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National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

The climate of Poland is characterized by great variability of weather and significant changes in the course of the seasons in subsequent years. Average values of the annual air temperature range from over 5 ° C to nearly 9 ° C. The warmest area is the south-western part of Poland, while the coldest is the north-eastern part of the country and mountain areas in the south. Average annual temperature amplitudes range from 19 ° C on the coast to 23 ° C on the eastern part of the country. Characteristic for climate diversity is the number of days with temperatures below 0 ° C, which may occur from early autumn to late spring, which ranges from 80 (at the seaside) to more than 120 in the north-eastern areas, in the mountains it exceeds 200. The variation in air temperature affects the length of the growing season and the period of active plant growth. On average, the growing season in Poland lasts 214 days, ranging from 199 to 233 days in accordance with the north-east-south-west temperature gradient. On the basis of the average daily air temperature in Poland, there are six seasons: early spring (0–5 ° C), spring (5–15 ° C), summer (above 15 ° C), autumn (5–15 ° C) early winter (0–5 ° C), winter (below 0 ° C). Precipitation is highly dependent on the shape of the terrain. The average rainfall is nearly 600 mm, but rainfall ranges from less than 500 mm in the central part of Poland to almost 800 mm on the coast and over 1000 mm in the Tatra Mountains. The highest amounts of precipitation fall in the summer months, during this period they are 2-3 times higher than in winter, and in the Carpathians even 4 times higher. Heavy rain (precipitation> 2 mm / min) occurs from April to September, with the highest frequency in July, and is often associated with the occurrence of storms.

The greatest impact on climatic conditions is exerted by extreme phenomena, the current intensification of which noticeably changes the dynamics of climate features in Poland. Among the unfavorable and burdensome thermal phenomena for the population in Poland is the appearance of severe heat waves, especially since the 1990s (series of days with a maximum daily air temperature of =30 ° C for at least 3 days) and hot days (with a maximum temperature of =30 ° C), most often found in the south-western part of Poland. In most of Poland, there is a downward trend in the number of frosty and very frosty days.

There has been a change in the structure of precipitation in most of Poland. Among other things, an increase in the number of days with high intensity rainfall (daily rainfall over 50 mm) was observed, especially in the southern regions. The analysis of the length of the periods without precipitation shows that in the entire eastern Poland (from the Vistula to the east), the rain-free period is extended even by 5 days / decade. It is the region of the country that is most often hit by drought disasters (including hydrological drought). The periodic appearance of droughts is a characteristic feature of the Polish climate. In the 20th century, droughts already occurred 24 times, and since the beginning of the 21st century, between 2001–2011, droughts have occurred 9 times in different periods of the year.

Drought is by far the most important challenge for Poland in terms of climate change. Even at the beginning of 2020, analytical models indicated that if long-term, moderate rainfall did not occur in the coming weeks, Poland would experience the worst drought in 50 years. The assessment of the drought from the 1987-2018 period indicates that as much as 55.6% of our country's area is at a high risk of drought. The areas with the highest, extreme risk level cover nearly 5% of the country.

The data is sourced from various reports from the Institute of Meterology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB)
The population structure in Poland is changing quantitatively and qualitatively. At the end of 2018, the population of Poland amounted to 38.411 million with the negative birth rate of - 0.06%. The drop in the number of births noted in recent years confirms that the population processes that have been shaping over the past 30 years have caused Poland to enter the period of another demographic crisis, which may have the character of a longer tendency. The currently observed demographic changes pose two particularly significant challenges. The first is the declining total population - in extreme cases taking the form of depopulation and shrinking cities. According to the forecast of the Statistics Poland published in 2014, by 2050 the population of Poland will decrease by about 4.5 million inhabitants, and the decrease will be almost entirely related to the number of urban residents. The second key challenge is the aging of the population. The change in the age structure of the population is due to three main reasons: increasing life expectancy, falling birth rates and migration processes. Statistics Poland (GUS) forecasts a decline in the working age population of 5.5 million people between 2013-2050. The decline in the population in cities has consequences for their development and functioning: shaping budgets (associated with higher expenses, especially in the field of health care and social security, and a decrease in income due to the reduction of the tax base), appropriate organization of public services, designing urban space, facilitating access to adequate-quality housing, participatory model of solving emerging problems, etc. It also has an impact on the labor market and the economic potential of cities. Due to the fact that mainly young people participate in the migration processes, there is a threat of a local outflow of entrepreneurial individuals and a deepened decline in the birth rate. This causes one of the biggest development problems in small and medium-sized cities. On the other hand, cities, especially the largest ones, face the challenge of ensuring adequate living conditions for those who migrate to them for work purposes. The observed demographic changes, with the simultaneous intense occurrence of suburbanization in Poland, will in the near future necessitate the maintenance of infrastructure and provision of public services for vast urbanized areas in many cities. This is particularly important in the context of actions for adaptation to climate change. The challenge is to create appropriate living and activity conditions for all groups of residents. It is particularly important to use the potential of the growing elderly population and to take measures to counteract social exclusion and passivity as well as creating livable cities in the face of climate change.

Source: Statistics Poland (GUS), National Urban Policy 2023.
The most significant effects of climate change in Poland will be an increased frequency of extreme weather events and disasters, which will have a serious impact on vulnerable areas, the country's infrastructure and the economy. Heavy rains with the risk of flooding and inundation or landslides will be of primary importance - mainly in mountain and upland areas, but also on the slopes of river valleys and on cliffs along the seashore. Drought will increasingly affect the agricultural sector and the availability of drinking water and, consequently, the national economy. Increasingly stronger winds, tornadoes and storms will significantly affect, among others, construction, energy and transport infrastructure.

The proposed course of action in the field of adapting infrastructure to climate change is included in many strategic documents, e.g. National Adaptation Strategy 2020, National Environmental Policy 2030, National Urban Policy 2023 and KLIMADA. The actions that are the most significant for infrastructure and economy in the light of adapting to climate change are as follow:
1. Taking into account the possibility of supporting the non-life insurance system from public funds and taking into account measures to minimize the effects of extreme events tailored to the specificity of specific territories (including in the area of infrastructure and construction).
2. Flood risk management, including the provision of critical infrastructure; increasing the retention capacity and restoration of watercourses.
3. Development of water-drainage infrastructure and other infrastructure mitigating natural hazards
4. Water management for protection against floods, drought and water shortage.
5. Strengthening forest fire protection through the development of fire risk monitoring systems and fire protection infrastructure related to forest protection.
6. Development of local adaptation plans, modernization and proper functioning of the sewage and rainwater infrastructure, implementation of innovative solutions in construction and infrastructure as well as model development of green urban space.
7. Adaptation of legal acts and technical regulations regarding documenting changes in geological conditions and natural resources, designing, building and adapting transport infrastructure to climate change, especially in areas exposed to the risk of flooding, flooded and landslides
8. Monitoring of climate change in advance, which is of particular importance in agricultural production. The monitoring results should constitute an element of information activities supporting the development of agricultural production and the use of modern agrotechnical methods. On the other hand, monitoring of emergencies in rural areas is crucial for the population, infrastructure and farms and should be directly linked to the local alert system.
9. Establishing permanent monitoring or adapting current monitoring systems to control elements of construction and transport infrastructure sensitive to climate change, and creating or adapting warning systems for technical services
10. Improving water demand management, adjusting water charges to the "scarcity" of water in a given area, strengthening the incentive function of water charges.
11. Gradual replacement of overhead lines with cable lines (especially low voltage lines).
12. Preferring the construction of blocks with closed cooling systems, mainly through environmental decisions.

All mentioned actions are directly related to the most common and important risks that climate change is posing on the polish infrastructure and economy.

Source: "Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030” (NAS 2020); KLIMADA; National Urban Policy 2023; National Environmental Policy (PEP 2030).

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-15

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • actual NAS - adopted
National adaptation plan (NAP)
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Being developed
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Being developed
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
In terms of monitoring, modeling, forecasting and scenarios related to climate metrological phenomena, the most important institutions are Institute of Meterology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) and Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOS-PIB).

IMGW-PIB conducts continuous air temperature monitoring, including gathering information on the classification of thermal conditions, variability of thermal conditions and recording of extreme temperatures. These data have been monitored annually since 1951.

