also led by the Normandy Agency for Biodiversity and Sustainable Development (ANBDD) created in 2020.

Similarly, in the Hauts de France region, there is also a regional network of territories in PCAET led by the Region and the DREAL. This network aims to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of the territories by facilitating the realization and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAET. Adaptation is one of the topics addressed. Since fall 2019, 8 webinars have been offered. There are also departmental PCAET clubs in some of the Region's departments.

In most regions, regional observatories on agriculture and climate change (ORACLE), associated with a prospective approach (Climat XXI), have been set up by the regional chamber of agriculture, in a partnership framework. The indicators deployed contribute to make the reality of climate change concrete for the agricultural world and serve as a basis for numerous awareness-raising actions among the agricultural sectors.

In the New Aquitaine region, the regional council recently financed the creation of a Regional Research Network, Futurs-ACT, which aims to structure and synergize the work of labs and researchers around the anticipation of climate change in the territories of New Aquitaine, emphasizing the link between science, society and decision makers.

For example, in the Occitanie region, within the framework of links established between regional scientific actors such as the Atelier d'écologie politique (ATECOPOL), RECO and Météo-France, a call for projects has been launched to build awareness-raising events around the issues specific to each territory.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Announced in France's Climate Plan in July 2017, the objective of the second national adaptation plan is to "better protect French people from extreme weather events, but also to best adapt the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism) to future climate conditions and improve their resilience to expected changes."

The implementation of the second national adaptation plan thus provides for prospective exercises at various levels to be carried out in order to raise awareness and mobilize actors to put themselves in a position to cope with changes by integrating climate change into the analysis of economic and financial risks.

In this context, the MTE is conducting a general prospective study to identify the economic sectors and their capacities that must be mobilized as a priority. The results of this study, which is still in progress, will help the sectors to identify their need for mobilization facing the impacts of climate change and will propose examples of action. This measure aims to identify the key capacities that allow the sectors to adapt to the impacts of climate change and to identify scenarios that can strengthen them. If relevant, the interested actors can then extend this work by specific prospective studies by sector to identify and strengthen priority actions in collaboration with actors and specialized institutes of the sectors, higher education and research institutions and regional observatories, facilitating their concrete consideration by economic actors by taking into account their specificities (size, sector ...), including the definition of accompanying measures.

Specific prospective studies already exist, such as CLIMAT-LAIT project, CLIMAT Viande project or the prospective studies conducted by Ademe or the MAA. Ademe is also conducting prospective studies on the impacts of climate change on the building, agriculture and forestry sectors. The tourism sector, through the development and sharing of knowledge, also aims to make adaptation the norm and no longer the exception. The objective will be to support the various tourism sectors in the development of resilient activities that respect the ecosystems on which these sectors rely. Without necessarily involving the entire industry, more and more private actors are undertaking vulnerability analysis or adaptation forecasting exercises, particularly in collaboration with private consultancies.

A flagship action of the second national adaptation plan, the Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center has been designed to support all stakeholders in climate change adaptation. This new resource center provides access to customized information on the reality of climate change, its challenges and existing solutions. It provides all stakeholders with the tools they need to take action through five user paths, including one dedicated to economic stakeholders. All the themes of adaptation to climate change are covered. Specific pages bring together regional information (mapping of local initiatives, directory of local actors, access to climate services, etc.). A search engine provides access to various resources: reports, fact sheets, guides, summaries, research projects, etc.

For the development of regional climate policies, regions generally have a regional network that is either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or, more rarely, with the other themes of the regional plans for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). These multi-stakeholder networks aim to encourage regional stakeholders to take adaptation issues into account and to get them moving on these issues.

Identical structures have also been set up at a local scale (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories with a PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the creation and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

From the national to the local scale, the private sector is involved through employers' organizations (MEDEF), business confederations (CGPME...), workers' unions, but also the main sectors impacted by climate change (FNSEA, FNPF...) through their national, regional or local representatives in the CNTE's specialized commission in charge of monitoring the NAP-2.

