Choose a country:
Italy
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czechia
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom

National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

Italy is located in an area identified as particularly vulnerable to climate change: the Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of climate change impacts.

Italy is characterized by complex orography, ranging from high mountain chains (Alps and Apennine) to a very diverse coastline. Italy is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea and the climate is influenced by the arid climate of North Africa and by the temperate and rainy climate of central Europe. Following the Koppen-Geigen classification, three main climate categories are found in Italy: warm temperature climate, snow climate and polar climate.

In Italy over the last two decades, changes in the land use have resulted in the increase of the forested area, of the grassland area and of the settlement area; a reduction of cropland area compared to 1990 is also observed. Italian land surface belonging to “Forest” category was about 31% of the national land surface in 2015. Although the forest expansion has been decreasing during the last decade, Italian forested area is spreading due to the dismissal of agriculture practices, mostly in mountain zones, and to the natural conversion of cultivated lands and grazing into forests.

Italy is characterized by one of the most significant natural heritages of animal and plant species in Europe in terms of both the total number of specimens and the high rate of endemism. Furthermore, 50 Italian sites are recognized as internationally important wetlands in the Ramsar Convention’s list.
Demographic and social trends of countries are important to evaluate the distribution across the territory of the most vulnerable population groups. The national population in 2011 increased compared to 2001, according to the national surveys, due to the migratory movements. The aging trend of population has been increasing because of a low birth rate and a continuous growth of the elders. The two factors combined point out that the proportion of population of working age has been shrinking and even positive migratory movements from abroad cannot avoid the imbalance in the ratio of the young to the elders from occurring.
At a world scale, Italian exports and imports have been losing market shares since 2000. In 2016, Italian exports of goods were driven by: machinery and auto vehicles, pharmaceuticals, shoes, oil refinery products and iron & steel products. The imports of goods showed an increasing trend from 1990 to 2007 and a fluctuating trend afterwards, due to the fluctuation of the domestic demand through the last years. In 2016, the main imported goods were: machinery and auto vehicles, energy products, chemical products and pharmaceuticals.

During the last decade, a global financial and economic crisis has hit advanced economies thus resulting into severe recession in the EU. Between 2012 and 2013, Italy, like many advanced economies, has moved into recession again, but in the very last years the national economy has been showing a moderate recovery. The driving sector of the national economy is still the service sector.

In 2015, 44.1% of the energy end-uses total consumption was related to the tertiary sector, 29.3% to the transports sector and 22.3% to the industrial sector. Concerning the electric sector, about 68% of the production was provided by thermoelectric power plants in 2015 (it was 77% in 2010 and about 82% in 1990), the rest is covered by renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and landfill gas) whose weight has kept growing in the latest years. Italy’s energy intensity is lower than the EU average mainly due to the shift of the Italian economy from industrial activities to services.

The crisis caused by the impact of the health emergency hit the Italian economy in a phase characterised by a prolonged weak cycle: after the gradual acceleration of the the three-year period 2015-2017, the recovery had weakened considerably, giving way to an almost stagnant trend in activity.

In 2019, GDP grew by 0.3 per cent, decelerating compared to 2018. In the first quarter of 2020, the partial blockage of activities due to the health crisis led to negative effect on the supply and demand side. GDP fell by 5.3%.

In 2016, the final consumption of energy (excluding non-energy uses) totalled 115.9 Mtoe (source: Eurostat energy balances), a slight reduction compared with 2015 (-0.3%). The downward trend shown over the last few years in the transport sector continued, settling at a consumption of 39.1 Mtoe (-1.1%); consumption in the residential sector was equal to 32.2 Mtoe (-1.0% compared with 2015). Going against the trend, however, the services and industrial sectors registered +0.3% and +1.4% increases in consumption, respectively, which were primarily caused by trends in economic activity.

Generally speaking, the reduction in energy intensity recorded by Italy in 2016 was amongst the largest in the European Union. Over the last few years, the steadily growing impact of RES and the reduction in energy intensity have helped Italy become less dependent on foreign sources of supply; the share of national energy demand met by net foreign imports remains high (at 77.7%), but it is approximately five percentage points lower than in 2010.

