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Last update:Aug 08, 2019

Item Status Links
National Adaptation Strategy
  • Adopted
National Adaptation Plan
  • Adopted
Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments
Research programs
  • Completed
Meteorological observations
  • Established
  • Established
Climate projections and services
CC IVA portals and platforms
Monitoring, indicators, methodologies
Monitoring Mechanism Regulation
  • Last reporting on Adaptation (Art. 15) submitted
National Communication to the UNFCCC
  • Last National Communication Submitted

Adaptation Strategies

The 2018 National Adaptation Strategy (NAS)/National Adaptation Plan (NAP) is part of the EU's Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, which encourages all member states to develop adaptation strategies at the national level. It is an update of the 2011 adaptation strategy. Based on past observations and future projections of the effects of climate change, measures have been proposed for the main observed and expected impacts of climate change in Luxembourg. A total of 42 measures have been developed for 13 different sectors. For each measure, a responsible entity for the implementation is designated. Given the territorial organization of Luxembourg, there is no administrative level between the State and the municipalities. The NAS/NAP is therefore valid for the entire Luxembourg territory. The measures are of a win-win nature or can be considered as low-regret measures. The implementation is planned for the period 2018-2023.

Implementation means

The measures have not been budgeted and there is no separate budget solely for the implementation of the NAS/NAP. The implementation will have to be made within the framework of the current resources of the different Ministries and administrations.

Monitoring, reporting and evaluation

For each measure described in the NAS/NAP, indicators for monitoring the progress of its implementation are provided. These indicators will assess whether the measures have been implemented and will also identify difficulties in their implementation.

Schedule and planned review/revision

The NAP/NAS implementation is planned for the period 2018-2023.

Sectors addressed in NAS/NAP

A total of 42 measures have been developed for 13 different sectors:

  • Building and living
  • Energy 
  • Forestry
  • Infrastructures
  • Crisis and disaster management
  • Land-use planning
  • Agriculture including herbal and animal health
  • Human health
  • Ecosystems and biodiversity
  • Tourism
  • Urban areas
  • Water management
  • Economy

For each measure, a responsible entity for the implementation is designated.

Mainstreaming of adaptation

Many measures in other plans and strategies have a beneficial impact on climate change adaptation measures. These include the National Plan for Nature Protection, the second National Action Plan for reducing CO2 emissions, the River Basin Management Plan, and the Flood Risk Management Plan. As the NAS/NAP was drafted after these plans, no reference to it is made in the other plans. This will be part of future revisions of these other plans.

Observations and Projections

The data used for the NAS/NAP are based on climate projections using numerical models and are based on the results of regional climate models (RCMs) from the EU FP6 Ensemble project. The RCMs were powered by various global climate models. The horizontal resolution of the RCMs is 25 km. The result fields of the RCMs were bias-corrected (quantile mapping) to reduce systematic errors. There are transient time series for air temperature and precipitation. In addition, a spatially high-resolution climate projection (1.3 km), which is based on the A1B emission scenario and was calculated using the COSMO-CLM model, is used. This work was done by the Luxembourg Institute for Science and Technology (LIST).

Future projections predict an increase in average temperature. While the average temperature was 8.1°C for the reference period 1961 to 1990, it is expected to rise to 9.2°C for the period 2021 to 2050 and to 11.2°C for the period 2069 to 2098. There will also be an increase in summer days above 25°C and tropical nights above 20°C. Future projections for annual precipitation indicate some stability. Average precipitation for the reference period 1961 to 1990 was 880 mm. Rainfall should be 862 mm for the period 2021 to 2050 and 845 mm for the period 2069 to 2098. However, seasonal variations are expected, with more rain in the winter and less precipitation in the summer. Added to this, an increase of heavy summer rainfall is expected.

Impact and Vulnerability Assessment

The main threats are:

  • increase in heat extremes,
  • decrease in summer precipitation,
  • increasing risks of river floods,
  • increasing risk of forest fire,
  • decrease in economic value of forests, and
  • increase in energy demand for cooling.

These impacts will have an influence on the vegetation period. In Luxembourg, the vegetation period is expected to commence earlier in spring and to last longer into autumn. During the early stages of the vegetation period this might cause an increased risk of frost damages to vegetation. Furthermore, the temperature changes have an impact on the bio-geography of plants and animals with the appearance of new species with an usual Mediterranean distribution, formerly unknown in Luxembourg. This will have a direct impact on agriculture and on forestry. Projected climate changes will also affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development, but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. For the Luxembourgish grape and associated wine production, late frost represents a significant hazard. Increasing air temperatures due to climate change might advance grape budburst and later frost events in spring.

The climate projections for the second half of this century will also have significant impacts on public health conditions in Luxembourg. The danger of increasing heat exposure for the population in Luxembourg is most severe in urban areas with high building densities due to the increased thermal storage capacity and night time thermal emissions.

With regard to water, the most analyzed phenomena so far are floods. It is known that, due to major redistributions of winter rainfalls, essentially, a higher inundation frequency has been documented. On the other hand, a lack of precipitation over an extended period (especially in summer) may lead to hydrological drought, which results in a decrease in available water reserves in aquifers, lakes and groundwater sheets. Increased rainfall may lead to a deterioration of the groundwater and surface water quality due to reinforced soil erosion and faster water infiltration into the soil. The risk of deteriorating surface water quality is intensified by increasing water temperatures, which are a consequence of the projected increasing air temperatures. A rise in stream water temperatures and the decrease in their flow rate presents the risk of quality problems as the available water can no longer sufficiently dilute pollutants and the low oxygen levels threaten the survival of fish.

In Luxembourg, a thorough vulnerability assessment has not been done yet.

Governance

Given the territorial organization of Luxembourg, there is no administrative level between the State and the municipalities. The NAS/NAP is therefore valid for the entire territory and, consequently, there is no regional NAS or NAP. There are nevertheless some measures with local implementation at municipal level. For each measure, a responsible entity for the implementation is designated. But various actors involved in the implementation of the measures have to be added. They can be other ministries or state administrations, municipalities, communities of municipalities, NGOs, private sector actors, research institutes, etc. The Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development is in charge of coordinating the measures and of reviewing the NAS/NAP at the end of the period 2018-2023.

Knowledge

In addition to the measures in the 13 sectors, one measure is cross-cutting: awareness raising on the challenges of climate change, and adaptation to its effects, at all levels, i.e., awareness among other ministries or administrations, as well as for local authorities at the municipal level, but also awareness of all private and public stakeholders.

Ministry of the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development

Executive Water Management

Bruno Alves

4, place de l´Europe L-2918 Luxembourg

Tel.  (+352) 24786864

Mail bruno.alves@mev.etat.lu 

Website https://environnement.public.lu/fr.html

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to the Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 525/2013) and updates by the EEA member countries