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As part of the implementation of the roadmap from the 2014 Environmental Conference, the General Council for the Environment and Sustainable Development (CGEDD) was entrusted with the final evaluation of the NAP by the Minister of the Environment in June 2015. Several evaluations, both on individual themes and on the overall plan, were also published and were integrated into the final evaluation report in the form of an ONERC report to the Prime Minister and Parliament in 2016. France is a pioneer in its evaluation of adaptation policy, as it has undertaken an open, transparent and collaborative approach aimed at documenting as widely as possible the experience gained through the implementation of the first national adaptation plan.

The final evaluation report noted that although this was the first plan, its overall progress was very satisfactory, with 80% of the actions and approximately 75% of the measures initiated completed by the end of 2016. On the other hand, the mission was unable to comment on the extent of the financial commitment of the plan, for which €171 million had been envisaged, because the monitoring of the financial resources allocated was not done in a global manner. This first plan placed a great deal of emphasis on deploying key levers that the state could use to move the country forward, such as laws, statutory provisions, planning tools, methodological tools, improved observational systems, and sharing of analyses and observations. Some notable results can be highlighted, such as the publication of the Report on the Climate in France in the 21st Century, planning tools that have been considerably improved (for example, the first national strategy on flood risk, published in October 2014, and the national strategy for integrated coastal management take into account the impact of climate change), and some operational measures to adapt specific sectors of activity that have been taken.

The monitoring of the implementation of the second national adaptation plan, which covers the period 2018 to 2022 (NAP-2), is described in the "governance" section of the NAP-2.

This mechanism has been entrusted to the specialized commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of guiding ONERC. This commission acts as a national monitoring committee for adaptation in order to ensure annual monitoring of the plan, to choose relevant indicators for adaptation and to propose, if necessary, changes in the national adaptation policy, in particular through additions to the PNACC-2. The purpose of this body is to make the NAP-2 an evolving, transparent and democratic public policy instrument while preparing its final global evaluation.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
The implementation of the NAP-2 required the setting up of a rigorous mechanism for monitoring the actions included in this ambitious plan and the resources mobilized. This mechanism involves the various levels of actors in a virtuous process that has ensured, in complete transparency, the proper start-up and progress of the 58 actions included in this plan. This mechanism allows to measure the progress made in terms of adaptation as the plan unfolds and until the end of the period.

The monitoring mechanism is based on the CNTE's specialized commission in charge of steering the ONERC, which acts as a partnership monitoring body, according to the procedures defined from the start of the plan's implementation in 2019. The specialized commission regularly reports to the CNTE, which publishes an annual opinion on the implementation of the NAP-2 and thereby to the Minister for the Ecological Transition, on the progress of the actions included in the NAP-2, with the ambition of maintaining the highest level of mobilization of all levels responsible for these actions or involved in their implementation.

Implementation is monitored using a specific monitoring tool developed by the digital department of the Ministry for The Ecological Transition. Thanks to this tool, the pilots of the actions and sub-actions can regularly update the progress of the implementation of the NAP-2 actions. The CNTE's specialized commission has also validated a series of indicators sorted according to three axes: context, action and result. These indicators, which are regularly updated, provide an overview of the impacts of climate change, the actions implemented and the results obtained.

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Out of a total planned budget of 8.7 billion euros over the period 2018-2022, the budget spent on the implementation of the NAP-2 over 2019-2020 amounts to 2.5 billion euros. This amount does not take into account the budgets planned elsewhere for the prevention and management of natural risks of 1.1 billion euros outside the context of climate change.

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The State also has an important role to play in supporting the stakeholders in natural hazard prevention. Support for prevention relies heavily on the Fonds de prévention des risques naturels majeurs (FPRNM, also known as the "Barnier Fund") created in 1995 and endowed, via the contributions of the insured under the CatNat scheme, with approximately 200 million euros per year, capped at 137 million in revenue for the 2018 Finance Law.

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The budgets spent in 2020 to implement climate change adaptation actions under the NAP-2 are as follows:
- €187,000 for the governance of the adaptation policy;
- 290 million for the prevention and management of natural risks and disasters;
- 697 million for the preservation and sustainable management of natural resources and environments
- 5.1 million for the adaptation of economic sectors
- 1.1 million € for the strengthening of knowledge and information on climate change
- 1.5 billion for France's international action on climate change

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One of the key measures of the first NAP is part of the implementation of the Flood Risk Assessment and Management Directive. Its impact is significant in terms of adaptation to climate change. For the first time, thanks to the Flood Directive, France has a national flood risk management strategy (October 2014). The preliminary assessment of flood risks as well as the mapping of risks in the 122 territories at significant risk of flooding have significantly improved knowledge; the major basins have a flood risk management plan, and the 122 territories at significant risk of flooding have a local flood risk management strategy.