Since then, water levels in the Baltic Sea have been monitored as well. In the period 1951-2020 the water level in the southern part of the basin has been systematically increasing. The growth rate is varied, higher in the eastern part of the coast (mean sea level increase by nearly 13 cm in Swinoujscie and by almost 15 cm in Wladyslawowo during the above-mentioned period).

IMGW-PIB carries out research on classification of pluvial conditions, probability of exceeding maximum daily precipitation, cumulated precipitation and number of days with precipitation as well as storm measurements at selected stations.

IMGW-PIB provides insolation data and has prepared a list of extreme weather phenomena that occurred in Poland in 2020.

The above data were published in a newly released document "Climate of Poland 2020".

Research on monitoring and projecting changes in temperature is being carried out by IOS as part of the Klimada project.

The project resulted in the adoption of the "Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030" (NAS 2020). For the purposes of NAS 2020, a historical analysis of the Polish climate since 1971 has been developed. The document also includes an Analysis of climate change trends in Poland until 2030. On its basis, the expected spatial differentiation of climatic conditions in Poland was made.

Under Klimada 2.0 project the study “Changes in temperature and precipitation in Poland in the conditions of the future climate until 2100” was prepared. The study includes predictions and scenarios of temperature changes and precipitation in Poland until 2100.

In case of monitoring and prediction of flood risk in Poland, the main institutions responsible are the Institute of Meterology and Water Management - National Research Institute and the National Water Management Authority which is National Water Holding “Polish Waters”. As part of measures to minimise the negative effects associated with flood risk, flood hazard and flood risk maps and Flood Risk Management Plans (PZRP) were drawn up for the entire area of Poland. The main objective of the PZRP is to reduce the potential negative effects of floods on human life and health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity, through the implementation of measures to minimize the identified threats. These activities will be carried out by to reduce flood losses.

The flood risk maps show areas with a specific probability of flooding:
areas with a low probability of flooding of once in 500 years (Q 0.2%);
areas with a medium probability of flooding of once in 100 years (1%);
areas with a high probability of flooding of once in 10 years (Q 10%).

The flood hazard maps are complemented by flood risk maps that identify potential flood losses and show the facilities that could be flooded if floods with a certain probability occurrence.

In terms of drought monitoring in Poland, there is an Agricultural Drought Monitoring System. It is operated by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation. The developed system includes computer applications that integrate meteorological data needed to calculate the climatic water balance (KBW) and data from a digital soil-agricultural map showing the spatial differentiation of water retention of various agronomic soil categories. The task of monitoring agricultural drought is to identify areas where drought losses occur.

Furthermore, between 2011 and 2015, the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation developed an information system on climate change impacts for agriculture and adaptation methods. The project outcome fine-tuned the available climate change models to the Polish agricultural sector’s needs.

Also in case of drought and water management, the “Development of drought impacts prevention plans for the river basins” project was carried out under the Infrastructure and Environment OP 2014-2020 and co-founded by the Cohesion Fund. The project was coordinated by the National Water Management Authority and was implemented between 2016 and 2020. The drought impacts prevention plans were developed by regional water management authorities. In effect flood risk management plans were adopted in October 2016 for three river basin districts in Poland (i.e. Odra River Basin, Vistula River Basin and Pregola River Basin).

Collected data for the purposes of drought monitoring are analyzed and used by National Water Management Authority. The result of these activities are reports concerning the problem of drought in Poland. The latest report presents information on the hydrological situation in Poland in 2020. It also presents details of the river basin resource shaping program which has contributed to the increase in national retention.

The most recent project in the field of hydrology in Poland is the development of a Drought Counteracting Plan (PPSS). The main objectives of the PPSS are:
• effective water resources management to increase available water resources,
• increasing water retention (storage)
• education in field of drought and coordination of drought-related activities,
• creation of mechanisms for implementation and financing of activities aimed at counteracting the effects of drought.

PPSS is developed for a period of 6 years (2021-2027).

In terms of water quality in Poland within the framework of the State Environmental Monitoring, the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (GIOS) performs monitoring of surface and groundwater quality.

The aim of the monitoring is to provide knowledge on the condition of waters, which is necessary to take action to improve their condition and protect them from pollution. These activities should ensure protection against eutrophication caused by household and agricultural sources and protection against industrial pollution, including salinity and substances especially harmful to the aquatic environment.

The aim of groundwater quality monitoring is to provide information on the chemical status of groundwaters, to monitor its changes and to signal threats in the scale of the country, for the purposes of groundwater resources management and the assessment of the effectiveness of undertaken protective measures. Groundwater monitoring in Poland is carried out through the national, regional and local networks.

In terms of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, the National Database on Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Other Substances is maintained. The body responsible for coordinating the work within the aforementioned database is The National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE), which is part of the Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute. The National Base is an IT system, containing a secure database, which enables entering and processing information on emissions.

Another project coordinating by KOBiZE is LIFE Climate CAKE PL. The main goal of the project is to create a permanent comprehensive system for generating and providing information on the effects of climate and energy policy for the purpose of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation of the Community policy in this area. The activities of the project are focused primarily on supporting the decision-making process and increasing the knowledge potential and competences of the state administration dealing with climate and energy policy issues

In terms of monitoring hazards related to mass movements, there is the Anti-Landslide Protection System (SOPO). The system was established in 2006 to effectively prevent damage to the construction and communication infrastructure. The project is implemented by the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute. The effect of the SOPO project is therefore the reduction of the risk of landslides.
The climate change scenarios for Poland prepared for the NAS 2020 were developed at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computer Modelling at the University of Warsaw. They are based on the results of simulations of the atmosphere and ocean hydrodynamic models. Due to the considerable level of uncertainty associated with insufficient knowledge of physical laws governing the atmosphere and the environment as well as due to a whole range of initial assumptions, inter alia, on the global economic and demographic development, and thus on scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere, they may not be regarded as reliable climate forecasts.

In preparing scenarios, the results of regional simulations from the EU’s ENSEMBLES project and observation data from the E-OBS gridded dataset have been used. Scenarios have been prepared using a scheme of global changes in greenhouse gas emissions developed by the IPCC SRES A1B, which assumes the rapid global economic development, reaching of the maximum population level in the middle of the century and also takes into account the sustainable use of various energy sources. Simulations carried out for the A1B scenario reflect the image of average changes when compared to extreme scenarios A2 and B1. Due to the policy of adaptation to forthcoming climate change, it is not recommended to apply excessively radical scenarios but rather to rely on a moderate scheme, which justifies the choice of the scenario A1B. The differences resulting from the application of different models are very important and it is necessary to take them into account. The results presented in NAS 2020 are based on an analysis of a batch of eight regional simulations using, as the boundary conditions, the results of four different global models. Simulations differ from each other, giving a slightly different picture of future changes.

Moreover, the analysis of climate change trends in Poland until 2030 included in the NAS 2020 was carried out on the basis of climate indices:

Average annual temperature,

Number of days with temperature <0°C,

Number of days with temperature >25°C,

Number of degree days <17°C,

Length of the vegetation period >5°C (in days),

Max. daily precipitation (in mm),

Length of dry periods <1mm (in days),

Length of wet periods >1mm ( in days),

Number of days with snow cover.

Temperature and precipitation changes in Poland under the conditions of the future climate until 2100 (Scenarios prepared for Klimada 2.0 project purposes)

The reference information for the development of scenarios of temperature changes and precipitation in Poland in the conditions of the future climate up to 2100 (developed under Klimada 2.0) are simulations using global models, which are the basis for the development of IPCC Assessment Reports.

The results presented in the document come from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) set. On the basis of these data, regional projections are created under the international CORDEX6 initiative, of which EuroCORDEX7 is a part of the European area. The results of regional climate models available in the EuroCORDEX repository are input data for research on the regional impacts of climate change in various sectors in most European countries.

Using numerous experiences of European countries, the conditions of the future climate for the territory of Poland were determined on the basis of the results of climate simulations carried out as part of the EuroCORDEX project, for the period 2006-2100. The available simulations with regional climate models were used for the area covering the whole of Europe, with a resolution of 0.11 o (approx. 12.5 km).

The analyzes of temperature and precipitation changes for Poland were carried out for two development scenarios described by the acronyms RCP4.5 and RCP8.59. The moderate RCP4.5 scenario assumes a further increase in CO2 concentrations, respectively to 540 ppm in 2100, and the achievement of the radiative forcing of 4.5 W / m2, while the RCP8.5 extrapolation scenario corresponds to an increase in CO2 concentrations to 940 ppm in 2100 and a continuous increase radiation input to the level of 8.5 W / m2.