After a decade of almost continuous decline, primary energy demand started to increase once again in 2017 (+1.5% compared with 2016); this demand is met less and less by oil (which nevertheless still represents one third of the total), solid fuels (6.1%) and imported electricity (4.9%). The contribution of gas, however, is increasing (36.2%), as is the contribution from renewable sources (a little under one fifth).

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-15

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
National adaptation plan (NAP)
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
Climate projections and services
Adaptation portals and platforms
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
A comprehensive observational network covers the Italian territory. The monitoring of climate data is organized and adjusted to set up weather forecasting and for an early warning system. As regards current and recent past climate variability and trends, time series belonging to national and regional monitoring networks (hydro-meteorological networks by Civil Protection, national and regional agro-meteorological networks including the Air Force Meteorological Service) are used to calculate climate indicators over Italy. However, time series have different characteristics in terms of continuity, completeness, spatial coverage and data quality. Trends of mean temperature and cumulated precipitation, as well as their extremes, are updated regularly and disseminated through the website of the ‘National system for the collection, elaboration and dissemination of environmentally relevant climate data’ (Sistema nazionale per la raccolta, l'elaborazione e la diffusione di dati Climatici di Interesse Ambientale, SCIA) and annual reports by the National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA). Some regions have local initiatives, e.g. monitoring systems and weekly forecast of snow cover in Valle d'Aosta. SCIA website and annual reports published by ISPRA illustrate the record of temperature and precipitation extreme events which are regularly updated and disseminated.
Providing climate projection for Italy is a challenging topic due to the complex orography ranging from high mountain chains to a very diverse coastline. The Italian peninsula is therefore a good example of the need of high-resolution climate analysis required to provide detailed climate change projection to support climate change analysis on impacts and vulnerability. Two different categories of tools are available for this goal: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The first class of methods, based on Regional Climate Models (RCMs) is the only currently available to provide climate scenarios over the whole country in a uniform way, with the advantage to provide a large number of atmospheric variables, not only in terms of average values but also of extremes. Nevertheless, RCMs are still affected by significant systematic bias, due to several reasons. In recent years in order to try to overcome these limitations, the WCRP Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) project has been established, to provide a global coordination of regional climate downscaling for improved climate change adaptation policy and impact assessment.

In particular, EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the CORDEX initiative. An ensemble of historical simulations and climate projections was performed at 0.11° resolution in a combined effort among several research groups. Hindcast simulations driven by ERA-Interim Reanalysis were evaluated in terms of their ability to represent the basic patterns of the European climate for the period 1989–200898 against the E-OBS dataset. EURO-CORDEX models over the Mediterranean area show non-negligible temperature biases and a generally high precipitation overestimation, up to 120% in summer. More specifically over Italy, most of the models underestimate winter temperature (especially at high altitudes) while summer temperature is overestimated by some models and underestimated by others; a wet bias characterizes both seasons over the whole Italian area with some exceptions. The ability of ensemble models to simulate heat waves was also evaluated: even though local-scale feedbacks are better represented at high resolution, combinations of parameterizations have to be improved or adapted. High-resolution simulations with COSMO-CLM over Italy (0.0715°) has been performed by Euro-Mediterranean center on Climate Change Foundation. In order to assess the effects of increasing resolution on the quality of results. Given the complex orography of Italy, results have shown that high-resolution simulations, along with an optimized model configuration, could provide good earnings. The main features of the Italian climate were well represented, biases being general equal or lower than values that affect “state-of-the-art” regional climate simulations (i.e., EURO-CORDEX data at 0.11°) with a high detail level, not obtainable with coarser resolutions. Climate projections were performed over the XXI century employing the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, driven by the GCM CMCC-CM. Analysis were performed in terms of average and extreme values. Climate projections highlight a general warming expected in Italy at the end of XXI century, along with a general reduction in precipitation, especially according to the RCP8.5 scenario.
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Changing temperature (air freshwater marine water)
Wind
Water
  • Flood (coastal fluvial pluvial ground water)
  • Water scarcity
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil degradation (including desertification)
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
Wind
Water
  • Flood (coastal fluvial pluvial ground water)
  • Water scarcity
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil degradation (including desertification)
Italy is notoriously prone to natural hazards and climate change is expected to increase the Italian vulnerability to climate-related hazards over the next decades. This, combined with the economic, social and environmental pressures, makes Italy one of the most vulnerable country in Europe. The key risks for the European area are mainly related to:
• increased water restrictions due to reduction in water availability combined with increased water demand (e.g. for irrigation, energy and industry, domestic use), and with increased evaporative demand, particularly in southern Europe;
• increased impacts related to extreme heat events on health and well-being, labor productivity, crop production, air quality, and wildfires risks;
• increased economic losses and people affected by flooding in river basins and coasts.