About the coast management, the internet portal SONEL allows to consult the long term monitoring of the sea level. The flood wave vigilance is now operational in mainland France and has been gradually extended to the Overseas Territories since 2016, which represents an undeniable achievement of the first national adaptation plan. It is based on an operational chain for forecasting waves and marine surges developed by Météo-France with the French Navy's Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and called the HOMONIM project. Coastal risk prevention plans integrate climate change, their implementation is facilitated by the publication of a methodological guide in May 2014.

We can add that similar initiatives also address risks in mountain areas: thus for flash floods on reliefs, IRSTEA and Météo-France have developed the RHYTMME project for the deployment of radars in the S and X bands, for the forecasting of the hydrometeorological risk of Mediterranean mountainous terrain, which has allowed the gradual development of a flash flood warning system. This flash flood warning system is being deployed more widely beyond the Mediterranean in Brittany and in the Pyrenees. For the sensitive issue of shrinkage and swelling of clays (RGA), which represents a definite hazard of cracking of buildings, research and studies have been conducted under the ARGIC 2 project. Three technical guides have also been published on the characterization of clay soils, on the design of foundations and on the repair of structures subject to RGA.

At the end of the first national adaptation plan, France was better prepared for natural hazards, with the implementation of the Flood Directive representing a major step forward and the disasters of 2010 (Xynthia storm and the Var floods) having accelerated awareness of the need to act. The scope of the actions required a strong mobilization of the scientific and technical network and the decentralized services.

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In the field of knowledge, several structuring research initiatives in support of public action have been carried out or initiated within the framework of the NAP, for example on the decadal forecasting of climatic events and associated uncertainties, understanding the role of climate change in extreme events, knowledge of wave climates, climatic scenarios in mountainous areas, adaptation of buildings to the problem of heat and urban cooling as well as to the shrinkage and swelling of clays, or the use of innovative methods to develop adaptation within the territory. A major knowledge effort has been undertaken in certain areas, such as the metaprogram for adaptation to climate change in agriculture and forestry within the French National Institute for Research in Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE). Foresight exercises have also been carried out, such as "Explore 2070" in the field of water or "AFClim", which has made it possible to draw lessons on the factors favourable or unfavourable to adaptation actions in the agriculture and forestry sectors and to identify levers that can be mobilized to adapt to environments likely to be exacerbated by climate change. Interesting initiatives have also been taken to facilitate the dissemination of research results to professionals, such as the Aforce mixed technology network in the forestry sector, which is thus actively participating in increasing adaptive capacity.

ONERC reports present the main consequences of global warming in France and include recommendations for adaptation:
- Trees and forests in a changing climate, (2014),
- The coastline in the context of climate change (2015),
- Extreme Weather Events in a Changing Climate, december (2018)

The Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center was designed to support all stakeholders in climate change adaptation. It is the first French resource center specifically dedicated to climate change adaptation. It provides access to information on the reality of climate change, its challenges and on existing solutions. It provides tools for all stakeholders and enables them to take action through five user paths: elected officials, local government technicians, economic actors, engineering firms and individuals. All the themes of adaptation to climate change are treated. Specific pages bring together regional information (mapping of local initiatives, directory of local actors, access to climate services, etc.). A search engine provides access to various resources: reports, fact sheets, guides, summaries, research projects, etc.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
While the thematic approach of the first national adaptation plan (2011-2015) had the advantage of allowing each department of the central government administration to quickly find its areas of competence in the plan, its evaluation showed that this approach had not allowed enough consideration of the interfaces between themes and prioritization.

France's Climate Plan published in 2017 announces the priorities of the second national adaptation plan, namely the protection of the French people and the economy, and in particular the most exposed sectors and regions such as agriculture, forestry, coastal regions or mountain areas.

