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National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

Malta is an archipelago situated in the center of the Mediterranean Sea (approximately 90 kilometers from Sicily, Italy, 290 kilometers from Tunisia and 300 kilometers from Libya). The Straits of Gibraltar are approximately 1,850 kilometers West and the Suez Canal is about 1,500 kilometers towards the East Southeast.

The country consists of three main inhabited islands, namely, Malta, Gozo, Comino, together with a number of other small uninhabited islands (e.g. Cominotto, Filfla, St Paul’s Islands) and islets situated close to the coastline of the main islands. The total area of the Maltese islands is of 316 square kilometers, with a total shoreline of slightly more than 271 kilometers.

Topographically, the southern coastline facing the African mainland is dominated by cliffs, with the land sloping down to a low-lying shoreline on the northern coast. The northern areas are marked by low hills, with plains towards the southern parts. The Maltese Islands do not have mountains and there are no lakes and no rivers. Climate is typically Mediterranean, with hot and dry summers and relatively mild winters.

The country lacks natural resources, with limestone being one of the few natural mineral resources and it is primarily used for the local construction industry. Because of the absence of permanent surface water bodies and the limited rainfall, water resources in Malta are very limited. Most of the naturally occurring freshwater is found in groundwater bodies which continues to provide water to from springs and pumped from wells and galleries. Today, more than half of Malta’s municipal water supply is produced through the desalination of seawater by reverse osmosis membrane technology at three desalination plants located strategically around Malta’s coastline. A fourth seawater desalination plant is currently being completed on the island of Gozo which will produce potable water at a very low specific energy consumption. The reduction of losses in the municipal water distribution network has been a success with the municipal water demand being reduced by about 40 % from the 1990’s despite of the increasing population and standard of living which has increased the per-capita demand. Diffuse pollution by nutrients, together with the over abstraction of the Mean Sea Level Aquifers leading to seawater intrusion impact the qualitative status of Malta’s groundwater bodies. Households account for the bulk of the water demand, accounting for almost 70% of total billed consumption.

Being an island, the harvesting of sea salt also deserves a mention in any discussion of local mineral resources. Sea salt continues to be harvested using the age-old technique of evaporation of sea water in salt pans, of which a number may be found in coastal areas in various parts of Malta and Gozo.
The total population of Malta stood at 514,564 in 2019 (NSO, 2020), more than double the amount a hundred years earlier. Considering the limited perimeter of the country, population density is among the highest in the world (with about 1,375 persons per km2).

The most densely populated areas are the neighborhoods around the harbours flanking the capital city of Valletta. The Northern Harbour district (the area to the west of Valletta) and the Southern Harbour district (the area lying to the east and south-east of Valletta, including also the capital city) together form a population agglomeration that accounts for almost half of the total population of the country. At the other end of the scale, the islands of Gozo and Comino account for just 7.3% of the total population.

Population density differences between Malta and Gozo are highly contrasting, with the former showing a density of 1,630 persons per km2 while the latter has a density of 459 persons per km2. This also correlates with the extent of built-up area on the two islands.
Historically, agriculture was a very important economic activity in Malta, though one can also note an important element of services-oriented activities, not least due to the presence of the established British forces on the Islands until the late 1970s, which necessitated several ancillary services. The manufacturing, tourism, maritime and services sectors now both serve as mainstays of the country’s economy. The manufacturing industry has developed into areas such as microelectronics, light engineering, currency printing and pharmaceuticals. Apart from traditional activities in i-Gaming tourism, education, health, retail and financing services, the services industry has in recent decades expanded towards higher value-added activities such as, more specialised forms of tourism, including language tourism and dive tourism, maritime and aviation activity, information technology and gaming. Carbon intensive industry is absent and large scale industrial establishments are limited, however they are still relevant from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective.

Malta’s economy has strong trade ties within the European Union. The trend in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) since 1990 has been relatively consistent in showing continued growth, except for 2009, where the trend was negative, recuperating again in 2010. Overall, Malta’s GDP has grown from €1.899 billion in 1990 to €12.8 billion in 2020 (NSO, 2021). Per capita GDP stood at around € 24,872 in 2020 (NSO, 2021), this indicator also showing a steady increase over time.

Access to the Maltese Islands from other countries, and vice versa, is limited to sea and air transport. This has important implications for Malta’s economy, dependent as it is on these modes for the importation and export of materials and goods. Tourism, an important contributor to Malta’s economy is similarly dependent on arrival and departure of travellers to and from the Maltese Islands either by air or sea. Aviation activities are centered around the sole international airport of Luqa, while two main harbours, the Grand Harbour and Marsaxlokk, provide the main entry points by sea.

Internal transport is mainly road-based on road, with rail systems being non-existent. An extensive bus system services the two main islands; however, private vehicle ownership and use remains high. The total number of licensed motor vehicles in 2020 was 397,391 (NSO, 2020). Out of this total, 77.1 per cent were passenger cars, 13.8 per cent were commercial motor vehicles, 8.0 per cent were motorcycles/quadricycles and All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs), while buses and minibuses amounted to less than one per cent. 236,274 motor vehicles (59.5 per cent of the total) had petrol-powered engines. Diesel-powered motor vehicles reached 154,634 (38.9 per cent of the total). Electric and hybrid motor vehicles accounted for 1.2 per cent of the entire stock, with a total of 4,803 motor vehicles (NSO, 2020)A scheduled ferry service provides the only year-round link between the islands of Malta and Gozo. Domestic aviation is limited mainly to intermittent trans-island services provided either by helicopter or light aircraft

Reporting updated until: 2020-12-31

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • actual NAS - adopted
  • being developed
National adaptation plan (NAP)
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
Climate projections and services
Adaptation portals and platforms
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
Observations and forecasts on weather and climate conditions in Malta are conducted by the Malta International Airport (MIA) Meteorological Services Office (MET office). The MET Office provides meteorological services to various stakeholders. The MET Office maintains a continuous observation and forecasting service within the function of a Meteorological Watch Office (MWO). Detailed weather information is also issued by this service provider, within the airspace covering the Maltese territory as listed in the Agreement between the Government of Malta and the Malta International Airport plc. concerning the provision of Meteorological Services (2002). Observations are conducted on a mandatory basis, through the automatic weather stations located across the islands.

