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Last update:Aug 08, 2019

Item Status Links
National Adaptation Strategy
  • Adopted
National Adaptation Plan
  • Being developed
  • National Adaptation Programme (as part of the 1st Climate Change Action Plan - CCAP)
Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments
  • Currently being undertaken
Research programs 
  • Completed
  • Completed
  • Completed
  • Completed
  • Completed
  • Currently being undertaken
  • Currently being undertaken
  • Currently being undertaken
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
CC IVA portals and platforms
  • Established
Monitoring, indicators, methodologies
  • Being developed
Monitoring Mechanism Regulation
  • Last reporting on Adaptation (Art. 15) submitted
National Communication to the UNFCCC
  • Last National Communication Submitted

According to Law 60/2007 on the implementation framework of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol in Hungary, a climate change related policy document must be elaborated and regularly updated at the national level. The first National Climate Change Strategy (NCCS-1) was adopted in 2008. International processes and national efforts made the revision and update of the document necessary. After a 4-year long process on 30 October 2018, the Hungarian Parliament accepted the revised and updated 2nd National Climate Change Strategy (NCCS-2). Implementation of the strategy will be based on 4 three-year-long Climate Change Action Plans.

Adaptation Strategies

NCCS-2 comprises 3 sub-documents (sub-strategies) in line with the 3 pillars of climate policy: the National Decarbonization Roadmap for mitigation, the National Adaptation Strategy for adaptation, and the Climate Change Awareness Raising Action Plan for awareness raising. Based on these, the structure the 1st Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) also follows a 3-pillar approach. The 3 subprograms will be the Decarbonization Programme, the National Adaptation Programme, and the Awareness Raising Programme. They will be completed with an implementation chapter focusing especially on the recommended frameworks for monitoring and evaluation activities.

The implementation of the NCCS-2 will be based on 4 consecutive action plans (3-year-long ones), of which the first is being planned for 2018-2020. The planning process of the CCAP document and its adoption depend on the entry into force of the NCCS-2. The NCCS-2 was adopted by the Parliament via a Parliamentary Decree. The Decree points out that 6 months after the adoption of the NCCS-2 the first CCAP draft should be elaborated. Consequently, in November 2018, preparation for the planning process started and the actual planning work began in December. The CCAP draft version will contain the detailed description of different measures (based on the short-term sectoral action lines of the NCCS-2), their content, and the related responsibilities and financial background.

There are no special sectoral or specific territorial adaptation strategies in Hungary. Nevertheless, beyond the national level, the territorial and local (NUTS 3 and LAU 2) levels are also undertaking a comprehensive planning process for climate change. County level climate change strategies were elaborated in Hungary for all NUTS3 units and the capital in 2017. These documents have been adopted by the county assemblies. 2019 will see the planning process arrive at the municipal level: approximately one third of the Hungarian settlements (among others, all districts in Budapest and the majority of towns) will prepare their own strategies. Both county and municipal level strategies are to be based on a single and comprehensive methodology elaborated by the Hungarian Mining and Geological Survey in cooperation with the Association of Climate Friendly Municipalities of Hungary and the Ministry responsible for climate issues.

Implementation means

The main pillars of implementation for NCCS-2 and CCAP to carry out their activities and achieve their goals are the financial resources and the organizational framework. Hungarian climate protection developments in the NCCS-2 and CCAPs have, and will continue to have, primarily two sources. On the one hand, incomes from international quota sales ensure that household energy efficiency and building energy investments are encouraged. The Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change introduced international quota trading, and Hungary has a significant surplus of such quotas; it was among the first in the world to sell them in 2008. Based on the Climate Change Act and Government Decree No 323/2007 and the quota agreements, the revenues from the sales of the Kyoto emission units shall be used, in the frame of the Green Investment Scheme (GIS), for climate protection activities. In order to utilise revenues from selling quotas in the EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS), the Green Funding System (GFS) was set up in 2013. 2014 saw organisational changes in climate policy and quota revenues were divided as a result. Pursuant to Section 10(4) of the 60/2007 Act, the minister responsible for public finances shall arrange for the utilisation of the 50 percent of the revenues generated from the transfer of Kyoto units within the Economic Greening System (EGS) after 1 January 2015, while the remaining units will be utilised within the framework of the Green Investment Scheme.