Based on the recommendations resulting from the evaluation of the 1st NAP (2011-2015), the NAP-2 was developed by mobilizing the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders. The consultation was organized according to six areas of action that structure the priorities of the NCCP-2:
- the actions in the "Governance" area aim to effectively link the national and territorial levels and to involve society in the implementation and monitoring of the NAP-2, with particular attention to the overseas territories; they will ensure coherence between adaptation and mitigation and strengthen the legal and normative framework for adaptation;
- the proposed actions are based on the best scientific knowledge and on raising the awareness of the entire population of the need to fight against climate change and to adapt to it ("Knowledge and information" area).
- many actions aim to protect people and property from climate risks ("Prevention and resilience" area) and to prepare economic sectors for the expected changes ("Economic sectors" area), which will accompany the evolution and strengthen the potential for job creation and innovation;
- the actions give priority to nature-based solutions wherever possible ("Nature and environment" area);
- Finally, some actions aim to benefit from experiences in other countries and to strengthen the capacities of French actors to support developing countries in their own climate change adaptation policies ("International" area).

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Announced by the Climate Plan in 2017, France has increased the funding dedicated to the adaptation of its territories and its economy during the NAP-2 period to act in metropolitan and overseas territories on the prevention of climate change impacts, resilience.

The second National Adaptation Plan also aims to better inform and raise awareness among the population about the multiple challenges of climate change adaptation and the potential offered by nature-based solutions, to help create a favorable context for the implementation of adaptation measures. This objective of raising awareness among the public is complemented by an objective of training the various categories of stakeholders, including elected officials at different levels of responsibility and actors in the world of work, by conducting pilot educational actions in territories vulnerable to climate change, particularly in the overseas territories.

The theme of adaptation is still in the process of being taken on board by the territories, but it is gradually being integrated into the governance spaces that are currently being deployed to guide and monitor the actions of the territories in terms of energy transition, mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

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As part of the first national adaptation plan, in 2010 the Ministry of the Environment called on the expertise of the French climate science community, made up of researchers from CNRS/INSU/IPSL and LGGE, Météo-France, BRGM, CEA, CETMEF and CNES, to produce a scientific assessment of France's climate conditions in the 21st century. This tool is essential for the many players involved in adaptation, including local authorities, economic players, associations, government departments and operators. The National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC) organizes and disseminates this scientific information under the title "France's Climate in the 21st Century". Volumes 4 and 5 of this collection provide an update of Volumes 2 and 3, published in 2012, based on the results available from the DRIAS, Futures of Climate portal.

A significant number of exercises exist on the provision of knowledge in the water environment, including Explore 2070 which works on a specific time window (2046-2065), with regionalized projections. This project aimed to assess the impacts of climate change on aquatic environments and water resources by 2070, and to facilitate the management of adaptation issues in the water sector by addressing climate, surface hydrology and groundwater hydrology. The research community has made progress since 2010 and scientists are embarking on a consortium of French research organizations and university centers (Météo France, INRAE, BRGM, ENS, Sorbonne University, IGE, LSCE, EDF) to update the Explore 2070 results by adopting a multi-model approach to appreciate the uncertainties at the different levels of climate and hydrology modeling. The Explore 2 project is thus based on the DRIAS 2020 projections, which provide a vision of possible climate changes over the 21st century under three GHG emission scenarios considered; this is a novelty and a great asset compared to Explore 2070, which is limited to a single scenario and a reduced simulation window (2046-2065).

As part of the implementation of the NAP-2, it is also planned that prospective exercises at different levels will be carried out in order to raise awareness and mobilize stakeholders so that they are in a position to deal with changes by integrating climate change into the analysis of economic and financial risks.

At the inter-municipal level, the revision of the PCAETs every six years allows for the updating of local vulnerability studies.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
Based on the recommendations of the evaluation of the 1st NAP (2011-2015), the NAP-2 was developed by mobilizing the collective intelligence of a wide range of stakeholders, which allowed for the co-construction of the actions included in this National Adaptation Plan. The consultation was organized according to six areas of action that structure the priorities of the NAP-2.

In the same way, the steering and monitoring of the NAP-2 are based on a specific mechanism adapted to the multitude of areas and actors involved in the climate change adaptation policy.