The Met Office is fully equipped with modern technological systems to support meteorology in Malta and Gozo including a Storm Weather Radar and a network of Automatic Weather Stations all over Malta and Gozo. The new software and database introduced in 2015 assists with better and faster extraction of data, advancing the statistical analysis of the climate in the Maltese Islands. On the other hand, in 2019 the forecast models were improved to a higher resolution for more thorough projections of the weather. This supports the warning systems and the preparedness for any certain weather events, even further. The central console system is in the process of being upgraded as well, which will assist the ease for enhanced observations. Additionally, a storm register has been drafted to keep track of particular weather events.

From a statistical point of view, trend lines are not showing any change with regard to the precipitation over the last 95 years, as the anomalies remained rather comparable over these years. Nonetheless, there is an overall inclination, where the precipitation is increasing during summer and autumn, and decreasing during winter and spring. Moreover, the mean air temperatures showed a slight increase of 0.96°C over 95 years of records. Meanwhile, over the past 71 years the mean wind speed has gradually decreased, however it has been slowly increasing again in these last 5 years.

The Climate Research Group (CRG) within the Department of Physics in the University of Malta (UM) has a numerical weather prediction model called Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) which carries out forecasts across the Maltese Islands. CRG also runs two regional climate models (RCMs) called PRECIS and RegCM4 on the supercomputer cluster facility (ALBERT) at the University of Malta. With these facilities the CRG has been offering research projects ranging from undergraduate to postdoctoral level. The contribution to the international scientific community is being undertaken through new experiments, testing and developing components of the models.

Research in the area of Climate Change is mainly carried out by the University of Malta. The setting up of the University Climate Change Platform (CCP) in 2012 and the establishment of the Institute for Climate Change and Sustainable Development in 2013 have provided an environment for better coordinated research activities within the different faculties, institutes and centres of the University. Furthermore, the Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology (MCAST) and the MET are involved in the development and support of research activities related to Climate Change.
TThe National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy of Malta was adopted in 2012. The strategy provides a summary of the climate change impacts on specific domains and presents 72 actions that should be undertaken. An indication about the type of action, the authority responsible for its implementation, the time frame and the cost/ impact are provided for each action. The focus of the Strategy is mainly on: risks and financial impacts; identifying the requisite legal framework; sustainability; water; agriculture; human health; tourism; communication and education. Currently, Malta is in the process of updating the 2012 Adaptation Strategy for the Maltese Islands identifying areas of action which call for strengthened resilience and increased preparedness for climate change impacts.

Malta will shortly also be publishing its Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS) Strategy which maps out the country’s decarbonisation journey up to 2050. The LCDS is being spearheaded by the Ministry for the Environment, Climate Change and Planning (MECP), with inter-ministerial collaboration being a pre-requisite for successful implementation. The strategy covers both mitigation and adaptation measures.

Adaptation measures are proposed in order to enable the country to become more resilient in the face of climate change impacts which are already hitting the Maltese islands. The adaptation measures address the specific risks and vulnerabilities which Malta inherently experiences being a small island state.

With specific reference to vulnerabilities and risks, Malta is also planning to conduct a comprehensive review of the latest Vulnerability Risk Assessment, with the aim of improving the understanding on the degree of vulnerability and risks to which society, the economic sectors, and the natural environment are exposed to. This would enable better targeted and prioritised actions where it is needed the most.

Monitoring of the strategy implementation will be done through stakeholder engagement and dialogue via an established network of sectoral focal points nominated on an Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change.

Monitoring on the basis of indicators still has to be developed in conjunction with the identification of the relevant data streams to feed into the reporting mechanism.
Natural hazards are increasingly impacting on people’s lives in Malta as well as in other countries in the world. Malta has to face severe storms, hail, flooding, soil and coastal erosion and high winds (as shown in Table 1). Disasters occur naturally and are very unpredictable. While many of them cannot be addressed, preventive measures can effectively reduce their impact.
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Heat wave
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Subsidence
  • Soil erosion
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Heat wave
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Flood (coastal fluvial pluvial ground water)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil erosion
Urbanisation has increased the generation of rainwater runoff from urban areas. This water quickly flows downstream along sealed valley systems increasing the risks for urban flooding arising from uncontrolled surface water runoff.

Rainfall is highly variable from year to year; some years are excessively wet with high levels of water falling in brief periods of time, while others are extremely dry when compared to the average annual precipitation. Total rainy days, of any intensity, average 80 per year. The seasonal distribution of rainfall defines a wet period from October to March (with 85% of the total annual rainfall) and a dry period from April to September.

Malta has around 270 km of coast line. Although erosion is in first instance a natural phenomenon, the main factor that accelerates erosion in Malta is human intervention through development. The construction of coastal roads next to sandy beaches and other coastal constructions alter the natural sediment supply process and increase erosion. The Maltese Islands are currently taking into consideration the problem of coastal erosion as evidenced by the “Coastal Satellite Assisted Governance (tools, techniques, models) for Erosion” (Coastal SAGE) project, which the University of Malta participates in. This project involves research activities in the downstream Earth Observation sector with the aim of achieving reliable and cost-effective coastal erosion monitoring.

Although data on rates of soil erosion in Malta are not available, this phenomenon is believed to be one of the most important threats to soil in the country. Soil erosion is caused by both climatic and anthropogenic factors. Most of the arable land in the Maltese Islands suffers from soil loss due to poor rubble wall maintenance and flood events amongst other factors. Studies show that around 20% of Malta’s land area is at risk of soil erosion. The central and north-eastern areas show the lowest erosion risk because of relatively flat topographies, good land management and erosion control measures. Conversely the Maltese north-western and Gozitan areas are characterised by a high rate of erosion rates. Locally, soil and rubble walls are protected through the Legal Notice L.N. 169 of 2004.