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
In Italy water shortages during specific crop development stages may reduce the productivity of most crops (e.g. corn, soybeans and wheat). The decline in agricultural productivity could especially concern wheat yield and fruit and vegetables production, as a consequence of water scarcity, pathogens species increasing and soil degradation. Conversely olive, citrus, wine and durum wheat cultivation could become possible in the North of Italy. Wine production, an activity of particular economic relevance in Italy, could undergo major changes too. The suitability of cultivation areas for specific crops might modify, which could lead to displacements of agricultural productions. In addition, the future temperature increase (+ 2 e 5°C) could reduce further the crop productivity. Climate change is expected to affect the livestock by increasing the risk of heat stress. Moreover, climate change is expected to reduce the quality of agricultural products, especially for the most vulnerable regions, characterized by a widespread use of traditional cultivation methods for quality food production. A particular attention should be paid to the risk posed by temperature and precipitation change to the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and the Typical Geographical Indication (TGI), which are a significant element of the Italian agriculture.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not applicable
Vulnerability
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not available
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
Included in general description of the impacts
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Over 7.500 km of Italian coasts, 47% is represented by high or rocky shores and 53% are beaches. About 42% of the beaches is currently undergoing erosion processes. The rate of coastal erosion varies between 13% in Friuli Venezia Giulia and 91% in Molise. Saltwater intrusion in the coastal groundwater is already occurring in many coastal areas and will be aggravated by the sea level rise and the precipitation reduction, causing new potential problems to water supply. Future scenarios of climate change impacts on Italian coastal areas include: increase in coastal erosion and instability; loss of coastal land and related economic activities, infrastructures, urban settlements, recreational areas and natural heritage sites; reduction and loss of biodiversity and ecosystems (especially wetlands), and decrease of marine life caused by the combined effect of climate change and anthropogenic stress; damages to coastal rural economy, due to saltwater intrusion; negative impacts on tourism and possible displacement of tourist flows; possible threat to human health posed by flood events. About 4500 km of Italian coastal areas are at risk of sea flooding from sea level rise by the next 100 years. The Northern Adriatic coast, characterized by the Po river delta and the Venice lagoon, is at high risk, as this area lies below sea level and hosts many residential settlements, cultural heritage sites as well as industrial establishments.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not applicable
Vulnerability
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not available
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
Included in general description of the impacts
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The effects of climate change on forest ecosystems are already significant so as to endanger the Italian forestry heritage, thus compromising the functionality and the ecosystem services it offers and are intended to increase as a consequences to future climate scenarios. The impact of climate change is causing changes in growth rates and productivity, in the composition of existing species and altitudinal and latitudinal displacement of forest habitats resulting in local biodiversity loss and increased risk of fire and damages from insects and pathogens, as well as alteration of the water cycle and carbon. The actual possibilities for the forest ecosystems to shift are scarce because climate change rate far exceeds the rate of colonization of new areas and the potential corridors are often obstructed by territorial fragmentation. Climate change could induce overall changes in the composition of species and habitats of Italian forests, resulting in local losses of biodiversity. Potential impacts of climate change include: northwards and altitudinal shift of the range of climatic and environmental conditions typical of the Mediterranean area; reduction of growth and productivity rates in central-Southern Italy; changes in the distribution of main tree forest species in central Italy mostly located in the central Apennines, over 1500 m, in 2080; higher risk of forest fires and droughts, with possible extension of burned areas, more ignitions and longer fire seasons.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
quantitative analysis not available
Vulnerability
not applicable
quantitative analysis not available
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
Included in general description of the impacts
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
In addition to the direct effects of climate change due to heat and frost waves, with a consequent excess of mortality and morbidity and further socio-economic impacts such as damages to infrastructure and settlements, deaths, psychological and physical pathologies, resulting from increasingly frequent weather events, indirect health risks are mediated by the impacts of meteoclimatic factors on ecosystems, biodiversity, drinking and bathing water, soil, and outdoor and indoor air. Vector-borne diseases are already occurring in Italy. Even tick-borne infectious diseases have increased over the past decades in Italy. The consequences of hydrogeological occurrences have caused between 2002 and 2012 direct damages to population (128 dead due to floodings and 165 due to landslide). Expected impacts of climate change include: increased heat-related mortality and morbidity related to summer heat waves; slight reduction of cold-related mortality, linked to expected milder winter temperatures; increased risk of injuries, morbidity and deaths from floods, heavy precipitation and fires events; increased respiratory diseases and allergic disorders as a result of the effects of changes in air pollution concentrations; adverse consequences of potentially more frequent and prolonged extreme ozone events and increasing toxicity of pollutants particularly in summertime; possible increase of vector borne diseases.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not applicable
Vulnerability
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not available
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
Included in general description of the impacts
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate change is already affecting the hydrological cycle, with observed consequences on soil moisture, runoff, groundwater recharge. The existing conditions of high stress on water resources and hydro-geologic disturbance in some Italian regions could be exacerbated by projected climate change, with the following effects: reduced water availability and quality and increases in frequency and intensity of droughts especially in summer; increases in frequency and severity of river summer flows reductions and annual river flow decline and limited groundwater recharge; increased seasonal water deficit due to significant pressure of summer tourism peaks in small Italian islands. All these pressures will reduce the capability regenerate reservoirs, increasing, especially in summer and in southern regions, the competition among the different water uses. The systems that have the highest risks are those that use water resources from alluvial aquifers that are characterized by a large storage capacity coupled with long recharging times. Systems dependent on small-sized karst aquifers are particularly vulnerable to possible deficits, requiring the use of alternative resources (usually alluvial aquifers), with the consequent risk of overexploitation in case of prolonged drought. Systems less exposed to the risk of deficit, due to a variation in the climatic regime, are the interconnected ones that use different types of resources with different charging times and storage capacities.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not available
Vulnerability
not applicable
Quantitative analysis not available
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
Included in general description of the impacts

