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Last update:Sep 11, 2019

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy
  • Adopted
National adaptation plan
  • Being developed
Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments
  • Completed
Research programs
  • Currently being undertaken
  • Currently being undertaken

 

Meteorological observations
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
Climate Projections and Services
  • Established
  • Established
CC IVA portals and platforms
  • Being developed
  • National platform on climate change adaptation
Monitoring, indicators, methodologies
  • Established
Monitoring Mechanism Regulation
  • Last reporting on Adaptation (Art. 15) submitted
National Communication to the UNFCCC
  • Last National Communication Submitted

In Italy, the protection of the environment, ecosystem and cultural resources is under the exclusive competency of the Central Government. The Ministry for the Environment Land and Sea (IMELS) carries out activities on climate change at the national and international level.

Adaptation Strategies

According to the European path for adaptation, in 2015 IMELS adopted the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (NAS). The NAS is a tool for encouraging adaptation actions in planning activities at national, regional and local levels. After approval from the "State-Regions Unified Conference" on 30th October 2014, the NAS was finally adopted in June 2015 by a Directorial Decree of the Climate and Energy General Directorate, establishing specific objectives to be reached by 31st December 2016.

The Directorate General for Climate and Energy of IMELS is currently working for the implementation of the NAS through the Italian National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (NAP), developed with the support of the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change (CMCC). The NAP was drafted in December 2016. During 2017 and the first half of 2018, IMELS carried out a check on the draft NAP by a consultative process involving national, regional and local authorities, universities, research centres and other stakeholders. The approval of the NAP is occurring through an Agreement with the State-Regions Conference. The NAP will provide institutional guidance to national and local authorities for the elaboration of regional strategies or plans and for the integration of climate change adaptation within spatial and sectoral planning.

Implementation means

The Draft NAP provides an indication of roles for implementing integrated adaptation actions. It also defines the possible sources of funding and assess the necessary financial and human resources. A possible financial resources for adaptation can be obtained from the application of the Directive 2003/87/CE (art. 3) concerning the setting up of the “carbon market” for trading CO2 allowances. The revenues of the auctions can be used, up to the extent of 50% of the total, to support adaptation actions.

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation

A monitoring system, in order to evaluate progress in implementing the NAS is not yet in place, neither at national nor at regional level. However, the ongoing process toward the National Adaptation Plan, started in 2016, is currently taking into consideration the need for a Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation (MRE) System. Guidelines and indicators will be therefore defined in order to monitor the state of implementation and the effectiveness of adaptation actions.

Furthermore, in 2016 the National System for Environmental Protection, which is composed of the National Institute for Environmental Protection and the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies (Law n. 132/2016), set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the main objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators, according to the knowledge gaps currently existing in Italy. A first portfolio of 150 potential climate change impact indicators has been identified and a prioritization phase is currently being implemented. The resulting indicators will build therefore a quantitative knowledge base on the impacts of climate change as a reference framework for the MRE initiative on adaptation.

Schedule and planned review/revision

No planned review for the NAS and NAP.

The areas for actions in the NAS were selected according to a sectorial approach, based on socio-economic relevance and vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. The sectors considered in the NAP are coherent with the NAS.

Sectors addressed in NAS/NAP

The following 18 sectors are considered in the Draft NAP: water resources, marine environments, inland and transitional waters, coastal zones, hydrogeological instability, desertification, soil degradation and drought, terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystems, agriculture and food production, sea fishing, aquaculture, tourism, urban settlements, transport, industry, cultural heritage, energy, and health. The Draft NAP provides a set of adaptation actions for the different sectors taken into consideration. The actions were evaluated through a set of selected criteria and a subset of relevant actions were identified. These actions are focused on: biodiversity, coastal zones, hydrogeological instability and urban settlements, even though they are connected to all sectors of the NAP.

The IMELS supports adaptation actions trough the following measures:

  • Notice on Small Landslides: hydrogeological risk reduction due to mountain municipality landslides in order to promote climate change adaptation.
  • National programme on resilience increase of natural and semi-natural forestry systems, through the recovery, the structural and functional restoration of ecosystems and their service functionality and through consistent actions with the biodiversity protection and conservation (flora, fauna, vegetation and natural and rural landscape) in the protected areas crossed by the fire.
  • Measures for energy efficiency, sustainable mobility and climate change adaptation in the small islands.

Mainstreaming of adaptation

Under the European cooperation for regional development programmes (ERDF) the IMELS coordinated a project to support the regional environmental authorities of four Italian regions (Convergence Objective Regions: Calabria, Sicily, Campania and Apulia) to implement the principles of the NAS in future regional adaptation plans. A report on the state of climate change adaptation for each region has been released on October 2016.

Moreover, in the framework of CReIAMO PA Project: Skills and Networks for the Environmental Integration to better organise the Public Administration, in 2018 the IMELS started the activities of action L5: Strengthening of administrative capacity for climate change adaptation, with the aim to support regions and municipalities with guidelines for developing local adaptation strategies or plans and for training administrators on climate changes adaptation. Through these activities the IMELS started the mapping of the current state of adaptation in the Italian regions.

Lombardy, Emilia Romagna and Sardinia approved their regional adaptation strategies.

A comprehensive observational network covers the Italian territory. The monitoring of climate data is organized and adjusted to set up weather forecasting and for an early warning system. The Italian observational network is managed by several institutions and agencies: the Agrarian Research Council, the Italian Air Force Meteorological Service, the National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), the National Research Council (CNR), the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), several Universities, the Civil Protection and the Regional Environmental Agencies.