Malta is already experiencing an increase of severe heatwaves during summer months, with very limited precipitation and long drought periods. According to a study conducted by Newcastle University, Malta will experience 38 per cent more heatwave days each year and a maximum rise in temperatures of about 4°C. Drought will become 1.29 times more severe. The changes to our climate will be more severe under the higher impact scenarios.

The agricultural sector will face significant decline in production and will require more resources such as water, fertilizers and pesticides in order to be able to grow crops. In addition, this will affect both crop quantity and crop quality.

From the maritime perspective, ocean acidification (OA) is a growing concern globally. This is mainly caused by carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere dissolving into the ocean, leading to a lowering of the water's pH, thereby making the ocean more acidic. Globally, there has been an increase of 26% (compared to pre-industrial levels) in acidity of oceans which impacts fish and the marine ecology. Fishermen worldwide are experiencing a decline in fish catch cause by ocean acidification, leading to negative impacts on the economy and human health.

Saltwater intrusion, the migration of saltwater into freshwater aquifers under the influence of groundwater development (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), is also a concern. The most detrimental effect of groundwater depletion is the lowering of the water table. Saltwater intrusion also has an adverse impact on the saltwater-freshwater interface. Methods for controlling intrusion vary widely depending on the source of the saline water, the extent of intrusion, local geology, water use and economic factors. Due to the lack of water resources and the threats of sea-level rise, saline intrusion in freshwater aquifer may eventually occur with negative impacts.

Malta is situated within an earthquake zone; even if rather low risk there is a relative probability of seismic activity. Whilst the building regulations drafted in 1995 took into consideration the need to design particular categories of buildings seismically, only a few buildings, such as the Delimara power station are built specifically to withstand a certain degree of seismic activity. The University of Malta’s Seismic Monitoring and Research Group (SMRG) researches earth tremors and earthquakes. From existing data most of these occur undersea. Research activities include the monitoring, mapping and analysis of seismic activity in the central Mediterranean in particular around the Maltese islands, and identification of active faults in the seabed of the Sicily Channel.
• Storms, high winds and choppier waters
• Salinization of soil and the loss of soil
• Deterioration/loss of biodiversity, native species, ecosystems and habitats

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate Change will lead to a number of risks related to agriculture and ecosystems. Climate Change can cause significant damage to production resources and livelihoods of workers in the industry as well as endanger food security.

As sea levels rise, low-lying coastal areas are increasingly being inundated with saltwater, gradually increasing soil salinisation and impacting negatively most parameters of soil. This affects production in crops, pastures and trees, interfering with nitrogen uptake, reducing growth and stopping plant reproduction.

Climate Change can lead to soil erosion leading to reduced carbon stocks or carbon sequestration in soil. Malta already has inherent limitations in this aspect, and Climate Change further exasperates this situation.

The already occurring deterioration/loss of biodiversity, native species, ecosystem and habitats will also be magnified by the lack of rainfall, increased temperature and drought, increased wind and extreme weather events.

Extreme heat could also lead to thermal stress of livestock, leading to decreased animal welfare standards, illnesses and/or death. This will decrease yields for farmers or lead to higher financial costs needed to maintain acceptable animal welfare.

Such changes in weather could also impact the post-production and post-harvest processes such as drying, storing, and transporting of produce.

Farming will also be made more difficult due to difficulties in pollination, due to early germination/budding and a longer growing period. Decreased pollination will also lead to decreased flora.

Higher temperatures and longer periods of drought will inevitably lead to greater demand for water and hence will lead to increased competition for water use and greater pressures on the water supply.

Harsher weather conditions might lead to more farmers abandoning their land. The above-mentioned complications to the farming industry might not make it worthwhile for farmers to continue to work their land.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
OOne of the major risks in this sector is that of coastal erosion leading to more hazardous rocky coastal zones. These natural processes will be quickened, making the coastal zones more dangerous as rocks will loosen (with the risk of falling and injuring the public). This is already being witnessed in areas such as Ghar Lapsi.

Another risk is that of the loss of sandy beaches. Mean sea level rise, other adverse weather conditions and the fact that the island is tilted to the east, all contribute to the fact that low-lying zones will be adversely hit and that sandy beaches might end up being (partly) lost (e.g. San Blas in Gozo).

A third risk is that low-lying coastal areas will be affected by sea level rise and storm surges impacting man-made structures (e.g. recreational establishments, tourist attractions, domestic residences, promenades etc.) found close to the shores.

Increase in temperatures, drought, salinization of soil and the loss of soil (due to increased run-offs due to flash floods or blown away by the wind) will all lead to inevitable changes in land use patterns. Fields could become smaller and fertile land could decrease, reducing its ability to absorb rainwater.

Finally, the possibility of increased discomfort in homes due to climatic conditions will increase. Such discomforts could include excessive heat; easier and more frequent flooding of underground and ground floor levels; risk of damp walls and increased mould; and humidity, amongst others. Resilience to more extreme temperature in terms of liveability of internal and outdoor spaces, especially important again land resource limited countries where urbanisation cover is very high
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate Change is also bound to have an impact on the health sector. Illnesses are bound to increase. These could be both mental health illnesses (e.g. trauma from extreme weather events) as well as infectious and vector-borne diseases (increasing due to warmer climates).

According to the WHO, Climate Change is expected to cause around 250,000 additional deaths per year worldwide between the period 2030-2050 with an estimate health expenditure of about USD 2-4 billion per year.

As temperatures rise and the frequency of heatwaves increase, the risk of dehydration, especially in the elderly, infants and young children is likely to rise. The increase in water demand and greater stressors on water resources might lead to higher water prices and families unable to afford tap water.

Climate Change might lead to increased morbidities and mortalities, more hospital admissions, and greater pressure on emergency services, especially amongst vulnerable individuals, increasing pressures both on patients and their families. Financial and human resource pressures will also increase in terms of health public services (e.g. hospitals) and emergency operators (e.g. Civil Protection Department -CPD).