On the other hand, the Hungarian Operational Programmes 2014-2020 ensure that funds from the EU budget are used to support public (state, municipal, church and civil) and private energy efficiency, renewable energy production and consumption and adaptation developments. Climate change has received special attention during the programming period between 2014 and 2020, as at least 20 percent of assistance from the ESB funds are to be used to this end, according to the rules. Support for mitigation, aimed at the use of renewable energy sources, and support for adaptation are available beyond the Environmental and Energy Efficiency Operational Programme (EEEOP), in the Territorial and Settlement Development Operational Programme (TSDOP), the Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme (EDIOP), the Competitive Central Hungary Operational Programme (CCHOP), the Integrated Transport Development Operational Programme (ITDOP) and the Rural Development Operational Programme (RDOP). It is expected that EU support for these topics will also be available in the 2021-2027 period.

The responsible organization for both documents (NCCS-2 and CCAP) is the Ministry for Innovation and Technology, as it is the part of the administration responsible for climate and energy policy. The Hungarian Mining and Geological Survey, as a supporting institution of the Ministry, plays an important intermediary part in the planning and implementation of the mentioned documents.

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation

A comprehensive climate policy related monitoring and evaluation system is currently lacking in Hungary to analyze the results of mitigation, adaptation and awareness-raising and the related impacts to support development activities and to examine their contributions to the international climate objectives. There is a definite need for a well-planned and managed evaluation system that is able to handle mitigation and adaptation aspects in every sector policy, to be connected to other systems, and to monitor the objectives of climate policy.

Positive prequels to a comprehensive climate policy related monitoring and evaluation system include the Green Monitoring Programme and the present planning steps for national climate policy. The former was an EEOP-financed project in 2015, providing a recommendation for a monitoring and evaluation system in Hungary; but after the elaboration of the project no implementation phase followed. The second point refers to the current activities of Hungarian climate policy. During the revision and update of the National Climate Change Strategy and the planning of the 1st Climate Change Action Plan, planners calculate the development of a comprehensive climate-related monitoring and evaluation system in Hungary. The NCCS-2 in its implementation chapter declared the need for a two-level approach in Hungarian climate change related monitoring and evaluation. Firstly, it briefly enumerates the specific monitoring and assessment activities related to the NCCS-2

Schedule and planned review/revision

Regarding the NCCS-2 (and within it the NAS), the first revision is expected after five years of its adoption (as was the case with NCCS-1). The CCAPs are consecutive 3-year long action plans, where a series of action plans follow each other in a row, covering the whole implementation period of the NCCS-2, so there is no need for regular revision of each one.

Hungary is expected to be affected by a wide range of climate effects, so the number of priority sectors is also expanding. The climate perspective is increasingly included in the affected sectors, particularly in the fields of water management, agriculture, rural development, forestry and critical infrastructures. Fortunately the development goals of these sectors and the aims of climate protection are frequently interconnected. For instance, forest health protection and the natural ways to replenish soil nutrients - which are sectoral goals - also contribute to achieving adaptation goals.

Sectors addressed in NAS/NAP

The National Adaptation Strategy (part of the NCCS-2) defines the Hungarian framework and opportunities for adapting to climate change. The defined adaptation instruments are based on a detailed situation analysis that describes the expected effects of climate change on Hungarian natural resources (waters, soil, biodiversity and forests) and the expected human and socioeconomic consequences of climate change in priority fields.