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

In 2016 the Italian Ministry for Ecological Transition started the elaboration of the National Adaptatation Plan (NAP). The Draft NAP includes high-resolution simulations with COSMO-CLM over Italy, performed by Euro-Mediterranean center on Climate Change Foundation. Given the complex orography of Italy, results have shown that high-resolution simulations, along with an optimized model configuration, could provide good earnings. The main features of the Italian climate were well represented, biases being general equal or lower than values that affect “state-of-the-art” regional climate simulations with a high detail level, not obtainable with coarser resolutions. The Draft NAP includes a risk analysis carried out by bringing together specific indicators for hazard, exposure and vulnerability to calculate a risk index. Vulnerability of specific sectors is based on an update of existing literature and on the outputs of climate projections.
In 2015 the Ministry for the Ecological Transition (former Ministry for the Environment) adopted the National Adaptation Strategy to climate change. The Strategy outlined a national framework to deal with the impact of climate change on the main natural systems and economic sectors. The Ministry is currently working for the implementation of the Strategy through the National Adaptation Plan, now undergoing strategic environmental assessment.

Activity for monitoring, evaluating and revising actions have not been undertaken yet.
In the framework of CReIAMO PA project "Strengthening of administrative capacity for climate change adaptation" (financed on EU funds) the Directorate for climate, energy and air is responsible for coordination of line 5 addressed to Regions and Local Administrations for strengthening administrative capacity on adaptation. In this context the expert team initiated a reflection on the topic, in particular with regard to monitoring indicators. In addition, the Ministry is monitoring the presence of the elements related to adaptation in the SEA procedures, pointing out any lack of climate-related considerations in the consultations.
The NAS contains a proposal for actions aiming at reinforcing coordination between the disaster risk prevention and management and the adaptation strategies, to guarantee an enhanced capacity to cope with some extreme events, in particular the hydrogeological damage, including under climate change. At the moment, there is not any coordination mechanism for integrating climate change impact assessment into disaster risk management.
The national System for collection, elaboration and dissemination of environmentally relevant climate data (SCIA) has been realized by the national Institute for Environmental Protection and Research. Its aim is to establish among all the relevant institutions dealing with meteorological networks and observations, a common procedure for calculating, updating and representing Italian climate data. The National System for Environmental Protection, set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the main objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators. A portfolio of 150 potential indicators was identified and the final set is currently undergoing to a last validation step.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