This mechanism is entrusted to the specialized commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) in charge of guiding ONERC. This commission acts as a national committee for monitoring adaptation in order to ensure annual monitoring of the plan, to choose relevant adaptation indicators and to propose, if necessary, changes in the national adaptation policy, particularly through additions to this NAP. The purpose of this body is to make the NAP an evolving public policy instrument while preparing its final global assessment, which will lead to the development of the next national adaptation plan. The implementation of the second national adaptation plan (NAP-2) is organized around a double monitoring mechanism and an annual cycle of meetings involving the departments of the pilot ministries and the representatives of the civil society concerned.

In the first quarter, the pilots of the NAP-2 actions meet to present the year's work program and the budgetary elements for the current year and the next. In the second quarter, the members of the CNTE's specialized commission, responsible for guiding the work of the National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC) and representing all the colleges of civil society, meet to present the year's work program.

In the third quarter, the pilots of the territorial actions, the members of the specialized commission concerned, the territorial authorities and the decentralized services of the State are invited to a territorial coordination meeting.

In the fourth quarter, the NAP-2 pilots and the members of the specialized commission meet to prepare the CNTE's opinion on the annual assessment of the implementation of the NAP-2, which is then voted on in the CNTE's plenary session. Each of these opinions is accessible to all on the website of the Ministry for The Ecological Transition.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
In order to increase knowledge at a finer scale and thus reduce uncertainties and facilitate the decisions of local actors, most regions have set up regional observation and research networks, sometimes called "local IPCCs" or "regional COPs", which take different forms depending on the region: regional research networks, expertise networks. What they have in common is the desire to structure and synergize the work of laboratories and researchers around the anticipation of climate change in their territories, with an emphasis on the science-society-decision-maker link.

For the development of regional climate policies, regions generally have a regional network that is either specific to the theme of adaptation to climate change or coupled with the theme of mitigation or, more rarely, with the other themes of the regional plans for planning, sustainable development and territorial equality (SRADDET). These multi-stakeholder networks aim to encourage regional stakeholders to take adaptation issues into account and to get them moving on these issues.

Identical structures have also been set up at a local scale (EPCI) for the development of territorial Climate Air Energy Plans (PCAET). A regional network of territories in PCAET sometimes federates local networks in order to accelerate the ecological and energy transitions of territories by facilitating the realization and implementation of ambitious and effective PCAETs.

The first national adaptation plan planned the strengthening of the mainstreaming of climate change issues into water planning and management, particularly in the next intervention programs of the Water Agencies (2013-2018) and the next Master Plans for Water Development and Management (2016-2021). This action, which aimed to integrate the expected impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptation measures into the intervention tools of the Water Agencies and the planning tools for water management at the scale of large river basins, has thus ensured that the challenges of climate change are sufficiently taken into account in the intervention programs of the Water Agencies and the SDAGEs, which cover all of France's river basins.

Within the framework of the national strategy for integrated coastline management and the two action programs that accompanied it from 2012 to 2015 and from 2017 to 2019, the coastal regions are now developing regional strategies for integrated coastline management. The development or implementation of such strategies are at different stages depending on the region. They aim to cross natural hazards with the environment (issues and solutions based on nature) and territorial planning.

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Good practices and lessons learnt

As a key action of the second national adaptation plan (NAP-2), the Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center has been designed to support all stakeholders in climate change adaptation. This new resource center provides access to personalized information on the reality of climate change, its challenges and existing solutions. It provides all actors with tools and puts them in a position to take action through five paths.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
France's adaptation policy, with its adaptation strategy (2006) and its two national adaptation plans published respectively in 2011 and 2018, contributes to the adaptation component of the Paris Agreement and is in line with the Sustainable Development Goals, contributing directly to Goal 13 on climate and more transversally to the goals related to water (SDG 6) and those related to the resilience of industry (SDG 9) and cities (SDG 11).

