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Disclaimer: France reported according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' on adaptation in 2021. This country profile presents the 2019 situation as the page is under development.

Item Status Links
National Adaptation Strategy
  • Adopted
National Adaptation Plan
  • Adopted
  • Adopted

Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments

  • Completed

Research programmes

  • Currently being undertaken
  • Currently being undertaken

Meteorological observations

  • Established
  • Established

Climate Projections and Services

  • Established
  • Established

CC IVA portals and platforms

  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, Indicators, Methodologies
  • Established
Monitoring Mechanism Regulation
  • Last reporting on Adaptation (Art.15) submitted
National Communication to the UNFCCC
  • Last National Communication Submitted



Disclaimer: France reported according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' on adaptation in 2021. This country profile presents the 2019 situation as the page is under development.

The adaptation process, initiated at the national level by the Ministry of the Environment in the late 1990s, is complementary to mitigation actions. It aims to limit the impacts of climate change and associated damage on socio-economic activities and on nature. The public adaptation policies aim to anticipate the expected impacts of the climate change, limit their potential damage by intervening on the factors that control their scale (for example, the urbanization of risk areas) and take advantage of potential opportunities.

Adaptation Strategies

The National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy is the State's response on how to address the issue of adaptation to climate change. This strategy was developed in the context of a wide consultation, conducted by the National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC), involving the different sectors of activity and civil society under the responsibility of the inter-ministerial delegate for sustainable development. It was validated by the Inter-ministerial Committee for Sustainable Development on 13 November 2006, chaired by the Prime Minister.

A National Adaptation Plan 2011-2015, NAP (Plan National d'Adaptation au Changement Climatique - PNACC), was adopted in 2011. It set out a range of actions and implementation processes, covering a wide range of sectors. The NAP was developed in interaction with stakeholders. The process for the revision of the NAP started in June 2016. The development of a new NAP was announced in the national climate plan (Plan Climat), published in July 2017.

The second National Adaptation Plan (NAP-2) was launched by the Minister of the Ecological and Inclusive Transition on the 20th of December 2018. After the success of COP21, France started the update process of its adaptation policy in line with the Paris Agreement. With its second National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (NAP-2), France aims to an effective adaptation from the middle of the 21st century to a regional climate in mainland France and the overseas territories, consistent with a global temperature rise of 2°C compared to the pre-industrial temperature. Its objective is to better prepare French society for the climate change by involving the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry, tourism ...) and territories.

Implementation means

The NAP-2 2018-2022 has a budget estimated at EUR 3.5 billions on the five year period. In France, the Ministry of the Ecological and Inclusive Transition / General Directorate for energy and climate, and within it the national observatory on the effects of global warming (ONERC), is in charge of adaptation policy-making. Sectorial departments at the same Ministry or in the other relevant Ministries are in charge of implementing measures in their area of competence while ONERC ensures overall implementation monitoring. Every action committed in the NAP-2 identifies the leading actors and partners to be considered for implementing each action. The NAP-2 contains a set of identified transversal actions, where many sectorial bodies (Ministry, Department, Agency) are involved.

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation

The conditions for the success of the NAP-2 require the setting up of a rigorous mechanism for monitoring the actions included in this ambitious plan and the resources mobilised. This mechanism will involve the various levels of actors in a virtuous approach to ensure the good start then the good progress, throughout the five-year period, of the multiple actions included in this plan in a transparent manner. This will make it possible to measure the progress made in terms of adaptation at the end of the five-year period.

This monitoring mechanism will be entrusted to the Special Commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) responsible for guiding the ONERC. This commission will thus act as a national adaptation monitoring committee to ensure annual monitoring of the detailed implementation plan, to select relevant adaptation indicators and to suggest, where appropriate, changes to the national adaptation actions, in particular by means of additions to the current NAP. The qualitative elements of monitoring, analysis and evaluation of adaptation approaches will include aspects on the impacts on the most vulnerable people. The purpose of this monitoring process is to make the NAP-2 a progressive public policy instrument while preparing its global evaluation, which will be conducted in 2022.