Climate Change will also lead to worsened air quality due to increased air pollution from less rain/ increased humidity and longer pollen seasons will materialise. This will impact people suffering from allergies and respiratory diseases, whilst also decreasing productivity.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate Change is likely to impact different sectors in a horizontal fashion, particularly bringing forward the risk of increasing costs and regulations to counteract the effects of Climate Change, for both the public and private sector. This due to needed increased regulation, both as an effort to increase resilience of natural habitats and economic activities as well as to ensure a proper adaptation response from the same..
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
It is foreseen that more regulation of sectors will be required in order to retain viability as well as to repond to the changing climatic condition
Vulnerability
not applicable
It is foreseen that more regulation of sectors will be required in order to retain viability as well as to repond to the changing climatic condition
Risk Future Impact
not applicable
It is foreseen that more regulation of sectors will be required in order to retain viability as well as to repond to the changing climatic condition
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
One of the risks lies in disruption affecting air and sea transport activities because more intense and frequent extreme weather events, such as storms, high winds and choppier waters are likely to occur. These effects are likely to lead to: increased maintenance for damage to aircraft, airport systems and air navigation systems, as well as tyre wear and deformation, and landslide areas; greater downtime for cargo ships and operations, port operations, cruise liners, and smaller vessels; and increased energy cooling costs for aircraft and airport transfer vehicles.

With respect to the various maritime infrastructure in place (quays, breakwater, fenders, bollards), there must be an increase in the periodical maintenance, and consequently an increase in costs, to minimise the disruption of port operations, downtime for cargo ships which may lead to demurrage, and above all, to ensure the safe berthing of vessels. Such periodical maintenance will help decrease the probability of extraordinary repairs to or rebuilding of the infrastructure, which would have a greater negative impact on ship calls and maritime industry. Another issue that would need to be tackled would be the decrease of the water depth because of the underwater movement of material, like sand and silt; or the dumping of material through land-based sources, for example rainwater outlets, stormwater culverts, quays etc. This will have to be addressed through capital and maintenance dredging within ports, especially the port approaches, fairways and alongside the various quays and wharves, to ensure that the appropriate water depth is maintained for the safe navigation and berthing of vessels.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
As for road transportation and mobility, intense rains and floods are likely to cause transport re-routing as well as resulting congestions to be created. In addition, more regular instances of extreme weather as well as increasing temperatures might make transportation (particularlyactiveparticularlyactive modes of transportation which include the use of Private Light Electric Vehicles, cycling and walking) uncomfortable, whilst also leading to increasing costs of cooling for passenger and commercial vehicles delivering goods.

Climate Change is also likely to lead to damage of road as well as maritime infrastructure due to torrential rains, floods, wind velocity, sea level rise and extreme heat. This could lead to increased maintenance and replacement costs, increased inconvenience and road safety hazards to the public (e.g. power cuts, increased accidents, road closures and reduced mobility as well as increased pressure on alternative roads, deformation of bridges as well as damage to marina pontoons and buoys, amongst others). Moreover, current adaptive infrastructure might be insufficient or inadequate as intense storms become more frequent.
Vulnerability
not applicable
current adaptive infrastructure might be insufficient or inadequate as intense storms become more frequent.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Tourism is one of the main economic sectors of the Maltese economy contributing to around 13% of the Gross Domestic Product at a direct and indirect level. During 2019, tourist expenditure reached EUR 202 billion. The hotels and catering establishments employ around 14,800 persons on a full-time basis and an additional 8,700 persons on a part time passes. In 2019, 2.75 million tourists visited Maltese Islands, the majority of which (81%) for holiday purposes, 7% for business, 8% to visit friends and relatives and 4% for other reasons including educational.

The increased temperatures, increased probability of heat waves and the possible accompanying drought during the summer months (June-August), could lead to a shift of tourists northbound during the summer months and the lengthening of shoulder months.

Additionally, hardship for individuals working in the industry will increase due to greater exposure to higher temperatures. Individuals working outdoors such as drivers, tour guides and ferry operators will be faced with harsher weather conditions, impinging on their productivity and health.

Climate Change will also change tourists’ behaviour during their stay. They might start to demand more indoor and/or night-time activities, leading to businesses to have to adapt their products and services accordingly.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Included in "Observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitude"
Impact/key hazard
high
Climate Change can impact the hydrological cycle through the following instances:
i) Lower annual precipitation and increase in heavy precipitation events contributing to decreased recharge of freshwater resources. The intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall events and reduction in average annual rainfalls, make flood risk hazards a main concern and also exacerbate the situation and viability for rain water conservation especially from urbanised areas. This is due to limited land resources and the ever-increasing magnitude of flash floods, requiring high levels of investment to capture the last drop;
ii) the amount of water available and demand for such resource as well as variability in precipitation events; and
iii) water quality in terms of both its temperature and nutrient content and increased freshwater demands due to increased evapotranspiration.

As extreme storm events increase, and flash floods become more common, changes in soil moisture will happen and the ground will become saturated more quickly, reducing the time for water to percolate to the water table. This lack of absorption will also inevitably lead to greater run-off, leading to floods (and damage to infrastructure and property), unless properly managed.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Water stress is already a major concern for Malta and has been historically. The need to continuously apply water demand management measures together with the application of alternative water supplies such as seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation are key to meet the water demands of the population under current semi-arid climatic conditions. , through the development and installation of Reverse osmosis technologies
Vulnerability
medium
In view of past developments in the sector were dependence was moved away to groundwater to desalinated water the adaptive capacity of the system was increased, nonetheless sectors dependent on groundwater still exist and are being and will need to be addressed.
Risk Future Impact
medium
The main sector that is at risk of bigger impacts from vulnerability in water management is the agricultural sector, which albeit rather small is vital to ensure food security.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Malta is planning to conduct a comprehensive review of the Vulnerability Risk Assessment in the coming years.