The basic meteorological parameters enabling the determination of exposure and sensitivity to climate change are:
• Average daily temperature [°C]
• Maximum daily temperature [°C]
• Minimum daily temperature [°C]
• Daily sum of rainfall [mm / day]

All available model results for the above four parameters were downloaded from the EuroCORDEX repository. Several implementations were available for each parameter. A single unique series of calculations is clearly defined by identifying a pair: the regional climate model (RCM) used as a calculation tool for dynamic scaling and the global climate model (GCM), the results of which were used as the so-called boundary conditions for simulation.

To calculate the forecasts of climate change for Poland, statistical scaling based on historical data based on observations and the cluster approach allowing for the assessment of projection uncertainty were additionally used.

Climate of Poland 2020 (developed by IMGW-PIB)

In turn, the methodology of the document prepared by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, containing analyzes of the variability of thermal conditions, was based on the determination of equal temperature values for the basic physiogeographic units of Poland. They are (from the north): the coastal belt and the South Baltic Coasts, the lake district belt, the lowland belt, the highland belt, the Subcarpathian region, the Carpathian Mountains and the Sudetes. Additionally, in order to reflect the influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Asian continent, the strip of lowlands and the lake district were divided into western and eastern parts along the 19 ° E meridian. Such a division allows to show the possible differentiation related to the thermal regionalization of Poland.

In terms of the amount of precipitation, the modeling was based on the classification of pluvial conditions and cumulative rainfall totals and the number of days with precipitation. Expressing the amount of rainfall in a given year as a percentage of the amount of rainfall in a normal period allows for the introduction of a classification that allows for a descriptive presentation of pluvial conditions that prevailed in a given station or in a given area. As regards the method of measuring by means of cumulative precipitation and the number of days with precipitation, it makes it possible to easily identify the periods of deficit or excess of precipitation in relation to multi-year periods and, moreover, it identifies periods with no precipitation or very little precipitation as well as instances of high precipitation values.

In addition, the Climatic Water Balance (KBW) is measured, which is the difference between precipitation recharge, i.e. the amount of precipitation, and field evaporation, which can be determined either by measurements or by empirical formulas. A positive KBW value means that there was an excess of precipitation over evaporation in the period to which it applies. In the case of a negative KBW, the opposite is true, evaporation outweighs precipitation.

As part of monitoring and obtaining data on hydrological and meteorological hazards, IMGW-PIB and National Water Management Authority provide data within the framework of Hydroportal and IMGW's map service. The hydroportal provides data on the preliminary flood risk assessment, flood risk maps, water management plans, flood hazard maps, flood risk management plans. These data sources are publicly available to any portal user in the form of WMS and WFS data (weblink: https://wody.isok.gov.pl/imap_kzgw/).

In the case of IMGW service one can find there information indicating areas of Poland where hydrological and meteorological threats occur (IMGW-PIB warnings). Additionally, there are available data such as:

Map of air pollution due to meteorological conditions,

Map of surface and groundwater intakes in areas at risk of flooding,

Map of disturbances in electrical power networks due to meteorological conditions,

Map of threats to human life and health due to meteorological conditions (weblink: https://imgw.isok.gov.pl/imap_imgw/).

Both described services are part of the System of Protection Against Extreme Hazards (ISOK).
General information concerning the aspects on the assessment of climate impacts, vulnerability and risks, including adaptive capacity and are included in the NAS 2020 (https://klimada.mos.gov.pl/[…]/ENG_SPA2020_final.pdf) and in the study summarizing the MPA project (http://44mpa.pl/[…]/MPA_NET-PL-20-12.pdf).
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Changing temperature (air freshwater marine water)
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil degradation (including desertification)
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
  • Changing wind patterns
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Sea level rise
Solid mass
  • Landslide
  • Soil degradation (including desertification)
Climate change will significantly determine the state of biodiversity as it affects the range of species, including invasive alien species, their reproductive cycles, growing seasons and interactions with the environment. Biodiversity under the influence of these changes is gradually being transformed.

Mountain ecosystems are likely to be the most vulnerable. It is estimated that in these areas in Poland 60% of species are threatened with extinction due to climate change.

Climate change is associated with unfavourable changes in hydrological conditions. Although the annual sums of precipitation do not change significantly, their character becomes more irregular, which results in longer periods without rainfall, interrupted by heavy rainfall (torrential rain).

Groundwater level will be decreasing, which will adversely affect biodiversity and forms of nature conservation, in particular water reservoirs and wetlands. Changes will also be observed in winter season, when the duration and thickness of snow cover will shorten and the evaporation process will intensify, which will result in a decrease in the country's water resources.

The projected increase in intensity and frequency of storms and an increase in wave height in the Baltic Sea will result in increased coastal erosion phenomena and increased salinity of groundwater in lower-lying areas. Changes in the character of the coastline due to human-induced transformations also affect erosion and accumulation processes. Progressive shore erosion increases the flood hazard from the sea.

Landslides cause degradation of the areas covered by them and damage to buildings and infrastructure (road network, sewage system, telecommunication and electricity lines, gas pipelines). In agricultural areas, crops are destroyed and sometimes the agricultural function of the area needs to be restored. In forest areas, landslides cause damage to tree stands.

Climate change will also result in an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events and disasters, which will have a significant impact on vulnerable areas and the country's economy. Of primary importance will be heavy rains carrying the risk of flooding and flooding or landslides - mainly in mountainous and upland areas, but also on the slopes of river valleys and on cliffs along the coast as well as in cities and urban areas.

Strong winds and even incidental tornadoes and lightning will become more frequent and may significantly affect agriculture, forestry, construction and energy and transport infrastructure, among others.

Extreme climatic events cause significant social and economic losses. They hit infrastructure (buildings, transport, energy and water supply), posing a particular threat to land use in densely populated areas. This situation could be exacerbated by rising sea levels.)

Source: Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030 (NAS 2020); KLIMADA
A changing climate will have a key impact on production conditions in the agricultural and forestry sectors. Water scarcity is one example of the negative impacts on the agricultural and forestry sectors as a result of climate change. Periodically, flooding due to heavy rainfall as well as frost are also a problem. In addition, as the growing season lengthens due to an increase in average temperature, the threat of crop pests and changes in their range increases. The threat also relates to animal diseases or reduction of their productivity, which may significantly affect the efficiency of agricultural production and, on a larger scale, the level of the country's food security. Extension of the growing season also increases the risk of pests affecting forest production and, in the longer term, changes in the range of occurrence of individual tree species.

The expected warming of the climate will result in the migration of species, including invasive ones, mainly from Southern Europe, No

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
In terms of the needs of plant production, the most important changes are the characteristics of temperature and precipitation.

The direct impact is expressed by changing the weather conditions for the productivity of crops, including changes in thermal conditions, the sum of precipitation, the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Factors indirectly determining the yield of plants, such as plant cultivation and fertilization requirements, also change with climate change. The change in crop productivity is also influenced by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ozone in the lower atmosphere.

The analyzes showed that, starting from the end of the 1970s, the yield variability in Poland was increasing due to climatic reasons. Spring crops show a particularly large increase in yield variability in the recent period, which may be the result of a greater frequency of late spring droughts.

The analysis of the sum of effective temperatures on the example of maize for the period 2001-2010 showed that the observed increase in the average temperature in Poland by about 0.8oC is of great importance for the maturation conditions of thermophilic plants. The increase in the average temperature in Poland also accelerates the development of pests, creating a greater threat to crops.

The observations and analyzes for the period 1970-2010 show that in Poland there was a statistically significant increase in the sum of index evapotranspiration in the growing season (April-September). A change in the temporal structure of precipitation is noticeable - the amount of precipitation increases in winter and early spring, and decreases in spring and summer. This causes a reduction in the climatic water balance.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Using the climate scenarios for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, an analysis of changes in indicators characterizing thermal and water conditions for agriculture in Poland was carried out.

The growing season in Poland, defined by the number of days with daily air temperature higher than 5oC, will be longer than in the years 1971-2000 by 16 days in the years 2021-2050, and by 41 days in the years 2071-2100.