Schedule and planned review/revision

The monitoring mechanism includes an annual review by the Special Commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE). The NAPs are built to be revised every five years.

Disclaimer: France reported according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' on adaptation in 2021. This country profile presents the 2019 situation as the page is under development.

Published on 6 July 2017, The Area 19, "Adapting to Climate Change" of the French Climate Plan is setting the scene:

"Climate change is accelerating and its impacts in France will be significant over the coming years. The Government is committed to protecting the people of France and the economy, particularly the most exposed sectors and regions, such as agriculture, forests, coastal regions and mountainous zones... France will increase dedicated funding for the adaptation of its territories and its economy throughout the five-year term for actions in mainland and overseas territories on the prevention of the impacts of climate change, resilience and the mobilisation of adaptive solutions based on nature."

Sectors addressed in NAS/NAP

The NAP-2 is organised according to six policy areas:

  • the actions within the "Governance" area aim to effectively get through to the national and territorial levels and to involve society in the implementation and monitoring of the NAP-2, with a particular focus on overseas territories; they will ensure consistency between adaptation and mitigation and strengthen the legal and normative framework supporting adaptation;
  • the measures proposed are based on the best scientific knowledge and on the overall population being made aware of the necessity of combating climate change and adapting to it ("Knowledge and Information" area);
  • various measures aim to protect people and property facing climate risks ("Prevention and Resilience" area) and to prepare the economic sectors for the anticipated changes ("Economic Sectors" area), which will accompany the development and reinforce the potential for job creation and innovation;
  • wherever possible, measures favouring nature-based solutions ("Natural Environments" area);
  • Finally, specific measures aim to benefit from experiences in other countries and to strengthen the capacities of French stakeholders to be able to accompany developing countries in their own climate change adaptation policies ("International" area).

The NAP-2 aims to better protect French citizens against extreme climatic events, and also to better adapt the main sectors of the economy (agriculture, industry and tourism) to future climate conditions and to improve resilience to anticipated changes.

Mainstreaming of adaptation

The first NAP was meant to help mainstream adaptation in various sectoral policies. According to the NAP assessment report, the integration of adaptation considerations into key land use and resource management policies is progressing satisfactorily in the biodiversity, forestry, agriculture and urban planning, as well as in coastal and mountain areas. Integrations into river basin management strategy have also been done. For instance, the first national strategy on flood risk, published in October 2014, and the national integrated coastline management strategy took into account the impact of climate change.

The NAP-2 will reinforce the mainstreaming of adaptation in sectoral policies and will also create consistency between the adaptation and mitigation measures. In particular, the level of adaptation to be achieved is directly linked to ambitions for limiting temperature increases; conversely, certain mitigation measures for greenhouse gas emissions are dependent on the expected development of climate conditions. With Prospective exercises at different levels, the NAP-2 will also raise awareness and mobilize stakeholders to develop their capacity to cope with changes by integrating climate change into the analysis of economic and financial risks.

Disclaimer: France reported according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' on adaptation in 2021. This country profile presents the 2019 situation as the page is under development.

A 2°C increase in the average global temperature by the end of the century will have various effects around the world and will be accompanied everywhere by significant changes in rainfall patterns and in the frequency and severity of extreme events. These changes will have strong impacts in all socio-economic sectors and on the global environment. It is essential to have the best possible knowledge of these changes, their impacts and associated uncertainties in order to identify the most relevant adaptation measures and to develop them as our knowledge grows.

Observations and Projections

Observations of the French climate are available on the Météo France (French national weather service) website which provides yearly and seasonal assessments, public climatological data and extreme events early warning including storm surges. 29 climate change indicators for France are available on-line and regularly updated (ONERC website). They deal with general climate indicators, agriculture, wildlife, cryosphere, oceans and health. Climate projections are available through an extensive scientific approach via a reference climate scenarios report, sea level rise report and downscaled indices report.

Since July 2012, there is free access to latest French high resolution climate simulations and data (projections, parameters, indices) provided by the "DRIAS les futurs du climat" website, which aims at providing climate services in France. Copernicus C3S will become a major source of climate information too. ClimatHD, a web based application provides also climate observations and projections as well as information on impacts and effects of climate change. Such information are useful for dissemination to the general public as it is clear and concrete.