Other relevant institutional arrangements linked to climate adaptation include:
• The Strategic Plan for Environment and Development (SPED),
• The National Transport Strategy 2050,
• The National Policy Framework for Alternative Fuels Infrastructure for Transport in Malta 2018-2030
• The Malta National Electromobility Action Plan (MNEAP)
• The process to develop a Coastal-Climate Overall Vulnerability and Exposure Risk (Coastal-COVER) Protection Strategy for the Maltese Islands has been initiated by the MTIP.
• Malta ‘s Storm Water Master Plan (SWMP) by 2008,
• 2nd Water Catchment Management Plan
• With respect to Nature and Biodiversity, Malta's Prioritised Action Framework for Natura 2000 (2021-2027)

Malta’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan to 2030. The plan seeks, inter alia, to create synergies among climate change and biodiversity conservation measures and policies, such as in connection with ecosystem restoration, afforestation, and nature-based solutions.
With regard to institutional arrangement related to climate change adaptation, Malta adopted the Climate Action Act (Chapter 543) in 2015 to streamline Malta’s commitments on climate change on both main fronts of climate action, namely mitigation and adaption in a legally binding way. This act aims to instill ownership across the board to finetune effective climate action and governance. Specifically, on adaptation the Act dictates the process to conduct periodic reviews and update of the National Adaptation Strategy (NAS). It also foresees to include information on climate change actual and projected impacts.

Malta has already initiated the process of developing a national Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS) in accordance with requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), European Union legislation and the Climate Action Act, 2015 (CAP543). Given the specificities of the country and in view of being a vulnerable island in the Mediterranean, Malta’s Low Carbon Development Strategy will also incorporate the NAS. The outcome to have the NAS within the LCDS was concluded in a scoping exercise, which was one of the phases in the process of adopting a LCDS for Malta. This is regarded as an important step in enhancing the coherence of broad policy frameworks and mainstreaming adaptation across the board. A consultation document, “Malta’s Low Carbon Development Strategy: Our Vision” was published in May 2017 by the Ministry for Sustainable Development, the Environment and Climate Change, which sets out several proposed broad principles for the NAS. Following the publication of the vision document and public consultation in 2017, the Strategy is currently being developed, and is anticipated to be finalized and published within a short period of time.
On the integration of Climate Change impacts and resilience into environmental assessment procedures, to note that as per requirements of the EIA Directive, and as transposed in the local Regulation, impacts related to climate change and climate change adaptation are particularly taken into account during both the screening and scoping stages of the environmental assessment process, as relevant.
Malta is planning to conduct a comprehensive Vulnerability Risk Assessment between 2021 and 2023. Furthermore, the process to develop a Coastal-Climate Overall Vulnerability and Exposure Risk (Coastal-COVER) Protection Strategy for the Maltese Islands has been initiated by the Ministry for Transport, Infrastructure and Capital Projects. Further down in the policy framework it will also develop territorial Master Plans for project interventions for CC adaptation, resilience and mitigation.

A Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment for the Malta River Basin District was published in 2019 which identifies area with potentially significant preliminary flood risk and is the initial step in the development of the 2nd Flood Risk Management Plan which aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with different flooding scenarios assessment.
There is still a lack of reliable data and data knowledge with regard to e.g. forecasts and associated risks. This is because the European and South Mediterranean forecasts available are too high level to be able to extrapolate relevant data for such a small island state. Furthermore, this area remains still understudied locally, exposing a lacuna in data and information required for effective policy making. This may cause difficulties in implementing certain measures within the country. However, to bridge data gaps Malta is taking part in several EU funded project (e.g. SoClimPact, SAGE) which will be explained in the relevant section.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

Due to Malta’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are dependent on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.
Due to Malta’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are dependent on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.
Based on a vulnerability assessment undertaken as part of the national communication of Malta under the UNFCC (i.e. the Seventh National Communication of Malta prepared in 2017), a number of sectors were identified as being of priority in terms of the current status of resources and activities. These sectors, shown below, were deemed as requiring the most attention when devising adaptation measures due to their current vulnerability and likely disposition to suffer from the effects from Climate Change:

A. Cross sectoral

B. Water Resources

C. Infrastructure and Transport

D. Land Use and Buildings

E. Natural Ecosystems, Agriculture and Fisheries

F. Health issues, Civil Protection and Immigration

G. Tourism
There are a number of challenges and barriers which act as limitations when designing and implementing adaptation strategies. Some of these limitations are common globally, whilst others are more specific to Malta.

One of the major challenges when it comes to designing adaptation strategies is the uncertainty and insufficient knowledge in terms of the spatial (where) and temporal (when) patterns of Climate Change impacts. Not knowing where and when the impacts will materialise often limits the accurate design of effective adaptation measures.

The lack of reliable forecasts is exacerbated in the case of Malta. This is because the European and South Mediterranean forecasts available are too high level to be able to extrapolate relevant data for such a small island state. Moreover, this research area remains highly understudied locally, exposing a lacuna in data and information required for effective policy making.

In order to partially bridge this knowledge gap, other international adaptation strategies could be investigated. However, this still poses the problem of regionality, whereby an adaptation measure in a region or country might not have the same effect when applied to Malta.

Adaptation measures are not to be implemented in a vacuum, but rather in a dynamic and ever- changing community. Hence, uncertainties with regard to future socio-economic trends as well as policy responses will inevitably lead to a difficulty in drawing up effective adaptation measures. Thus, constant monitoring and updating must be carried out in line with the changes in the socio-economic state of the country.

Moreover, the benefits of measures are dependent on their actual implementation and uptake. Not knowing the policy response, one will get makes it very difficult to outline future benefits vis-à-vis the costs of a measure, metrics which are usually indispensable when proposing a policy.

Adaptation measures are often characterised by immediate costs of implementation but benefits which only materialise in the long run. This means that adaptation measures cannot be approached through a short-term view or a legislative time period. Rather, a long-term value adding approach should be considered. This can be enabled by making sure that policies are assessed and put forward by both scientists as well as policy makers, thus taking into account issues which might be ‘too far off’ into the future to be taken into account under normal circumstances of policy making.