In the period of 2021-2050, regionally different changes in water conditions for agriculture were found: insignificant in the region of Olsztyn, Warsaw and Krakow, deterioration in the region of Bydgoszcz, improvement in the region of Wroclaw. In the 2071-2100 perspective, changes in water conditions indicators were assessed as negative. In the years 2071-2100, the demand for water by agricultural crops will increase to a small and large extent, the soil moisture conditions will deteriorate to a large and very large extent, and the intensity of agricultural drought will increase significantly. On the other hand, the increase in the variability of water conditions in the multiannual 2021-2050 resulted in an increase in the indicators of excessive soil moisture, and a decrease in the multiannual 2071-2100.
Vulnerability
medium
The conducted analysis of the state and organization of water management in agriculture showed that the water management systems in Poland for the purposes of agriculture are not efficient. The unfavorable state of water management is due to the poor organization of water management entities. Their activity is underfunded and is based on low-technical water-drainage devices.

As part of adaptation measures, financing of all measures related to the management of agricultural water resources (increasing retention, including small water retention, active and passive flood protection, sustainable irrigation) should be increased. It is very important to identify unfavorable phenomena and forecast them. It is important to raise awareness, both of decision-makers and farmers, of climate change that is already a fact and of future changes forecasted by climate scenarios. The conducted analysis indicates the need to take preventive actions consisting in ensuring mechanisms securing the shortages of agricultural products on the market and supporting farmers in restoring production after more frequent years with losses due to unfavorable climatic events (financial aid, ensuring access to seeds).
Risk Future Impact
high
The forecasted higher temperature in the growing season of plant vegetation will accelerate the development of plants, e.g. the maturity date of winter wheat in Poland in 2021-2050 will be 7 days earlier, and in 2071-2100 by - 20 days. In the case of maize (FAO210 - early maize), in the years 2021-2050 the acceleration of the maturation period will be 17 days, and in the years 2071-2100 even 39 days. The observed changes in thermal conditions and the impact of the changes on the phenology of crops will require, first of all, the terms of field works, and then, in the longer term, also the cultivation cubes in Poland.

The analysis of the impact of changes in agrometeorological conditions on the yielding of arable crops in Poland showed a tendency to increase yield losses resulting from the threats of agricultural drought. There will be an increase in the number of years with large yield losses of relatively small changes in average yields.

In connection with the development of drainage melioration, a change may occur due to a change in the temporal structure. On the other hand, an increase in air temperature in the summer period, an increase in evapotranspiration, which occurs along with a decrease in this period and an extension of the growing season, may be to supplement the water shortage for plants and indicate the search for the development of irrigation. Decrease of the atmospheric sum with a simultaneous increase in the share of short-term torrential rainfall and the amount of field evaporation in the winter half-year decrease in soil retention and groundwater level. Both of these expenditures influencing debating in small lowland catchments. Decreasing ground retention causes changes in the surface areas on which the runoff and subsurface surfaces are affected, resulting in the effects of a decrease in flood peak even with increasing rainfall efficiency.

In the field of livestock production, climatic changes, and hence the splendor of volatility in the yield of crops and pastures, may trigger shortages of feed on farms and increase prices. An increase in heat stress days will increase the heat stress tension in animals, which may be heated to stress. Change in thermal conditions during the growing season and in winter conditions.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate change affects the range of species, reproductive cycles, growing seasons and interactions with the environment. However, different species and habitats respond differently to climate change - some will be positively affected by this impact, others not. Most of the forecasted changes are based on changes in the values of average climatic parameters: precipitation, temperature, wind directions, but it also often happens as a result of extreme situations such as floods, strong winds and downpours. Due to these changes, biodiversity is gradually transformed.

Under the conditions of the temperate climate zone in which Poland is located, the most important changes will take place among thermophilic species (expansion towards the north) and cold-loving species (withdrawal from refugia areas throughout the country).

Extreme phenomena (in Poland these are mainly floods) affecting the biological parameters of the population and, consequently, biodiversity, may have a much greater impact than predicted by most modern models (such impact on local populations of amphibians and birds has been documented in Poland so far).
Key hazard likelihood
high
There is a risk that these phenomena will occur more frequently in the future.
Vulnerability
medium
Due to the close relationship between the occurrence of habitat types and geographical zones, the most endangered natural habitats in Poland include: coastal and brackish habitats, freshwater and stagnant water habitats, peat bogs, quaking bogs and inland springs, habitats of swamp forests, thermophilic oak forests, slope forests (on the southern and western slopes). Therefore, from the point of view of the protection of habitats, and thus biodiversity, the most important activities are related to the maintenance of wetlands and their restoration wherever possible. The disappearance of swamps, small water reservoirs, ponds, ponds, small shallow lakes, as well as streams and small rivers, documented in many areas of the Polish lowlands, is the greatest threat to numerous species that either live in these areas directly or use them as drinking water reservoirs. Habitats on coastal and inland dunes are among the less threatened. On the other hand, alluvial and riverside forests will probably increase their range as a result of the increased strength and frequency of floods, although changes in structure and function parameters will occur in these habitats, which are currently difficult to predict. The degree of threat to some habitats (e.g. xerothermic thickets) is still poorly known in Poland.

Migrations of species, which are a form of their adaptation to climate change, may, however, be prevented by "ecological obstruction" of landscapes transformed by man: lack of ecological continuity of plant formations, obstruction of ecological corridors (both river and forest), low saturation of the landscape with natural elements that may constitute "environmental islands” for individual species (eg small peat bogs, wetlands, ponds).

Invasive species are another major problem. The process of migration of aggressive species threatening native species should be monitored, as well as the processes of adaptation of these species to climate change.
Risk Future Impact
high
The observed and predicted changes in the hydrological regime throughout the country have a direct impact on biodiversity. There is a change in the structure of precipitation during the growing season, i.e. more frequent summer and spring droughts and an increase in the number of torrential precipitation, including hail. Due to the increased frequency of these phenomena, one should take into account the increasing number of extreme situations, such as floods, droughts, landslides and water erosion in the channels of watercourses. The effects of these changes will be particularly visible in the areas of the Polish Upland, where biodiversity can easily be impoverished and damaged directly. The period of snow cover and its thickness will also shorten. The problem of changes in the hydrological regime also concerns freshwater habitats, flowing or standing. This group is exposed to changes as a result of increased torrential rainfall, dry periods, eutrophication processes and disturbances in water flow in reservoirs. Moreover, as a result of the predicted climate changes, the disappearance of small surface water reservoirs (swamps, ponds, ponds, small shallow lakes as well as streams and small rivers) will continue. This poses a threat to numerous species that either indirectly live in these areas or use them as drinking water reservoirs and may result in extinction or migration of species.

Another major consequence of global warming is the projected rise in sea levels, which will result in changes to coastal ecosystems such as increased erosion and increased salinity in coastal zones. As a result of these changes, also habitats in coastal and inland dunes, where indirect changes such as increased wind speed or soil salinity, will take place. Lakeland areas, natural and semi-natural meadow formations and grasslands as well as peatlands are also exposed to the effects of climate warming due to the lowering of groundwater levels and progressive eutrophication. The Polish lowlands are also exposed to limitation of wetlands, including gradual drying up and disappearance of peat bogs, wet forests and coniferous forests.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
high
Cities located in river valleys are highly vulnerable to floods related to river flow as well as flooding as a result of heavy rainfall and small land slopes preventing rapid runoff of rainwater. Areas that were once considered floodplains are also more and more often developed. This is the main threat to this housing construction. In addition, excessive amounts of water caused by torrential rains are a big problem for the sewage system. Drainage of excess water from roofs or streets can be hampered by insufficient capacity of the existing installations.

Among public buildings, hospitals, hospices, nursing homes and kindergartens, which must be equipped with air conditioning during the summer due to high thermal stress, are particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures.

In rural areas, there are also buildings with a lightweight roof structure with a small number of transverse stiffeners. Such structures are sensitive to strong gusts of wind and heavy snowfall. Greenhouses, overhead power lines and aboveground slurry tanks are also sensitive to wind effects. On the other hand, the tanks sunk into the ground show sensitivity to fluctuations in the groundwater level, which, at high levels, may displace the structure from the ground and cause the tank to fail.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The analysis of the predicted climate changes important for the functioning of the construction industry shows that:
• warming will take place, expressed as an increase in the average daily temperature and a decrease in the number of cool days
• the period of snow cover on the ground will decrease,
• rainfall will increase, expressed both by an increase in the maximum daily rainfall and the number of days with extreme rainfall,
• the climate parameters indicated in the study * will be characterized by high variability in relation to extreme values.
* Prepared by based on the expertise of the KLIMADA project
Vulnerability
medium
Housing construction in urbanized (urban) areas and in rural areas (homestead cubature construction) was considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. The other two types, i.e. industrial and public utility construction, show greater resistance to climate change or not different from the first two.