The priority fields are the following:

  • human health;
  • agriculture;
  • disaster management and security policy;
  • built environment, regional and urban development, regional and urban planning, and municipal infrastructure;
  • transport;
  • waste management;
  • energy management; and
  • tourism.

Additionally, the document identifies the short- (2018-2020), mid- (2021-2030) and long-term (2031-2050) priority sectoral action lines and tasks in the priority fields.

The priority sectors are the following:

  • human health;
  • water management;
  • disaster management and security policy;
  • agriculture, rural development;
  • nature protection;
  • forestry;
  • built environment, regional and urban development, regional and urban planning, and municipal infrastructure;
  • energy management; and
  • tourism.

Mainstreaming of adaptation

Mainstreaming of adaptation has two main ways in Hungary. On the one hand the perspective of climate change is usually taken into consideration in sectoral strategies and action plans (horizontal mainstreaming). Aligning the goals of sectoral strategies is also an important action line of the NCCS-2. Additionally during the elaboration process of the 1st CCAP there is a comprehensive consultation process with the governmental institutions that are responsible for sector development. On the other hand adaptation mainstreaming has a regional aspect in Hungary (vertical mainstreaming). It means that beside the NCCS-2 all the counties have their own climate change strategies, and in a short time also the local municipalities will have the opportunity to get financial resources from the Environmental and Energy Efficiency Operational Programme for elaborating climate change strategies for the local level.

The Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSz) is responsible for collecting, processing and providing meteorological data and information. The idea to initiate climate dynamics research in the institute (besides the traditional statistical climatology) had arisen in 2003, as modelling provides the only tool to explore the potential response of the climate system to a possible anthropogenic forcing. The work started with the adaptation of several regional climate models (RCMs) in 2004.

Observations and projections

Two RCMs are applied at the OMSZ in order to examine the potential future climate change in Hungary and the Carpathian Basin. The use of two models provides basic possibility to quantify the projection uncertainties. ALADIN-Climate was developed at Meteo France within an international cooperation. It is a combination of the ARPEGE-Climat general circulation model and the ALADIN weather prediction model. In 2015, model version 4.5 was updated to 5.2 at OMSZ. REMO was developed at the Max Planck Institute in Hamburg. It is a combination of the ECHAM4 general circulation model and the earlier weather prediction model (Europa Model) of the German Weather Service. Version 5.0 is currently in use at OMSZ. Future projections are evaluated mainly for two periods: 2021-2050, as support for planning for the next few decades, and 2071-2100, which is used for long-term adaptation strategies. In the REMO 5.0 and ALADIN-Climate 4.5 experiments the medium SRES A1B was used, while for the ALADIN-Climate 5.2 simulation the high-emission RCP 8.5 scenarios was used.

The National Adaptation Geo-information System (NAGiS) was established between 2013 and 2016 in the Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary. It provides a harmonized basis for the adaptation studies using the RCM results of OMSZ as inputs for the quantitative climate impact assessments. In the framework of NAGiS, sectoral impact assessment studies are coordinated to support the adaptation to climate change impacts and related decision making in Hungary. These impact assessments are based on the future climate projections given by the simulation results of ALADIN-Climate and RegCM RCMs. The NAGiS is currently under development in which new simulations from the CORDEX database, combinations of the RCA4 regional model and two global climate models (EC-EARTH,CNRM-CM5), and new scenarios (RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5) are applied. The system is available for the public, but some of the services are accessible only for registered members. In the RCMGiS project entitled "New climate scenarios based on the change in radiative forcing over the Carpathian Basin," the improvement of the available climate projections were carried out jointly with the Eötvös Lorand University, Department of Meteorology between 2014 and 2016, applying the most recent model versions, larger integration domains, new lateral boundary conditions and the RCP anthropogenic scenario family. The climate information available in NAGiS was utilized in a vulnerability assessment on tourism and critical infrastructures in the KRIGiS project (2015). In the KlimAdat project entitled "Assessment of climate change impacts in Hungary with regional climate model simulations and development of a representative climate database," a gradual extension of the NAGiS projection basis is being achieved from 2016 to 2020: new climate model simulations are ongoing with the ALADIN-Climate and REMO models, and the urban impacts of climate change are being investigated with the SURFEX/TEB surface model.