France's natural hazard prevention policy responds to the four priorities defined at the global level by the Sendai 2015-2030 framework for action. :
- understanding disaster risk;
- Strengthening disaster risk governance to better manage disaster risks;
- investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience;
- strengthening disaster preparedness to respond effectively and to "build back better" during recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

At the national level, the Ministry for The Ecological Transition is the lead for natural hazard prevention and flood forecasting policy. It relies on the Ministry of Territorial Cohesion for the consideration of risks in urban planning and strict compliance with construction rules. The Ministry for The Economy supervises the insurance sector in charge of compensation in case of disaster. The Ministries of Agriculture, Health, Foreign Affairs, Culture and National Education also contribute to risk prevention in their respective areas of competence. The Director General of Risk Prevention of the Ministry for The Ecological Transition, as the delegate for major risks, ensures coordination with the Ministry of the Interior (DGSCGC), which intervenes in case of crisis.

The State implements actions in the legislative, regulatory and technical fields, to improve the prevention and reduction of risks at the source on the one hand, and on the other hand, the information and protection of citizens. The ministries rely on several operators whose actions concern primarily the knowledge of risk through research projects, observation and forecasting of hazards, measures to reduce vulnerability, which can also be mobilized in crisis management. Overall, the Ministry for The Ecological Transition devotes about 30 million euros per year to the prevention of natural hazards, of which one third is allocated to operators, another third to the flood forecasting network and the last third to knowledge acquisition, actions to improve risk culture, communication operations and the functioning of services.

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France is an active member of the Alpine Convention, which contains the guiding principles for a sustainable life in the Alps, now and in the future. The Convention is the legal basis for safeguarding sensitive Alpine ecosystems, regional cultural identities, heritage and traditions in the Alps.

The versatility and effectiveness of the Convention can be illustrated by the example of the global issue of climate change in the Alps. In April 2019, the ministers of the Alpine countries approved the Alpine Climate Target System 2050, which formulates an Alpine response to the global need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, complementing national and international targets and through cooperative approaches based on multi-level governance and stakeholder participation.

The strength of the Alpine Convention lies in its transnational and cooperative character. Driven by a shared territory with common challenges, its objective is as relevant today as it was in 1991: the preservation and sustainable development of the Alps. The Alpine Convention can rely on a strong spirit of cooperation. The common vision of the Alps as a pioneer region for sustainable living in the heart of Europe is a strong basis on which solid partnerships are built and strengthened every day in mutual understanding and respect.

To strengthen their cooperation, the Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention adopted a Declaration on Climate Change as early as 2006. In 2016, the XIV Alpine Conference identified "Adopting measures to combat climate change" as one of the six priorities of its Multi-Annual Work Programme (MTP/MAP) for the period 2017-2022, and decided to establish an Alpine Climate Board (ACB) to bring together all the activities carried out within the framework of the Alpine Convention on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The ACB, consisting of representatives of all Alpine states and numerous observer organizations of the Alpine Convention, started its activities in early 2017.

The Climate Action Plan 2.0 was developed by the ACB during the working period 2019-2020, and identified specific priority measures to implement the Alpine Climate Target System 2050 in the ten sectors of activity. The horizontal themes ("municipal action" and "research and development") are integrated into the sectoral proposals. Action Plan 2.0 focuses on the medium-term horizon (the next five to ten years). It proposes detailed implementation pathways that are about to be launched or may be launched in the next two years, to be developed incrementally through to 2030.

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The Pyrenean Climate Change Observatory is a cross-border initiative of territorial cooperation of the Pyrenean Working Community (CTP), launched in 2010 in the field of climate change. The members of the PTC, and consequently, of the OPCC, are the Principality of Andorra and the French Regions of New Aquitaine and Occitania, as well as the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon, Catalonia, Euskadi and Navarra. Since November 2019, Catalonia has held the Presidency of the Pyrenean Working Community.

The Pyrenean Climate Change Observatory, OPCC, aims to monitor and understand the phenomenon of climate change in the Pyrenees to help the territory adapt to its impacts. Its vision is to be the reference platform for knowledge on adaptation to climate change in mountain ecosystems.

Its mechanism is articulated around a Technical Committee, a Steering Committee and an Advisory Committee:
- The Technical Committee is composed of the referents of the 7 territories of the CTP, and has the function of orienting and fixing the priorities.
- The Steering Committee is set up with the project partners and is in charge of coordinating and implementing the operational part of the project.
- The Advisory Committee is composed of scientists and representatives of the socio-economic sectors of the Massif. Its mission is to guarantee scientific rigor and to give strategic orientations to the work of the Observatory.

Disclaimer: please refer to the French official version
[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'