A critical element requiring changes throughout the construction process are sewage networks, which must be prepared to receive more rainwater. The impact of rainfall must be taken into account in relation to the efficiency of sewage systems, the location of structures in floodplains, and the occurrence of slope landslides and washing out of bridge supports. Rapid temperature rises during periods of snow cover deposition may also cause significant outflows of meltwater, which may overload rain networks.

Adaptation measures aimed at limiting the negative effects of climate change on the construction sector should in particular concern:
• adaptation to climate change of standards used in the design of buildings
• monitoring the costs of prevention and liquidation of damages caused by climatic factors,
• monitoring of real climate change.

The sensitivity of the construction sector indicates the need to take into account climate change in national annexes to the Eurocodes in terms of the impact, first of all, of precipitation and wind, at the stage of: design, construction works, including foundation and foundation, and maintenance of facilities.

Historic buildings are a group susceptible to many effects of climate change (and especially to the increase in the dynamic impact of wind). It seems that in the face of the projected climate changes, historic buildings, constituting a significant part of the national heritage, require special attention. The elements of the structure that are particularly exposed to the dynamic effects of gusts of wind are the structures of roofs of historic buildings.
Risk Future Impact
high
If the tendency of temperature increase, expressed by a several-degree increase in the average daily temperature and shortening of the heating period, continues in the second half of the century, it will be necessary to analyze the adequacy of the currently used standards in the field of thermal insulation, principles of heating and air conditioning of buildings or principles of snow removal from roofs. For the same reasons, there may be a need to design solutions that take into account the occurrence of heat (e.g. the problem of air conditioning and ventilation of facilities). In the near future (2030, 2050), however, no need to change the regulations regarding the external housing.

Extending periods with high temperature and sunlight, with simultaneous increased evaporation, may lead to the appearance of frequent droughts, increasing the risk of fires.

The increase in the intensity of wind gusts will be dangerous for high and high-rise buildings and for farm buildings with a light roof structure.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
high
Apart from the obvious impact of the sea level rise, the negative phenomena mainly include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. In the case of the Baltic Sea, this refers to the possible increase in the number, intensity and duration of storms. Additionally, there may be an increase in the irregularity of these events, i.e. after long periods of relative calm, a series of rapidly successive storms may occur preventing the shore from recovering. An additional element accelerating the process of coastal erosion is the warming of winters, as a result of which a reduction of the ice cover should be expected, which protects beaches against storm waves and thus against coastal erosion. The accelerated rate of coastal erosion is already observed and is even up to 1.5 m / year in the most vulnerable places.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Key hazard likelihood
high
Scenarios of sea level changes show that in the period 2011-2030 the average annual sea level along the entire coast will be higher by about 5 cm compared to the reference period, i.e. 1971-1990. A very significant effect of climate change will be an increase in the frequency of storm floods and more frequent flooding of low-lying areas and degradation of coastal cliffs and the sea shore.
Vulnerability
medium
The parts of the Polish coast most exposed to sea erosion are the Hel Peninsula and the Central Coast, especially the spits of coastal lakes. Also, the Vistula Spit may become abrasive in the event of inappropriate hydrotechnical treatments. In addition, increased waves and improperly planned and carried out shore strengthening works may cause local disappearance of beaches and blurring of coastal dunes, which perform a protective function. In case of insufficient counteraction, it will lead to difficult to reverse fragmentation of the base part of the Hel Peninsula.

A particularly difficult problem may be the periodic increasing shortages of drinking water caused by contamination or salinity of groundwater, which are the main sources of drinking water for many towns, eg Gdansk. Another problem may be flooding of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, which will lead to uncontrolled emission of pollutants into the marine environment.

Irreversible losses resulting from climate change, in the event of abandoning any adaptation measures, may be caused by sea floods, flooding of low-lying areas with a total area of ??approx. 2,200 km2, over 20% of which are areas with unique natural values ??on a European or national scale, and more than 7% is highly urbanized and industrialized. Other estimated losses are:
• increasing the level of groundwater in low-lying areas to +1.25 m above sea level which will limit the use of many areas for residential and industrial purposes,
• loss of at least 120 km2 due to sea erosion,
• large cliffs landslides as a result of fractures during long periods of drought and deep water penetration,
• about 300 thousand people in the area of ??immediate risk, i.e. directly exposed to the effects of climate change (loss of housing),
• around 1.7 million people indirectly affected (job losses).
Risk Future Impact
high
The predicted climate changes may have a very negative impact on the coastal zone in Poland, and even cause difficulties in the functioning of the maritime economy. As a result of the sea level rise, negative changes in the coastal zone should be expected:
• narrowing of beaches and shifting the shoreline to the area of ??the present land
• erosion of dunes and cliffs
• increasing the coastal transport of sediments from the beach and dunes to the coast
• erosion of the base of permanent structures and destruction of bands and breakwaters
• increasing the number of shore disasters (sudden shore changes) in areas subject to strong anthropogenic impact
• raising the water level in lagoons, coastal lakes and increasing the range of backwaters in rivers
• rising groundwater levels and their salinity
• alteration of flora and fauna in flooded and flooded areas.

Another possible impact of climate change on the coast and the entire Baltic Sea are changes in salinity and temperature of sea waters. As a factor stimulating productivity, these changes may have a serious impact on the ecology of the Baltic Sea: an increase in water temperature and a decrease in salinity favor the development of thermophilic phytoplankton species, mainly cyanobacteria, additionally exacerbating the already observed intense mass blooms of cyanobacteria and algae. Other threats of an ecological nature include: threats to biodiversity, especially endemic species, and invasions of alien species disturbing the trophic chain, reproductive cycle and population structure of the Baltic species.

Natura 2000 areas located in the coastal zone are of a marine or coastal nature. The most serious changes related to the warming of sea waters, sea level rise and changes in the geochemistry of waters, in the case of implementation of the considered scenarios, will relate to:
• decline in the productivity of marine areas (changes in the composition and abundance of plankton), which will lead to disturbances in the trophic structure up to the highest level and will have a direct and indirect impact on all components of marine ecosystems;
• diminishing the range of coastal habitats as a result of the gradual transgression of the Baltic Sea and increased erosion. In this case, all dune and psammophilous habitats, cliffs, coastal forests on the dunes and on the tops of cliffs (including orchid beech forests), as well as lagoons and estuaries - with fauna and flora typical of brackish waters (due to salinity), will be at risk in this case;
• increase in the salinity of the coastal zone as a result of stronger winds and more frequent storm events - paradoxically, this factor could improve the situation of some brackish communities, of course, if it is not compensated by less rainfall and increased evapotranspiration due to higher average temperatures.

Among the areas of unique natural value, the areas of Slowinski and Wolinski National Park and the Coastal Landscape Park are endangered.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The impact of climatic conditions on the energy sector is varied and depends on the type of activity, i.e. energy production, electricity and heat demand, electricity distribution and energy generation sources.

The phenomena affecting the risk of damage to transmission and distribution networks are the occurrence of storms, including snowstorms, catastrophic rime and strong winds. Due to the frequent abrasion of various air masses over Poland, breakdowns occur as a result of gusty winds and days with a temperature of about 0°C, due to icing of the pipes.

Reducing the water level in rivers consequently leads to a reduction, limitation or even preventing the use of hydropower. Rains after periods of drought have a positive effect, but rains causing floods prevent the use of hydropower.

Long-term frosts can have a negative effect on wind turbines, especially in offshore wind parks, especially if icing conditions arise.

In relation to photovoltaic installations, the influence of climatic conditions is different. The efficiency will be the lower the higher the ambient temperature. In the case of large-scale PV installations, even strong and long-lasting winds will have a positive effect, increasing convection cooling. Short-term rain plays the role of cleaning photovoltaic panels, while long-term rain (high cloudiness) limits the efficiency of these installations, a similar effect will be caused by short-term and long-term snow.
Key hazard likelihood
not applicable
There is a risk that these phenomena will occur more frequently in the future.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
The Polish power system is dominated by overhead networks, which, unlike cable networks, are highly exposed to failures caused by strong winds and excessive icing. The occurrence of extreme weather phenomena such as hurricanes, intense storms, etc. may lead to an increased risk of damage to transmission and distribution lines, thus limiting the supply of electricity to consumers.