Impact and Vulnerability Assessment

Regarding IVAs, in Hungary the National Adaptation Geo-information System (NAGiS) is the main and systemized tool for such activities. The overall objective of the NAGiS is to develop a multipurpose geo-information system that can facilitate policy-making, strategy-building and decision-making processes related to the impact and vulnerability assessment of climate change through which it can support the necessary adaptation measures in Hungary.

Urban, economic, rural, development and other planning activities of municipalities, regions and counties must include adaptation issues and measures. Quantitative vulnerability data form an inevitable basis for impact assessments and decision-support analyses on which spatial, regional and sectoral policy planning can be based. In order to successfully integrate climate change issues into policies, it is necessary to define the areas of intervention that influence the adaptation of regions or sectors the most. Climate safe planning is of crucial importance in the fields of water safety, food security, human health security, safety of infrastructure, energy security, and the natural environment. Therefore, a specific evaluation method and model is needed which can handle the processes in their complexity, taking also into account the whole chain of climatic impacts, including their social consequences as well.

In connection with the assessment of the impacts of climate change, the aim of the Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme (CIVAS) model is to provide a standardized methodological background to quantitative climate impact assessments. In accordance with the theoretical structure, the first step in applying the CIVAS model is to define impact, sensitivity, exposure and adaptation indicators, and impact and vulnerability calculation procedures. In the second phase, vulnerability is calculated and then, based on the results, the regional vulnerability is evaluated.

The NAGiS is of special importance in Hungary for monitoring of climate change impacts in several sub-topics as well as for providing a basis for mitigation and adaptation solutions. The System's development helps to outline a comprehensive view of Hungary regarding the above described issues, creating a basis for future monitoring activities at the same time.

Research

National Adaptation Geo-information System (NAGiS)

NAGiS creates derived indicators, analyses and impact assessments from various sources of basic data to provide reliable and objective information to all on the climatic conditions of Hungary, the effects of climate change and other strategic risks related to the long term management of natural resources and the opportunities concerning and affecting adaptation. The system supports flexible climate policy decision-making and planning, legislation regarding the effects of climate change, and strategy-building and implementation of specific measures, as indicated in the National Adaptation Strategy.

Municipalities as integrators and coordinators in adaptation to climate change (LIFE-MICACC)

Implementation of this project began in September 2017 under the leadership of the Ministry of Interior. The main objective of the project is to raise the awareness and increase the knowledge of decision makers, experts and other fellow employees of the local governments about the impacts of climate change and the ecosystem-based Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM). Therefore, in the first phase of the project, the project partners intend to increase the water retaining abilities of the five partner municipalities exposed to the negative effects of climate change. With the contribution of the nine cooperating partners they can implement a "good practice," which can serve as a sample for other municipalities struggling with the same climatic problems.

Disaster Risk Assessment System

The project is supported by the EEEOP under the leadership of the Ministry of the Interior's National Directorate General for Disaster Management (NDGDM). The main objective of the Disaster Risk Assessment System is to develop and operate a unified GIS-based disaster risk assessment system that covers the whole country and can identify potential sources of danger and their potential impacts for the settlements. Based on this, it is then possible to determine what risks can be expected in certain settlements. Besides analyzing and evaluating disaster risks, the system also makes preparations for natural disasters caused by climate change more effective.

Monitoring progress

A complex adaptation and mitigation related monitoring and evaluation system is being elaborated currently within the framework of the 1st CCAP. According to the plans, the system will monitor both the achievement of strategic and programme level objectives of the climate policy as well as the effectiveness of the implementation.