In 2010, the Ministry of Sustainable Development called upon the expertise of French climate scientists to produce a state-of-the-art assessment of climatic conditions in France in the 21st century. Dr Jean Jouzel was appointed to lead this assessment which was carried out by scientists from CNRS/INSU/IPSL and LGGE, from Météo France, BRGM, CEA, CETMEF, and the CNES. The results are compiled in the series "The Climate of France in the 21st Century": which provides reference climate indices that must serve as the basis for formulating adaptation actions and measures to climate change. This tool is crucial for the many players concerned with the problem of adaptation, namely local communities, the private economic sector, associations and State run services. Five reports on different topics have been published by ONERC during the NAP period.

Impact and Vulnerability Assessment

A Report to the Prime Minister and Parliament is published by ONERC on a yearly basis. These reports deal with main subject on adaptation, they offer an examination and a summary of risks and challenges strengthen by climate change in a particular domain and they give advice on adaptation ways. Each year the subject of the next reports is decided by the Specialized Commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition, acting since 2017 as the ONERC Direction Board (Conseil d'Orientation).

An extensive assessment of sectorial impacts, costs and possible adaptation options was published in 2009, after a two-year cross-ministerial work process. The knowledge base has been built around various research projects at national, regional and local level. A specific research fund led by the Ministry in charge of ecology, called GICC, has produced since 1999 much valuable information to inform adaptation policies, for example on future river run-off, future shifts in forest pattern, etc. 

In 2012, impacts, vulnerability and adaptation options in French overseas regions were evaluated for various sectors. The NAP contains actions across all sectors to develop or detail the impacts and vulnerability assessments of systems, resources, sectors and territories, to properly inform the adaptation decision making at the relevant scales.

The 2013 report is entitled "Trees and forest in a changing climate". As reported widely by the IPCC, the impacts of climate change could have significant consequences for the growth, and indeed the survival, of trees and forested lands. Henceforth, foresters must incorporate these changes, as forests will be directly affected. This formidable challenge for forestry is an opportunity to better account for ecosystem services in order to guide the silvicultural choices that will take effect in the decades to come. Such services contribute to improving the strength and resilience of forests to those hazards and crises they will encounter.

The 2015 report is entitled "The coastline in the context of climate change". The French coastline faces a range of highly specific challenges, in terms of demographics, urbanisation socio-economic activities and the environment. The global sea level rose by 1.7 ± 0.2 mm per year between 1901 and 2010, and by 3.2 ± 0.4 mm per year between 1993 in 2014. All current climate models predict that global sea level will rise at a rate faster than that observed between 1971 and 2010 during the 21st century, according to the IPCC Special Report on a global warming of 1.5°C.

The last report published in 2018 is on the extreme weather events in the context of climate change. This report describes the state of the art in the field of extreme events, their observation, their development in a changing climate, the natural risk prevention policy including forecasting and alert systems, crises and their management, resilience and adaptive measures.


Researchers were involved in the large work toward the second NAP within the "Research and Knowledge" domain. Adaptation research projects on priority themes and those identified in the other policy areas (health, water, agriculture, forestry, soils, biodiversity, natural hazards, urban planning, mobility, fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, the financial sector), including in their geopolitical and sociological dimension, will be supported and enhanced.

These actions will be led by the MTES and the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation (MESRI), with the support of the Ministry in charge of overseas territories, Ministry in charge of the Agriculture and the Regions. This mechanism will make it possible to ensure the complementarity of tenders from the MESRI (National Agency for Research - ANR) and the MTES. The MESRI will ensure the mobilisation of research communities on these themes, particularly through the analysis of projects funded by the ANR, in the areas of

  • health (emerging diseases in particular, including vector-borne diseases, respiratory allergic diseases),
  • climate,
  • biodiversity,
  • technology,
  • pollution (atmospheric, chemical, water and the resulting health risks),
  • urbanisation/urban planning and
  • the economy.