The topic of adaptation to climate change is a cross-cutting issue that affects various natural and anthropogenic sectors. Many working groups have been organised between the different directorates of the Ministry for the Ecological Transition on biodiversity, desertification, sustainable development. Collaboration is active also with other Ministries for example with the Ministry of Health but no structured network is active for mainstreaming adaptation into national planning.
The Ministry for Ecological Transition supports activities to disseminate, share data and knowledge aiming to fill the gap among central administration and local authorities.

All the Italian regions and several municipalities participate to the training activities carried out for strengthening administrative capacity on adaptation. This is done through the establishment of networks between regional and local authorities on specific topics. An example of good practice of network is represented by the group of some region of Central Italy which have started a dialogue on integrating adaptation into planning for post-seismic reconstruction.
Adaptation is a cross-cutting issue that needs synergistic actions that take into account the impact of climate change in different sectors. Therefore, the interests of the Ministry for the Ecological Transition are directed to: define the National Adaptation Plan to climate change to demand the integration of adaptation into sectoral and local planning; support local administrations through information and training activities; disseminate and share data and knowledge on the subject through easily accessible interactive tools; develop studies, models and tools concerning specific relevant hazards to which the Italian territory is subject.
The main negative impacts expected in Italy in the coming decades will concern the increased temperatures and reduction of water security under different aspects - from flood risk to drought - with repercussions in terms of safety of populations and exposed assets, food security and access to water resources for drinking, irrigation, energy and industrial uses.

Many of the aforementioned impacts are connected and potentially aggravated by the expected effects on other environmental matrices and processes. This is the case of hydro-geological instability from landslides, coastal erosion, sea level rise, reduction of coastal wetlands and erosion and desertification to which soils are exposed.

These dynamics have diverse effects on specific territories (coastal areas, urban areas, mountain areas, etc..), on biodiversity and ecosystems, as well as on the many economic sectors involved (eg agriculture, fisheries, infrastructure, tourism, etc..) also in terms of energy use, wear and tear of critical infrastructure and working conditions. Particular attention should also be paid to the potential significant social and health impacts, to be evaluated also in the light of those already manifested during the mentioned heat waves of the last thirty years.

Currently, there are still strong inhomogenity in the elaboration of regional and local adaptation tools (strategies/plans/guidelines). Some territories show a certain awareness of the issue and have developed their own tools, others have not started concrete activities.

Difficulties are linked to the lack of detailed data for the construction of climate frameworks and for regional and local forecasting scenarios; the lack of decision support systems to guide the decision makers in their choices; the lack of specific skills within the administrations and the need to build new governance models; the limited availability of funds to cover the needs of the different sectors and the difficulty to act in an integrated way.
In 2015, the Ministry for the Ecological Transition approved the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (NAS) with Decree number 86 on June 16th of Directorate-General for Climate and Energy.

The Strategy analyses the state of scientific knowledge on impacts and vulnerability to climate change for the major socio-economic and environmental sectors. Objectives and outcomes of the Strategy can be summarized in: developing a national vision on how to address the adaptation for different sectors; providing actions and guidelines to build adaptive capacity; minimizing risks of climate change; maintaining or improving the resilience of natural, social and economic systems; taking advantage of any opportunity arising from new climate conditions.

The Ministry for the Ecological Transition is currently working for the implementation of the NAS through the development of the National Adaptation Plan to climate change (NAP). The NAS proposes a portfolio of adaptation actions and these actions, as well as the need for a monitoring, reporting and evaluating system are in the process of being specified in the National Adaptation Plan, whose is about to be adopted.

The draft NAP, currently subject to Strategic Environmental Assessment, constitutes a strategic document for national, regional and local institutions, which is not prescriptive and aims to support, with the indication of the most appropriate and effective actions, territorial and sector planning for the integration of adaptation criteria to climate change in the procedures and tools already in place. The draft NAP is configured as an operational document that identifies:
? criteria for the construction of reference climate scenarios at the district/regional scale;
? preferable adaptation options by exploiting opportunities and synergies;
? roles for the implementation of actions and adaptation measures as well as coordination tools between the different levels of government of the territory;
? estimation of human and financial resources needed;
? indicators of effectiveness of adaptation measures;
? methods for monitoring and evaluating the effects of adaptation actions.