Measures will also have to be implemented across various sectors, since Climate Change will impact a variety of industries in the economy. However, different sectors might have conflicting agendas in terms of which policies should be implemented and in which priority. One solution for this is to mainstream Climate Change adaptation measures across all governmental policies, in order to benefit from synergies, rather than suffer from conflicts.
The National Adaptation Strategy was published in 2012 by the Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs and contains 72 actions that aims to complement the country’s commitment towards climate change together with the mitigation strategy. The strategy focuses on the following sectors:
• Risks, Financial Impacts and Adaptation
• Identifying the Requisite Legal Framework
• Sustainability and Adaptation
• Water and Adaptation
• Agriculture and Adaptation
• Human Health and Adaptation
• Tourism and Adaptation
• Communication, Education and Adaptation

The Ministry for the Environment, Climate Change and Planning (MECP) constantly monitors the state of implementation of each measure. As the strategy was published in 2012, the majority of the measures have been completed up to date. An updated version of the NAS may be required in view of the publication of the new EU Adaptation Strategy in 2021.

Furthermore, driven by a number of international obligations as well as evidence that calls for immediate action, especially for small states, the Maltese Government has embarked on the development of a Low Carbon Development Strategy (LCDS) that maps out the country’s decarbonisation journey up to 2050. The budget allocated for this project is of €500,000 and is planned to be completed by 2025. The LCDS covers both Climate Change mitigation and adaptation. With regard to adaptation, the strategy takes a sectoral approach, identifying key hazards for each sector and providing a list of measures divided per affected sector. Climate Change ubiquitously impacts all sectors in the local scenario and hence collaboration from all parties, including the private sector, will be required to make sure that both mitigation and adaptation measures are adopted effectively. The sectors covered by the LCDS strategy are the following:
• Cross sectoral
• Water Resources
• Infrastructure and Transport
• Land Use and Buildings
• Natural Ecosystems, Agriculture and Fisheries
• Health issues, Civil Protection and Immigration
• Tourism

A vulnerability risk assessment – with the aim of identifying the impact of climate change to the Maltese economy – will be conducted in the period 2021-2023.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


Due to Malta’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are dependent on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.
With regard to the mainstreaming of climate action in sectoral policies, considerable efforts have already been directed towards the integration of Climate Change adaptation into such sectoral policies, plans and programs. Some examples include:
• Strategic Plan for the Environment and Development
• Sustainable Development vision for the future
• Local governance
• Biodiversity strategy
• Water policy framework regulations
• National Tourism Policy
• Common Fisheries Policy
• National Agricultural Policy for the Maltese Islands 2018 – 2028
• A National Curriculum Framework for All (2012)
• Rural Policy Design Guidance. Reference to Climate Action Act Article 5(3),
• Malta’s 2nd River Basin Management Plan

Furthermore, a Vulnerability and Risk assessment is planned to be conducted in 2021. This will further inform which future sectoral policies need to prioritise even more climate adaptation due to the increased vulnerability or the low adaptative capacity of the particular sector.
Due to Malta’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are dependent on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.
Due to Malta’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are dependent on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.
The Ministry for the Environment, Climate Change and Planning (MECP) is responsible for climate action policy. As the lead Ministry for Climate Action, the Ministry preserved the setup of an Inter-Ministerial Committee on Climate Change (IMC) to ensure synergies, where and when appropriate, especially to monitor progress, within the energy, transport, finance and economic investment policies sectors. This set up has been in place since 2009 (as per Malta’s Mitigation Strategy). The IMC continues to be the main forum through which more overarching policies are discussed and formulated as needs and requirements develop even within climate change adaptation context.

Monitoring of the strategy implementation is carried out through discussion with the sectoral focal persons on the IMC-CC and up to present the status of some actions is as indicated hereunder. Given that the strategy has been published in 2012 and implementation has been taking place since then, some of the actions mentioned have been implemented; others are in progression, whereas some measures have been superseded by other actions which are being absorbed within other policies because of structural, administrative and legal changes.

While implementing measures, priority was directed towards adaptation policy and implementation of measures that secure sustainability of the environment irrespective whether projected climate impacts materialise. On the other hand, there are certain measures in which Malta is facing difficulties in implementing due to limited budgets, lack of data to sustain certain decisions and capacity building issues
Monitoring of the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (May 2012) was also conducted through the screening of the Malta’s National Environment Policy (NEP) under the sections related to climate change. This policy document identifies climate change as a long-term sustainability issue for Malta and underlines the synergies that can be exploited between the various related sectors. The review of the National Environmental Policy has been carried through consultations with all the line Ministries with a view to pave the way to the Strategy for the Environment in accordance to the Environment Protection Act – Chapter 549. Moreover, as already outlined, the Climate Action Act (Chapter 543) foresees periodic reviews and update of the National Adaptation Strategy.
Sectorial policy in Malta lies within the remit of the specific Ministries, Departments, Government Authorities or Agencies responsible for the sector. This can also be said to form the first level of policy setting that potentially contributes to limiting or reducing national greenhouse gas emissions, through a bottom-up sectorial approach. Individual industrial enterprises, particularly major parastatal organisations whose activities contribute substantially to national emission levels, also often contribute to such a policy-making approach. As already mentioned before, the review of the adaptation strategy will be incorporated in the Low Carbon Development Strategy which is set to be completed in 2021.

Governance of climate action is delineated specifically through the Climate Action Act (Chapter 543) and mainstreamed across all sectors. Cooperation is facilitated through Inter Departmental and Inter Ministerial Committees. This together with the strengthening of the institutional set up can ensure an efficient administrative, policy and legal approach to adaptation and mitigation measures. Due to the country’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are dependent on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.

To establish oversight of policy development and implementation of climate action policy, capacity building is currently ongoing within the Ministry, through the setup of a specific Directorate for the Environment and Climate Change (DECC) within the Office of the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry. This Directorate, which was set up in December 2013, seeks to advise Government on climate action, to oversee and monitor the implementation of the relevant strategies as adopted by Government and as directed by the Minister responsible for climate change policy. The Directorate ensures and facilitates the collaboration between the different agencies with direct or indirect responsibility for the protection and management of the environment and climate change.

On the other hand, the Malta Resources Authority (MRA) is primarily responsible for fulfilling technical functions relating to mitigation action pursuant to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and EU climate-related legislation. The MRA is designated as the national inventory agency for the preparation of annual inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals in accordance with the EU’s Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (MMR which will be superseded by the EU Energy Union Governance Regulation). The MRA also prepares biennial reports on policies and measures and projections of greenhouse gas emissions and removals under the MMR, national communications to the UNFCCC and biennial reports under the Kyoto Protocol, and reports emanating from EU legislation relating to the LULUCF sector (LULUCF Decision and LULUCF Regulation). The MRA is also designated as the competent authority for Malta for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, in respect of stationary installations and aircraft operators, and as the National Registry Administrator for Malta.