The availability of water for cooling is crucial for energy production. Water abstraction for these purposes accounts for 70% of total water abstraction in Poland. In conditions of high variability of precipitation, extreme situations (floods and droughts) and the increase in non-stationarity of flows may disrupt the availability of the necessary amounts of water, which is used for cooling purposes. In gas and steam systems, the level of efficiency and power additionally depend on the temperature of the air used to burn the fuel.

The growing importance of distributed, renewable energy sources should take into account the deterioration of wind conditions (long periods of windless weather, or short periods with hurricane-force winds). Biomass production will also be subject to the same limitations as the entire agricultural production due, in particular, to reduced water availability and reduced production efficiency. Only in the case of solar energy can an improvement in summer conditions be expected due to extended periods of sunny weather and a decrease in winter due to longer periods of cloud cover. In the field of energy crops, the key will be the development of new plant species, more resistant to changing weather conditions, and innovative cultivation techniques.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
With increased air temperature, evaporation of surface waters will increase, there will be disturbances in water management, which will consequently affect the cultivation of plants, including energy crops. With long and heavy rains, biomass plantations may be destroyed or excess moisture will negatively affect their energy efficiency. There may be a reduction in interest or abandonment of the development of biomass energy technologies. In the case of hydropower installations, water scarcity can significantly reduce their efficiency. In the case of wind energy, the energy conditions will worsen. Climate change will significantly increase the unpredictability of very strong winds, hurricanes and long periods of windlessness. The use of this energy source may therefore be associated with an increased risk both due to the predictability of energy production and due to the destruction of the installation. The climate projection shows that by 2070 the number of heating days, depending on the region of Poland, will decrease by approx. 17% due to the increase in temperature.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
One of the factors that strongly differentiate the occurrence of forests in Poland, apart from geological conditions, are the climatic conditions associated with the ecological optimum of individual species.

The increase in evaporation associated with the increase in temperature, as well as the decrease in the thickness and duration of snow cover, contributes to a decrease in humidity in forests, increasing the risk of fires and accelerating the process of soil mineralization.

The extended growing season helps to increase the survival rate of insects and accelerate their reproduction: more frequent, more dangerous and unpredictable outbreaks of pest outbreaks may result in the emergence of several new generations per year. In Poland, the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) has already appeared on a large scale - realizing up to 5 complete development cycles in one year, i.e. accelerating its development more than twice (two years of life in one calendar year).
Key hazard likelihood
high
The increase in air temperature causes, inter alia, that the northern boundary of the oak range, and at the same time the southern boundary of boreal species (including conifers, birch), move to the north. It is estimated that across Europe this border may shift by about 150-500 km during the current century. The natural speed of expansion and adaptation of tree species varies from 20 to 200 km per century, which means that without human intervention, the adaptation of forests to changed climatic conditions will not be possible.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Mountain ecosystems are the most vulnerable to climate change. Mountain forests today may lose up to 60% of their species, and the productivity of stands and their durability may collapse rapidly. Some subalpine forest types with the participation of pine trees and larch are highly endangered. Models of the dynamics of forest ecosystems on the northern slopes of the Alps indicate the possibility of expansion of fir, oak and hornbeam, which is also probable in the conditions of the Carpathians.

Forests in Poland, with the predominantly weak coniferous habitats, found themselves in a special situation in the face of climate change. The ecological optimum of the tree species present is related to the climatic conditions. The borders of natural ranges of many main forest-forming species of trees, also for Europe, run through the territory of Poland. It should be expected that, as a result of climate change, species composition and forest types will change significantly in the distant time horizon, due to the shift of ecological woody species to the north-east and the elevation of the forest boundary in the mountains. However, the soil requirements of trees in new areas may constitute a barrier to adjusting species composition to changes in average temperature and rainfall. This creates problems with forest management that are difficult to predict.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
The increase in evapotranspiration associated with the increase in temperature, as well as the decrease in the thickness and duration of snow cover, will cause a decrease in humidity in forests, accelerating the processes of soil mineralization and increasing the risk of drought, the development of diseases (except fungal diseases) and pests, including invasive species. An extended vegetation period will increase the survival rate of insects and accelerate their reproduction: more frequent, more dangerous and unpredictable outbreaks of pest outbreaks may result in the emergence of several new generations per year.

In autumn, an extended period with positive temperatures and intense rains softening the soil, combined with the weakening of trees by pests and diseases, may increase the sensitivity of forests to strong winds and increase windfalls.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate change, especially the change in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, indisputably increases the incidence and number of deaths, as well as the spread of diseases that have not yet occurred in moderate latitudes, although so far there are no tools to analyze and estimate the scale of the problem.

In addition, climate change may also indirectly affect health by creating atmospheric conditions that contribute to an increase in air pollutants including tropospheric ozone and water, the growth of food bacteria, and the number and frequency of insect-borne infectious diseases.

In Poland, for several decades there has been an increase in the incidence of pollen allergy, the main cause of which is the presence of allergens in the air, mainly grasses. Among tree allergens, birch is the most allergic in our climate zone, followed by hazel and alder.

It has been estimated that as a result of the more frequent heat stress conditions in May-September (UTCI heat load index> 32 ° C), the risk of death increases by over 25% as a result of cardiovascular dysfunction. On the other hand, under cold stress conditions in November-March (UTCI heat load index <-13 ° C), the risk of death increases by over 25% as a result of cardiovascular or respiratory dysfunction.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Tick-borne diseases are also a group of diseases with a distinct seasonality of infections. Lyme infections are the most numerous. Statistical analyzes proved that the number of Lyme infections is influenced by thermal conditions in winter and early spring, as well as thermal and rainfall conditions in summer. Each of these characteristics will change at a different pace. Hence, individual forecasts differ significantly. Nevertheless, each of them assumes a gradual increase in the number of cases of Lyme disease.

Assessment of the impact of climate change on allergic diseases is limited to the possibility of estimating what changes may occur in the onset of pollen from the main allergenic plants - i.e. how much longer the exposure to pollen allergies will be. In the case of each of the tested allergenic plants, a tendency to start the pollen season earlier (hazel, alder, birch, grass) has already been observed. The attempt to forecast the occurrence of pollen seasons of allergenic plants based on selected meteorological elements indicates dynamic changes in the biological environment. The projected lengthening of pollen seasons may affect the overlapping of alder and hazel with the birch season, which may additionally aggravate allergic symptoms.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Climate change affects society as a whole, however, vulnerable groups such as the elderly, the sick, the disabled, the homeless and the poor, and children are particularly vulnerable to climate-related diseases.

Climate changes may, in the future, directly affect the functioning and activity of those institutions of the health care system in which various types of therapeutic or preventive activities are conducted. In many of these places, the working conditions of medical personnel and the stay of patients are not adapted to the increasingly frequent and prolonged periods of heatwave. This is especially important in cities where, due to the urban heat island effect, cooling of the air at night may not be sufficient. The expected increase in health problems related to the circulatory system should be a guideline for the preparation of properly trained medical and auxiliary personnel (social workers). Efforts should be made to prevent a significant proportion of cardiological problems from leading to fatal circulatory failure. In addition, the possible increase in the number of tick-borne diseases, food poisoning with salmonella and deaths from melanoma should be a reason both for intensifying research on the development and treatment of these diseases, as well as for their diagnosis. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanisms related to climate change and the health response of the organism, training of health care system personnel should cover the broadly understood impact of the environment on health.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
In the area of ??health protection, climate change may manifest itself most strongly in the form of increased incidence of skin cancer and deaths from melanoma, as well as deaths related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Melanoma cases currently account for about 22% of the total number of cancer cases. A positive effect of the progressive warming of the winter periods is a marked reduction in the number of deaths from hypothermia. The number of days with the UTCl indicator <-13oC will drop from approx. 3% to over 8%.

The projected increase in temperature in the summer season and an increase in the number of hot days will result in a gradual increase in salmonella poisoning, assuming that the hygienic condition of the society and gastronomy will remain at the current level. At the same time, the group of diseases with which the number of cases will increase are tick-borne diseases of distinct seasonality, mainly Lyme disease, which is particularly dangerous in forest areas of northern Poland. As pollen seasons extend, allergic symptoms will worsen.