In particular, the draft NAP, defines an operational framework for adaptation planning at national, regional and local level, trough:
• Context analysis, climate scenarios and climate vulnerability: reviewing and updating of national climate scenarios and detection of national impacts and territorial vulnerabilities. The goal is to define “homogeneous climatic areas ”.
• Definition of iIntegrated adaptation actions: for each “homogeneous climatic areas” and modes of actions implementation (resources and responsibilities).
• Tools for participation, monitoring and evaluation

The draft NAP contains, among other elements, indication on: climate scenarios; risk propensity; sectoral impacts and vulnerabilities; adaptation actions.

Furthermore, in June 2018, the line 5, focused on adaptation, of the CReIAMO PA project "Strengthening of administrative capacity for climate change adaptation" (financed on EU funds) has been launched. The line produced methodological documents for the definition of climate change adaptation plans/strategies at regional and local level and for the integration of adaptation in spatial planning tools and the implementation of learning paths on climate change adaptation addressed to Regions and Local Administrations. A specific study on the evaluation of adaptation costs was also carried out. Currently, support is being provided to administrations to enforce these documents.

As a result, the number of administrations that have produced acts and documents on adaptation in their territories is expected to increase in the next years.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


After the first exploration of the ongoing process towards adaptation strategies and plan at regional level, in 2020 the Ministry for the Ecological Transition asked the Italian Regions to fill in a questionnaire on the state of the art on adaptation in their territories. Fifteen out of twenty regions have answered. The picture of sub-national policies is not complete yet and more knowledge exchange is needed.
The Italian Integrated national energy and climate plan, when describing the objectives, targets and contributions for the dimension “decarbonisation”, takes into account the analysis included in the draft NAP. The impacts of climate change on energy sector can be grouped through the following components:
- Physical vulnerability: risks from the increasing of extreme weather events on energetic infrastructures, on both installations and distribution networks.
- Operational vulnerability: impacts of changes of hydrological cycles, mean temperatures increases, and change in the wind regimes on energy supply and on energy balance of installations.
- Impacts on energy demand: changes on energy demand for air-conditioning of buildings and changes on cultivation cycles and methods.

The Plan lists some actions to be undertaken to build a resilient energetic system. Tn Italy, resilience plans for electricity grids have been introduced, which distribution companies must periodically draw up and implement; a similar constraint has been placed on the transmission system operator.

In the framework of the National sustainable development strategy review, institutional collaboration has been undertaken for the elaboration of the National Plan on policy coherence for sustainable development with the aim to reinforce coherence between Sustainable development strategy and the other thematic strategies as Adaptation, Marine and Biodiversity Strategy.
In the 2017 a public consultation was carried out on the draft NAP and in the 2018 the draft NAP was shared with the Permanent State-Regions Conference. In 2021, in the framework of the public consultation for the environmental strategic evaluation of the draft NAP, institutional meetings were organised with environmental stakeholders as Ministries, Civil Protection Department, Italian Regions and Local Authorities, National parks, the National System for Environmental Protection, basin authorities.

No informationa available on good practice examples from the subnational levels.
The Ministry for Ecological Transition finances measures for energy efficiency, sustainable mobility and climate change adaptation in the small islands and in the national parks. The projects developed by the target public actors may foresee the involvement of private sector in the planning and implementation of the interventions.
The national System for collection, elaboration and dissemination of environmentally relevant climate data (SCIA) has been realized by the national Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA) in the framework of the national environmental information system. Its aim is to establish among all the relevant institutions dealing with meteorological networks and observations, a common procedure for calculating, updating and representing Italian climate data.

On the base of observation time series originating from several national and regional monitoring networks, ten-days, monthly and annual statistics (indicators) are calculated for the main climate variables. All the indicators undergo the same set of validity controls agreed with
data owners. Through the SCIA web site the main climate indicators can be downloaded and
displayed in the form of tables, diagrams and maps. Based on the indicators calculated by SCIA the Italian climate variations and trends in the last 50 years are calculated and from 2006 an annual
report "Gli indicatori del clima in Italia" is published in the series ISPRA - Stato dell'Ambiente.