Observations and Projections

As far as current and recent past climate variability and trends, time series belonging to national and regional monitoring networks are used to calculate climate indicators over Italy. However, time series have different characteristics in terms of continuity, completeness, spatial coverage and data quality. Trends of mean temperature and accumulated precipitation, as well as their extremes, are updated regularly and disseminated through the System for Climate Data Collection and Dissemination (SCIA) and annual reports by ISPRA. Italy, through CMCC’s operational seasonal forecast activities, contributes to international programs of multimodel ensamble predictions. At CMCC results of regional simulation over Italy have been published using the COSMOCLM model at a spatial resolution of about 8 km over the period 2071-2100 (vs 1981-2010) employing the IPCC RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The high resolution can be useful for several applications, especially as an input for impact models. The Draft NAP provides seasonal climate projections for temperature and precipitation, for the period 2021-2050, employing the IPCC RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The Draft NAP also includes the projections for a set of climate indicators for the period 2021-2050 (vs 1981-2010) for the above mentioned scenarios.

Impact and Vulnerability Assessment

The NAS reported a “State of the art on scientific knowledge of impacts vulnerabilities and adaptation of climate” that illustrates in depth, for national territory, sectors that are affected by future impacts of climate change as well as vulnerabilities for the Alps and Appennines. The Draft NAP provides an evaluation of impacts and vulnerability of the main sector identified coherently with the NAS.

Research

The National Research Program 2015-2020 (PNR – Programma Nazionale della Ricerca) is the main national policy on research. It sets a long-term general action to coordinate coherently several subprograms and funds with the European Horizon 2020 program, and with other national and regional policy instruments. The Ministry for Economic Development (MiSE) and the Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR) developed the National Operative Program “Research and Innovation” 2014-2020 (PON RI 20142020 – Programma Operativo Nazionale “Ricerca e Innovazione”). The program is financed through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and Social European Fund (SEF) and it focuses on the southern regions, with the aim of increasing the research infrastructure of the less developed areas of Italy. Quite a large number of national universities, public and private institutes and other organizations are involved in climate research or climate-related research and systematic observation.

Monitoring progress

A monitoring system, capable of evaluating progress in the NAS implementation at the national or regional level is not yet in place. However, the ongoing process toward the National Adaptation Plan, started in 2016, is currently taking into consideration the need for a Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation (MRE) System. Guidelines and indicators will be therefore defined in order to monitor the state of implementation and the effectiveness of adaptation actions.

Furthermore, in 2016 the National System for Environmental Protection, which is composed of the National Institute for Environmental Protection and the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies (Law n. 132/2016), set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the main objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators, according to the knowledge gaps currently existing in Italy. A first portfolio of 150 potential climate change impact indicators has been identified and a prioritization phase is currently being implemented. The resulting indicators will build therefore a quantitative knowledge base on the impacts of climate change as a reference framework for the MRE initiative on adaptation.

The idea of involving institutions (Governmental and Regional entities) and stakeholders in the definition of the adaptation strategy and plan contributed to improving the information exchange between Central Government and local offices, and raising awareness about the need of adaptation planning.

Governance

The crucial elements for the elaboration of the Italian NAS were:

  • the establishment of a Scientific Panel;
  • the establishment of an Institutional Panel of Ministries and National, Regional and Local Authorities; and
  • a national public consultation.

The same approach was followed in the Draft NAP definition. Precisely, the IMELS established an inter-regional Panel with the representative designed by the Environment end Energy Commission of the Conference of Regions and an inter-ministerial Panel. The first goal of these panels was to build a ground base for adaptation. The second one was to evaluate the state of the implementation of adaptation actions at national, regional and local levels. The Draft NAP was also subject to a scientific review and two consultations were carried out.

Knowledge

In order to provide access to climate change adaptation relevant information, data and documents and to support local decision making, a national platform is currently under preparation. Within the framework of the CReIAMO PA Project: Skills and Networks for the Environmental Integration to better organise the Public Administration, in 2018 IMELS started the activities of Action L5: Strengthening of administrative capacity for climate change adaptation, with the aim to support regions and municipalities with guidelines for developing local adaptation strategies or plans and for training administrators on climate changes adaptation. The activities mentioned above allow for awareness raising and knowledge exchange on climate change and adaptation between national, regional and local institutions.

International dimensions

Since 2015, the bilateral cooperation activities promoted by IMELS have been expanded to new areas of the world. The strategy underlying the priority countries is defined in agreement with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. In particular, the objective is to support the countries that are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change: the Small Island Developing States and the African countries. The Italian Ministry for the Environment signed bilateral agreements with developing countries including regional groups to support mitigation and adaptation actions, to facilitate access to climate finance, to provide capacity building and technology transfer. In the field of research, Italy fully contributes to the main international projects and programmes in climate prediction and simulation activities. Italy contributes significantly to international programmes involving land, ocean and spacebased measurements by means of its very long instrumental temperature record, and is actively contributing to long-term observations of polar regions.

Ministry of the Environment Land and Sea

Directorate General for Climate and Energy

Fabiana Baffo - Officer

Via Cristoforo Colombo 44, 00147 Roma

Tel. +39 0657225137

Mail Baffo.Fabiana@minambiente.it

Website https://www.minambiente.it/

 

 

 

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to the Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 525/2013) and updates by the EEA member countries