With regard to disbursement of funds to increase climate resilience, the following information have been communicated by the Policy Development, Programme Implementation and EU Affairs Directorate - within the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) - who is responsible for implementation of policies and programmes (including EU-funded projects) . These measures were funded under the Rural Development Programme.
1. M4.4 all budget - €24,861,055.50. - ‘Support for non-productive investments linked to the achievement of agri-environment-climate objectives.’ Support under Non-Productive Investments Measure may be provided for capital investment, including works, that complement commitments taken under the agri-environment-climate schemes, such as, for example, the preparation and implementation of management plans, planting of trees and removal of invasive/alien species, the establishment, repair and restoration of field boundaries such as terraced rubble walls, field vegetation hedges and borders, and related investments and works that are necessary for the restoration and management of habitats and areas of ecological importance, for soil and water conservation and for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

2. M4.1 investments related to water reservoir sand - €2,274,598.77 - ‘Support for Investments in Agricultural Holdings’ - This Measure will provide support for on-farm investments aimed at improving the overall performance and sustainability of agricultural holdings through operations that increase the productivity and rational use of inputs. Support under this Measure covers investments in water capture, storage and distribution, smart irrigation, investments in the use of recycled water.

3. M4.3 WSC project – €21,491,400 – ‘Support for investments in infrastructure related to development, modernisation or adaptation of agriculture and forestry - The Scope of this Measure 4.3 is to provide infrastructure needed for the development of agriculture and forestry, which will be of benefit to a wider range of rural and agricultural stakeholders (particularly for water management, renewable energy and improved access). In this case we are only referring to the water management component of the sub-measure.

The following information have been communicated by the Malta Permanent Representation to the EU (PREU)

CF.10.998

PA 10

The project includes several actions which address all the main blocks of the Corporation’s operational cycle, namely: water production, wastewater collection and treatment and water reuse. With an investment of circa €17.9M on the setting up of a secondary network to deliver HPTTW to communal distribution points across the Maltese Islands, the project will provide New Water to an increasing number of consumers hence enabling its use in substitution of groundwater.
Included under "State of play of the implementation of measures planned under 'Strategies and Plans', including an overview of the subnational level and the disbursement of funding to increase climate resilience"
Included under "State of play of the implementation of measures planned under 'Strategies and Plans', including an overview of the subnational level and the disbursement of funding to increase climate resilience"
A vulnerability and risk assessment for the Maltese islands is planned to start in 2021 with aim of identifying the priority areas within economic sectors in the Maltese Islands, in terms of vulnerability to the impacts of climate change.

Monitoring of the current National Adaptation strategy has also taken place and the LCDS strategy is in the process of being finalized. The strategy will contain a number of adaptation measures identified per sector (as previously explained in subheading 1.3), namely:
• Cross-sectoral;
• Water Resources;
• Infrastructure and Transport;
• Land Use and Buildings;
• Natural Ecosystems, Agriculture and Fisheries;
• Health issues,
• Civil Protection and Immigration;
• Tourism.

Implementation of climate specific actions on adaptation is undertaken by the relevant Ministries or departments depending on the different sectors in which action is being taken. Relevant Ministries and departments responsible for specific implementation include, inter alia, Ministry for the Environment, Climate Change and Planning (MECP), Ministry for Energy, Enterprise and Sustainable Development (MECD), Ministry for Foreign and European Affairs (MFEA), Ministry for Finance and Employment (MFE), Ministry for Transport, Infrastructure and Capital Projects (MTIP), Transport Malta (TM), the Malta Resources Authority (MRA) and Environment Resources Authority (ERA) amongst others.
Included under "Progress towards reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks"
Included under "Progress towards reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks"
Included under "Progress towards reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks"
Included under "Progress towards reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks"
Included under "Progress towards reducing climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks"
Due to the country’s size and limited resources adaption actions are implemented at a national level and are depended on the central administration, thus subnational execution does not apply.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Investments in the water sector are linked to efficient water supply waste-water treatment and water reuse as well as the implementation of RBMP to ensure integrated water management at the river basin scale. Important threats are linked to water quantity as well as quality. Flood risk maps include the history of floods and climate scenarios. A Guidance document on adaptation to climate change in water management is available to ensure that the RBMP are climate-proofed. Evaluations of the RBMP and FRMP are also available on the EC website.
ECO GOZO - The aim of this campaign was to deliver information sessions on water and energy conservation, renewable energy and waste management in every household in Gozo. The main objectives were to increase awareness and disseminate eco-friendly information with the aim of improving the quality of life and levels of sustainability on the island.

Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed that a favourable disposition towards renewable energy (RE) technologies, energy-saving and water-conservation measures already existed amongst households.
Project investments in the waste sector are related to treatment infrastructure, and closure of landfills. Potential impacts of climate change on waste infrastructure may include increased rates of waste decomposition, odour and dust due to increased temperatures, flooding of landfills and waste treatment facilities, and reduced water availability for wet processes in waste treatment facilities. Also, the impact on transport infrastructure should be considered, as transport in terms of waste collection is a critical component of waste management (collection, transport to and from waste treatment facilities). The impact on transportation is discussed in the section on transport above.
An active engagement with the population specifically focusing on water conservation and its efficient use is currently being undertaken through a National Water Conservation Campaign. This campaign is being coordinated by EWA and is funded through an EU Funded Project (CF.PA10.0096). This sustained effort in awareness raising on water conservation at a national low level is required to ensure that Malta improves on the already low per capita water consumption levels, given the lack of availability of natural freshwater resources and the ever increasing pressures on our natural water systems.

This national campaign commenced in 2018 and is planned to continue till until mid-2022.
Adaptation Measures adopted in Malta are in line with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.