The ministries concerned will conduct reflections to study how to promote research on adaptation to climate change, while clearly distinguishing what should come strictly from the research and what should come from expertise. More generally, it will promote collaboration and partnerships between stakeholders to develop a sector dedicated to all the issues listed above.

Monitoring progress

There was a dedicated monitoring of the implementation of the NAP (2011-2015), planned in the NAP document itself. The 2011-2015 NAP foresaw an annual monitoring of its implementation, to be made public. Within the framework of the implementation of the road map stemming from the 2014 Environmental Conference, the General Council for the Environment and Sustainable Development (CGEDD, Conseil général de l'environnement et du développement durable) was entrusted with the final review of the NAP, by the Minister of the Environment, Ségolène Royal, in June 2015. Several evaluations, both on individual themes and on the overall plan, were also published and composed the final assessment report. The 2016 ONERC report is the final assessment of the French National Adaptation 2011-2015.

France is a pioneer in terms of its evaluation of adaptation policy, as it has undertaken an open, transparent and collaborative approach aimed at documenting as extensively as possible the experience gained through the implementation of the first national adaptation plan. The final evaluation report noted that although it was the first plan, its overall progress was very satisfactory since 80% of the actions and about 75% of the measures initiated would be completed by the end of 2016. On the other hand, the mission was quite unable to comment on the extent of the financial commitment of the plan for which EUR 171 million had been considered, since the monitoring of the allocated financial resources was not done in a comprehensive manner. This first plan has placed much emphasis on the deployment of the key levers that the state could use to move the whole country forward, such as laws, statutory provisions, planning tools, methodological tools, improvement in observation systems and the sharing of analyses and observations. Some remarkable results were put into highlight, as the publication of the Report on the Climate in France during the 21st century.

Disclaimer: France reported according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' on adaptation in 2021. This country profile presents the 2019 situation as the page is under development.

The NAP-2 governance system aims to reinforce the strategic steering of how adaptation proceeds within the context of co-construction with territorial levels of governance including local stakeholders and civil society. The NAP-2 will gradually be more prescriptive, in addition to actions that were previously still very much incentives. Close monitoring of the plan will make it possible to ensure greater consistency between policies concerning adaptation to climate change and those concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at a national level.


This governance system has been reinforced in the process of developing the revised NAP. A Specialised Committee of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) has been established to guide the actions of ONERC and will also be in charge of the regular monitoring (two times a year) of the NAP-2. The territorial coordination of the Adaptation Policy in Mainland France and Overseas Territories will be implemented jointly by the State, local authorities (first Regions and inter-municipality groupings) and the relevant stakeholders to ensure the best possible coordination of adaptation policies from national level to local level by taking into account the competences exercised. This will be an important consistency factor, which will encourage feedback sharing.


Improving knowledge on climate change, widely distributing this and sharing it at all levels of society, and access to increasingly accurate and relevant information on the impact of climate change and the solutions to be able to adapt to it, in particular those based on nature, are essential conditions for collectively adapting France to expected climate development. The different categories of stakeholders, including elected officials with different levels of responsibility and actors in the world of work, will be formed by conducting pilot educational actions on territories vulnerable to climate change, particularly those overseas.

Within the frame of the NAP-2, a resource centre for climate change adaptation will be developed, making the best use of new technologies to facilitate the sharing of experiences, access to best practices and a mapping presentation of actors, especially at the territorial level. It will cover the following topics: health (including at work), water, agriculture, forestry, soils, biodiversity, natural hazards, urban planning, mobility, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, the financial sector.

International dimensions

The NAP-2 includes actions aiming to strengthen France in its role as a leading voice during international, European and regional cooperation events, as well as boosting the role of France's local governments, businesses and researchers, and confirming France's solidarity with the most vulnerable nations, particularly in terms of financing the fight against climate change, in line with the focus area 21 of the Climate Plan.

Ministère de la Transition écologique et solidaire - Ministry for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition

Observatoire National sur les Effets du Réchauffement Climatique

Eric Brun

Secrétaire Général de l'ONERC

MTES/DGEC/ONERC 1 place Carpeaux 92055 La Défense Cedex

Tel. +33 (0)1 40 81 92 94



The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'