Problems with the increase in the incidence of infectious diseases may appear earlier in the coastal zone, as the temperature of the Baltic Sea waters is rising faster than in other waters and cases of cholera have already been registered in some Baltic states. In the future, one degree of warming of the water in the Baltic Sea will mean almost doubling the disease cases. If the warming of the Baltic Sea continues, then until 2050 a significant increase in infections with Vibrio bacteria should be expected, mainly on the densely populated coasts of the central and southern Baltic.

Climate change will therefore have an impact on the functioning and activity of health care system institutions as well as on the quality of life and health of citizens.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
high
Two factors related to thermal conditions pose a basic threat to the functioning of the urban organism: the type of land cover and the increased emission of anthropogenic heat. High temperature causes thermal stress, and excessive energy consumption by air-conditioning and cooling devices increases the risk associated with high air temperatures, and in cities it increases the urban heat island effect. Its formation is also favored by a relatively small share of biologically active areas, especially in the downtown development zone. Heat waves, especially in June and July, lead to a significant increase in the number of deaths compared to periods without heat: by 15-19% from all causes and by 18-22% from cardiovascular diseases. High air temperature in the summer of 1994 (over 36°C in Warsaw) caused an increase in mortality in Poland from 50% to 230% in relation to the average. The number of victims of this heat wave in Warsaw itself, after taking into account the natural decrease in mortality after the period of increase in hot weather, was 47. An even greater increase in mortality caused by thermal conditions was recorded in 2006 (Kuchcik, Degórski 2009).

The dangers of excess water in cities come down to two issues: floods and inundations. While floods threaten most of the cities located in river valleys and in the coastal zone, flooding can occur anywhere as a result of sudden rains, intense long-lasting rainfall, and also caused by melting waters. This is favored by sealed ground surfaces and limited possibilities of drainage of excess water through sewage and drainage systems, and the failure to take into account water retention in most cities.

Climate changes in the spatial context affect the entire complex of spatial development problems which, in extreme cases, may generate social conflicts and limit development opportunities.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The process of building green areas will continue, as evidenced by the spatial policy of communes expressed in the study of the conditions and directions of spatial development. The share of forest green areas and waters, currently constituting 33% of the country's area, according to the findings of the study prepared for 57% of municipalities, would amount to only 18% (according to the research by Sleszynski et al., 2010), which, taking into account the loss of permanent grasslands in hydrogenic and semi-hydrogenic areas, should be be assessed as a condition requiring urgent and effective corrective action. Otherwise, the direction of changes in land management will be very unfavorable - other than the needs resulting from the adaptation of space to climate change.

The current directions of development contribute to the reduction of green areas in favor of green areas, which will result in further limitation of mitigation and adaptation possibilities related to climate change. Possibilities of mitigating thermal stress, exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, improvement of air humidity and sanitary conditions, is limited by the irretrievable loss of green areas, and in many cases their inappropriate layout. As a consequence, the negative phenomena described above will intensify.

Existing flood protection systems are in many cases insufficient or in a bad technical condition. The threat is improper spatial management in cities, including urbanization of floodplains, buildings and interruption of drainage waterways. Increasingly frequent urban floods from heavy rainfall can be expected in the face of climate change.

Rising temperature strengthens the heat island phenomenon, favors heat stress, air stagnation over the city, an increase in the concentration of air pollutants, including particulate matter and smog.
Vulnerability
medium
Cities are directly threatened by three phenomena in particular: intensification of the urban heat island, heavy downpours causing flooding, and droughts favoring the water deficit in cities. Strong winds, which, due to the high roughness of the ground in cities, lose their strength to a lesser extent (this threat may apply to small towns and scattered suburbs).

Floods pose an indirect threat due to the fact that most metropolitan areas are located in the valleys of large rivers. Downpours, like floods, pose a threat to urban infrastructure through flooding, landslides and the destruction of communication routes, buildings and property.

Adaptation of land management to the anticipated climate changes requires the exclusion of more and more areas from development due to the risk of flooding, flooding and landslides, as well as maintaining in urban areas at least 30% share of green areas (including water), and a similar share of land area in the country forested in the total space of the state. These activities are aimed at mitigating the effects of climate change and its anthropogenic factors, including mitigation of the effects of urban heat island, pollution, water and wind erosion of land. In addition, the increasing intensity of rainfall requires the increase and consistent enforcement of the conservation of biologically active areas, mainly in urban areas, and in areas - open areas with high soil retention.

Ecological networks, especially in metropolitan areas with the green rings surrounding large cities, with relatively high forest cover, can be an important element of adaptation to climate change.
Risk Future Impact
high
There is a feedback loop between spatial development and climate change and the need to adapt to climate change. Climate change will lead to a reduction in the space available for a given type of conducted or planned activity - incl. due to increased flood risk, increased risk of landslides, intensification of water and wind erosion processes, water deficit, raising and lowering the level of groundwater.

Competition for space will increase with rising sea levels and the erosion base of rivers. The increase in flood risk, especially in large cities located in the delta of large rivers or in their valleys, will also result in the loss of safe and attractive investment and residential areas. This may be one of the new migration factors of the population.

Another consequence of climate change may be increasing shortages of drinking water resources and the need to transfer water on a large scale. The spatial consequences of these changes have not been identified so far.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
medium
The transport sector is particularly sensitive to several elements of the climate, especially strong winds, downpours, flooding and landslides, snowfall and ice phenomena, storms, low and high temperatures and lack of visibility (fog, smog).

Strong winds cause, among others: road blocking by fallen trees and power poles, road closure, damage to vehicles or damage to noise barriers.

One of the most troublesome phenomena are temperature fluctuations, in particular the so-called passing through the temperature of 0 C in combination with rainfall or melting snow: they favor the phenomenon of black ice and intensify the corrosive effect of water (and salt) on the transport infrastructure (road surface).

The impact of high temperatures and heat waves, especially long-term ones, is equally unfavorable, as they increase the susceptibility of bituminous surfaces to vehicle impact, which necessitates the introduction of restrictions on the movement of heavy vehicles.

Another climatic factor causing road traffic difficulties is fog, especially frequent in autumn and winter conditions at temperatures close to zero.

Negative temperature favors cracking of rails, freezing of turnouts, icing and breaking of traction and energy networks.

Torrential and torrential rains cause flooding and flooding of railway roads, access roads, damage to railway infrastructure, local flooding of land, tunnels and underground passages, landslides of embankments, flooding of drainage ditches, failures and damage to drainage devices.

Etc.
Key hazard likelihood
medium
The analysis of the predicted climate changes proves that the expected changes will have a negative impact on transport in the longer term. In the period until 2070, extreme events should be expected, which will hinder the functioning of the sector.

The results of the climate scenarios indicate that extreme rainfall may pose the greatest threat to transport in the 21st century. The wind forecasts raise doubts as they do not predict changes in the impact of the wind in terms of average values, however, high dynamics of changes and the possibility of extreme values ??are expected.

With regard to the period of snow cover deposition, the announcement of a significant reduction of this period should be taken very carefully. Despite the warming of the climate, snowy winters can also occur, especially in the climate of Central Europe.

The analysis shows that the phenomena in the "frost" category, which was assessed as having a significant impact on the correct functioning of the transport sector in all its elements considered, will reduce its negative impact in the future. There will be much less cold days and those with very low temperatures.
Vulnerability
medium
Road transport, due to its spatial nature, is particularly sensitive to changing climatic phenomena. eg Problems related to the increasing occurrence of high temperatures have a negative impact both on vehicles and on elements of road infrastructure.

Rail transport is equally sensitive, especially to incidental climatic events. Strong winds and hurricanes as well as torrential rains that cause flooding and landslides, the frequency of which will increase, may damage elements of the railway infrastructure.

Inland water transport, although used to a small extent in Poland, is also exposed to the consequences of climate change, because it is closely dependent on the water levels of rivers.

Adaptation measures aimed at limiting the negative effects of climate change on the transport sector should be adapted to the results of the analysis of parameters characterizing contractual climate categories having a significant impact on this sector.

Adaptation of the transport sector to the expected climate changes should, first of all, protect the road and rail infrastructure against the threats resulting from the increased frequency of heavy rainfall.