With regard to SDGs, Malta’s commitment towards climate change adaptation fits with:
• SDG 11 (Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable);
• SDG 13 (Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts);
• SDG 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development); and
• SDG 15 (Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss).

However, climate change is also an important factor in achieving all SDGs, due to their cross-cutting nature. Climate change and climate related disasters could also trigger social and political unrests and tensions, which apart from the above listed SDGs would also have an impact on achieving SDGs 5, 9, 10, and 16. Furthermore, climate change can also exacerbate food insecurity, water scarcity etc. Therefore, it would also have an impact on SDGs 1 and 6.

Malta’s Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (September 20202013) and the Vulnerability Risk Assessment which will be carried out between 2021 and 2022 and will comply with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
Malta is current involved in several EUEU funded and international projects in Climate Change Adaptation. These include:

SOCLIMPACT (https://soclimpact.net/). It aims at modelling and assessing downscaled climate change impacts and low carbon transition pathways in European islands and archipelagos, complementing current available projections for Europe, and nourishing actual economic models with non-market assessment.

ENISIE (https://enisie.eu/). The aim is to contribute towards the smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth of the cross-border area.

Protect, Predictive Modelling Tools to evaluate the Effects of Climate change on food safety and spoilage (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/813329). The project aims to provide high- level training in Predictive Modelling Tools to evaluate the effects of climate change on food safety to a new generation if high achieving early stage researchers and provide them with the transferable skills required for further research in this area.

RENATURE, promoting Research Excellence in Nature-based solutions for innovation, sustainable economic Growth and human well-being in Malta (http://renature-project.eu/). It aims to establish and implement a strategy and research cluster to step-up and stimulate scientific excellence and innovation capacity in the area of nature-based solutions for sustainable development.

CORALLO (https://www.um.edu.mt/[…]/marine-protected-areas-corallo). It addresses issues linked with Marine Protected Areas.

ERDF.05.121 – WILDLIFE REHABILITATION CENTRE (https://naturetrustmalta.org/[…]/). It will set up a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre to provide ex-situ rehabilitation of wildlife from across Malta and surrounding seas: marine (turtles and cetaceans), terrestrial (such as hedgehogs, shrews, lizards, snakes and bats) and avian fauna. Implementation of Maritime Spatial Planning in our Common Mediterranean.

Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) (https://mspmed.eu/project/). The aim is to facilitate the MSP Directive’s processes, currently at different stages of implementation, in the Member States (MS) surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, by supporting the establishment of coherent and coordinated maritime spatial plans across the Region.

GREEN INFRASTRUCTURES FOR INCREASING BIODIVERSITY IN AGRO PONTINO AND MALTESE RURAL AREAS (LIFE17 NAT/IT/000619) (http://lifegreenchange.eu/en/). It intends to contribute to halting the loss of biodiversity and to enhance the ecological value of the agricultural systems of the Agro Pontino and of the northern region of Malta, by planning and implementing Green Infrastructures and multifunctional actions in rural, semi-natural and natural areas.

The EIT Urban Mobility (https://eit.europa.eu/our-communities/eit-urban-mobility) was launched in Malta with the aim of facilitating networking between all the stakeholders and developing opportunities for local players representing industry, academia, research, innovation and cities.
Malta has taken part in a number of EU funded projects in the area of Climate Change Adaptation. These include:
• Green Roofs LIFEMEDGREENROOF (LIFE12 ENV/MT/000732) (http://www.lifemedgreenroof.org/). It aimed to provide a baseline study of green roof technology in the Mediterranean environment in order to mitigate the problems of flooding.
• Fostering Water-Agriculture Research and Innovation in Malta (FOWARIM) (https://ec.europa.eu/[…]/fostering-water-agriculture-research-and). The outcomes of the project included the promotion of innovations and best practices in agricultural water management
• EnRoute (https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en[…]ure-enroute-progress-report). Its aim was to measure the ecosystem services of green infrastructure (GI) within urban areas.
• WasteServ (https://www.wsm.com.mt/). It aimed to improve regional policy on landfill management through an exchange of best practices and information between participating countries.
• CONSUME-LESS (https://consume-less.interreg-med.eu/what-we-do/). It aimed to tackle any issues that threaten the preservation of ecosystem services due to touristic inflows.
• MICROWATTS (https://microwatts-water.com/). It aimed to mitigate problems of water shortage in Malta and Sicily by reclaiming greywater from kitchens, bathroom sinks and showers and reusing them for flushing purposes after adequate treatment.
• ESMERALDA: Enhancing ecoSysteM sERvices mApping for poLicy and Decision mAking (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/642007). It contributed to the creation of Ecosystems Services mapping and assessment strategies for all 28 Member States including Norway, Switzerland, and Israel.
• SIM4Nexus, Sustainable Integrated Management FOR the NEXUS of water-land-food-energy-climate for a resource-efficient Europe (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/689150). It adopted a unique approach to the study of interlinkages among water, energy, food, land, and climate.
• ‘CARISMAND’, Culture and Risk management in Man-made and Natural Disaster (https://www.carismand.eu/). It aimed to explore existing gaps and opportunities for improvement of disaster policies and procedures, and to develop a comprehensive toolkit which will allow professional as well as voluntary disaster managers to adopt culturally aware everyday practices.
• Climathon (https://climathon.climate-kic.org/). It aimed at harnessing a sense of consciousness amongst tourists, by making them aware the environmental impact of their behaviors and actions during their visits.
• Optimising the implementation of the 2nd RBMP in the Maltese River Basic District (LIFE 2015-2020) (https://ec.europa.eu/enviro[…].dspPage&n_proj_id=6523). It sought the development of numerical models of the main groundwater bodies in the Maltese islands to better determine the sustainable yield of these aquifer systems and their contribution for sustaining inland water-dependent terrestrial ecosystems.
• Marine environmental monitoring: towards effective management of Malta’s marine waters (https://era.org.mt/[…]/). It contributed to the effective management and sustainable use of marine resources, through sustained environmental monitoring in marine waters.

Ministry for The Environment, Climate Change and Planning

Directorate for the Environment and Climate Change
Policy development and Coordination
Gianpaolo Tomaselli
Manager

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'