Governance

Recently the governance structure regarding climate protection has been strengthened in Hungary. In 2019 the Deputy Secretariat of State for Climate Policy was established under the Ministry for Innovation and Technology. The Climate Policy Department (under the Deputy Secretariat of State for Climate Policy) is responsible for the elaboration and implementation of NCCS-2. Additionally in 2013 the National Adaptation Center (as a department of the Mining and Geological Survey of Hungary) was established. The main tasks of the National Adaptation Center (NAC) is to support strategic planning in the fields of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation through the National Decarbonisation Roadmap) and adaptation to the expected impacts of climate change (through the National Adaptation Geo-information System and the National Adaptation Strategy). The Climate Policy Department is also responsible for the coordination mechanism and for stakeholder involvement in national adaptation policy. One of it important objectives for the year 2019 is the elaboration of the 1st CCAP, during which a process of wide horizontal participation takes place.

In the last few years several projects have also supported vertical mainstreaming and participation. All counties have made their own climate change strategies, and in connection with these planning activities, the so called "county climate platforms" have been set up. These platforms have a broad membership (from the administration, through civil society, and NGOs to business organizations, etc.) and their main aim is to facilitate the implementation of local climate actions. The climate change awareness at the subnational level is also increasing. A Hungarian organization called the Alliance of Climate-Friendly Municipalities now has 47 members. Besides that, through the Territorial and Settlement Development Operational Programme, many municipalities have had the opportunity to elaborate their own SECAPs, and as part of the process become members of the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy.

Knowledge

Within the Ministry for Innovation and Technology, the Climate Policy Department has a website and also a social network site devoted to climate issues. The Alliance of Climate-Friendly Municipalities also has a website for knowledge transfer, including methodological support and also case studies. As part of the website all counties have a profile page, with the most important information about the county's climate strategies and programmes. The counties also have the county climate platforms (see above) and they send regular climate newsletter to the subscribers. Furthermore, the local climate change strategies project - expected to start this year, financed by EEOP - will include wide-ranging awareness-raising activities. Under the direction of the Alliance of Climate-Friendly Municipalities, guidelines were elaborated for villages, cities, the capital city, and counties to support the implementation of local climate change strategies. NAGiS also has a huge importance in knowledge transfer. There are two more applications that aim at supporting adaptation. The Hungarian Meteorological Service has a new application, called METEORA, which provides constantly updated weather information and alarms. The application "VESZ," elaborated by the National Directorate General for Disaster Management, provides a real time emergency alert service, thereby supporting adaptation.

International dimensions

Hungary is not only committed to adaptation reporting and measures on the national level, but also on the international level. The National Adaptation Strategy of Hungary, which was adopted as part of the NCCS-2 on 30 October 2018 by Hungarian Parliament, takes into account the EU Adaptation Strategy as well as the Paris Agreement. The last National Communication to the UNFCCC, which was submitted on the 10 January 2018, also puts a great emphasis on reporting adaptation measures. At COP21 Hungary pledged HUF 1 billion for the Green Climate Fund and allocated another HUF 1 billion for bilateral cooperation with developing countries. The majority of the latter is focused on adaptation related projects. On-going projects in Africa are in the areas of sustainable forestation, adaptive water management, and sustainable irrigation, and also include a project for climate smart agriculture with zero carbon energy. Another currently running programme in Southeast Asia aims to use sewage for heating and cooling buildings. One further project in Southern Europe is dedicated to climate change (mitigation and adaptation) strategy development with supporting analytical tools and data systems. In March 2019 the Ministry of Innovation and Technology made a decision on financing additional projects related to enhancing adaptive capacity and strengthening resilience in the Western Balkan countries, Asia and Africa.

 

Ministry for Innovation and Technology

Climate Policy Department

H 1440 Budapest, Pf. 1.

Mail klimapolitika@itm.gov.hu 

Website http://klima.kormany.hu/

 

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to the Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 525/2013) and updates by the EEA member countries