In 2016 the National System for Environmental Protection, which is composed by the National Institute for Environmental Protection and the Regional Environmental Protection Agencies (Law n. 132/2016), set up a national Working Group on “Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change” with the main objective to define a set of climate change impact indicators,
according to the knowledge gaps currently existing in Italy. At first a portfolio of 150 potential climate change impact indicators belonging to 14 different sectors has been identified with the following specific objectives:
- to fill in the knowledge gaps about the current impacts of climate change;
- to inform, communicate and raise awareness about the effects of climate change on natural resources and economic systems;
- to support the decisional processes with a sound scientific knowledge base;
- to establish a baseline for monitoring the effectiveness of adaptation actions.

In the last two years (2019-2020) a second phase has been set up with the purpose to develop key indicators, which has been defined on the basis of specific criteria. The final set is currently undergoing to a last validation step and will be officially published by the next summer. The indicators set resulting from this activity will represent a first knowledge framework on the potential impacts of climate change on the Italian natural resources and socio-economic system. This framework will be considered a dynamic set which will be updated on the basis of new and
future scientific evidences.
At national level, a structured monitoring system does not exist. The draft NAP includes a description of methodologies and approaches for monitoring and evaluation. The draft NAP presents a list of indicators drawn from the available literature, for the evaluation of progress and effectiveness of adaptation actions. In the implementation phase of the NAP this list will be revised and adapted to context evolution.
As the National Adaptation Plan has not yet been approved, no priorities for action have been defined and consequently no expenditure planning is available.
As the National Adaptation Plan has not yet been approved, no priorities for action have been defined and consequently no expenditure planning is available.
As the NAP has not been adopted yet and the set of impact indicators needs final validation, no evaluation progress is done.
As the NAP has not been adopted yet and the set of impact indicators needs final validation, no evaluation progress is done.
As the NAP has not been adopted yet and the set of impact indicators needs final validation, no evaluation progress is done.
The dialogue with stakeholders in the framework of the strategic environmental assessment of the draft NAP, will give an important impetus to the construction of adaptation priorities.

In addition, the directorial decree adopting the National Adaptation Strategy provides for the establishment, at the Ministry for the Ecological Transition of a “National Observatory” made up of representatives of regions and local authorities, for the identification of priorities and the subsequent monitoring of actions.
The publication of National adaptation platform, expected before spring 2021, will allow overcoming some barriers to adaptation, because it will inform and make available data and support tools and it will facilitate the exchange of good practices on adaptation.

In addition, the directorial decree adopting the National Adaptation Strategy provides for the establishment, at the Ministry for the Ecological Transition of a “Permanent Forum” for the promotion of training, information and decision-making capacity of citizens and all stakeholders .

The expert team of CReIAMO PA Project - Line 5 carries out training activities for the public administration to strengthen administrative capacity for adaptation.
The process started in February 2021 with the Strategic Environmental Assessment will allow to take steps to review risk assessment included in draft NAP.
The process started in February 2021 with the Strategic Environmental Assessment will allow to take steps to review and update the draft NAP.
Only few Italian Regions have adopted their adaptation Strategies. For this reason, it is not possible to give an overall picture at this moment in time. The Ministry for the Ecological Transition is working to lay the foundation for a structured multilevel governance on adaptation. In the framework of CReIAMO PA Project, line of intervention 5 concerning the strengthening of administrative capacity for adaptation, two guidelines have been produced for adaptation at regional and local level. These methodological documents will help administration to develop and update adaptation policies strategies plan and measure in line with national planning.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Not reported
Italy is currently engaged in gearing the SDGs to the economic, social and environmental planning. The delivery and the implementation of the NSDS interlink the national programming documents, namely the National Reform Programme and the Economy and Financial Document. The Italian government has committed to providing an annual review about NSDS implementation as well as an assessment of the achievd results. Regarding the “Planet” area of the strategy, an integrated and inclusive approach geared towards is instrumental for building sustainable and efficient cities, more resilient and safe communities and more interconnected territories enhancing green infrastructures.
Italy is engaged in promoting the information exchange among local, national and international institutions, involving different stakeholders.
Italy provides support to initiatives such as LIFE-AR, to promote a more effective adaptation and resilience action, led by Least Developed Countries (LDC).
[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'