The element of the transport sector requiring the earliest adaptation measures is the transport infrastructure, the objects of which are designed for a service life of 50-150 years. For this reason, actions taken today must take into account climate changes that may occur in 20 or 70 years.
Risk Future Impact
medium
In the context of air transport, changes in temporary weather conditions will be of great importance, and according to forecasts, such situations will take place much more often than before. Its dependence on the current meteorological situation is of greatest importance primarily at the time of take-off and landing of planes. Strong winds and icing are the main threats. Additionally, the problem of mists will intensify.

Higher sea states will result in the need to reconstruct some of the infrastructure that is not adapted to the new sea level ordinates, which will have an impact on the level of transshipments and the possible development of these ports.

In rail and road transport, the largest and most important projected climate changes relate to the two categories "rain" and "wind". The correct determination of the light of bridges and culverts, design of the grade line at access points to bridges, the problem of landslides and issues related to drainage of transport surfaces and underground passages, tunnels and metro stations. Adaptation of the transport sector to the expected climate changes should, first of all, protect the road and rail infrastructure against the threats resulting from the increase in the frequency of intense rainfall. Additionally, along with the progressing thermal insulation process, the cases of track deformation may increase.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment
Impact/key hazard
high
The conducted analyzes did not show significant trends in the maximum flows of rivers, but their frequency doubled in the years 1981-2000 compared to the years 1961-1980. also with anthropogenic factors.

The dangers of excess water in cities come down to two issues: floods and inundations. While floods threaten most of the cities located in river valleys and in the coastal zone, flooding can occur anywhere as a result of sudden rains, intense long-lasting rainfall, and also caused by melting waters. This is favored by sealed ground surfaces and limited possibilities of drainage of excess water through sewage and drainage systems, as well as the failure to take into account water retention in most cities.
Key hazard likelihood
high
There is a risk that these phenomena will occur more frequently in the future. The results of the analyzed scenarios indicate an increased probability of flash floods. The formation of water resources is largely influenced by snow cover. Forecasts predict that its duration will gradually decrease and in the middle of the 21st century it may be, on average, 28 days shorter than today.

Existing flood protection systems are in many cases insufficient or in a bad technical condition. The threat is improper spatial management in cities, including urbanization of floodplains, buildings and interruption of drainage courses. Increasingly frequent urban floods from heavy rainfall can be expected in the face of climate change.
Vulnerability
low
Poland is a country with relatively small water resources, and the efficiency of their use is low. Moreover, in some parts of Poland there are periodic water supply difficulties.

The sector most sensitive to water shortages is agriculture, where water needs are forecast to increase by 25-30%. Meanwhile, the analysis of the state and organization of water management in agriculture showed that water management systems in Poland for the purposes of agriculture are not efficient. The unfavorable state of water management is due to the poor organization of water management entities. Their activity is underfunded and is based on low-technical water-drainage devices. As part of adaptation measures, financing of all measures related to the management of agricultural water resources (increasing retention, including small water retention, active and passive flood protection, sustainable irrigation) should be increased.

On the other hand, in urban areas, floods pose an indirect threat, due to the fact that most metropolitan areas are located in the valleys of large rivers. Downpours, like floods, pose a threat to urban infrastructure through flooding, landslides and the destruction of communication routes, buildings and property. In addition, improper spatial management, in particular investing in endangered areas, including river floodplains, and too low natural retention capacity and artificial reservoirs, not only in river valleys, limits effective actions in situations of excess or deficit of surface waters.

In addition, the increasing intensity of rainfall requires the increase and consistent enforcement of the conservation of biologically active areas, mainly in urbanized areas, and in open areas, areas with high soil retention.
Risk Future Impact
high
In the case of periods with a shortage of rainfall, individual voivodeships may be at risk of a deficit of water available to the economy, in particular the Mazowieckie Voivodeship.

The observed and predicted changes in the hydrological regime throughout the country have a direct impact on biodiversity. There is a change in the structure of precipitation during the growing season, i.e. more frequent summer and spring droughts and an increase in the number of torrential precipitation, including hail. Due to the increased frequency of these phenomena, one should take into account the increasing number of extreme situations, such as floods, droughts, landslides and water erosion in the channels of watercourses.

The period of snow cover and its thickness will also shorten. The problem of changes in the hydrological regime also applies to freshwater habitats, flowing or standing. This group is exposed to changes as a result of increased torrential rainfall, dry periods, eutrophication processes and disturbances in water flow in reservoirs. Moreover, as a result of the predicted climate changes, the disappearance of small surface water reservoirs (swamps, ponds, ponds, small shallow lakes as well as streams and small rivers) will continue.

The results of the analyzed scenarios also indicate an increased probability of flash floods caused by heavy rainfall that may cause flooding of areas where the land management is not properly managed.

In conditions of high variability of precipitation, extreme situations (floods and droughts) and the increased non-stationarity of flows may disrupt the availability of the necessary amounts of water, which is used for cooling purposes in conventional power plants. (Water abstraction for these purposes accounts for 70% of total water abstraction in Poland.)

In coastal areas, a particularly difficult problem may be the periodic increasing shortages of drinking water caused by contamination or salinity of groundwater, which are the main sources of drinking water for many towns, eg Gdansk. Another problem may be flooding of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, which will lead to uncontrolled emission of pollutants into the marine environment.

Sources:
1. http: //klimada.mos.gov.pl/sektory/
2. Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020, with a perspective until 2030, Ministry of the Environment

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The main relevant document is the "National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030" (NAS) - part of the broader research project "KLIMADA" which covers the period until 2070 and is the basis for the conclusions presented in the NAS and includes climate risk and vulnerability assessment of the whole country.

This document includes a description of the general characteristics of the climate, climate change from 2007-2011, scenarios and impact on sensitive sectors until 2030. Furthermore, the document consists of an analysis of climate change trends and impacts on biodiversity, water management, forestry, power engineering, coastal zones, mountain areas, agriculture, transport, spatial economy and urbanised areas, construction and health.

The Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOS-PIB) now is implementing KLIMADA II Project. The project covers climate vurnelability and risk assessment of the country at national, regional and local level.

Climate vulnerability and risk assessment were carried out also within the framework of preparation of National Environmental Policy, in which summary of this process is included.

Climate risk assessment were also conducted in the framework of Project "Development of Urban Adaptation Plans for cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Poland" (MPA) in 2017-2019. At the national level, the MPA project was coordinated by Ministry of Climate and Environment. It was aimed to provide support for 44 major Polish cities. Over 30% of the Polish population lives in project partner cities.

Climate vulnerability and risk assessment is a substantial part of the following documents: Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought (PPSS), which is currently being developed by the State Water Company Polish Waters, will be adopted in the near future, River Basin Management Plans (RBMP) and River Basin Risk Management Plans (RMP).
For planning description – see point 2.2 (KLIMADA 1.0, NAS 2020, National Environmental Policy were prepared by the Ministry of Climate and Environment (MKIS) and are the main national and coordinating documents in the field of adaptation planning. Morover, climate adaptation planning was also conducted in the framework of Project "Development of Urban Adaptation Plans for cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Poland" (MPA) in result of which 44 adaptation plans for 44 major Polish cities were developed. MKIS coordinated and carried out the project.

Climate adaptation planning in the field of water sector is also a substantial part of the following documents: Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought (PPSS), which is currently being developed by the State Water Company Polish Waters, will be adopted in the near future, River Basin Management Plans (RBMP) and River Basin Risk Management Plans (RMP).

The PEP2030 and SPA 2020 include performance indicators that are measured and reported every year. In turn, the Strategy for Responsible Development and PEP indicate strategic projects that include various smaller projects and initiatives. Their implementation is monitored and reported on a quarterly basis by the Prime Minister's Office and MKIiS. These programs are implemented both by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, other public institutions, including those subordinate to the Ministry, but also by external entities selected in the form of collective procurement, including commercial ones. Implementation of the MPA project - individual adaptation plans is monitored by the Ministry of Environment and Climate, among others as part of the project sustainability check. The cities undertook to adopt the adaptation plans in the form of resolutions of municipal councils. Currently, plans have been adopted by 42 communes. The adopted plans have the status of communal strategic documents, which will be implemented and for which financial resources are guaranteed. The Ministry of Climate and Environment supports cities in the implementation of adaptation plans, including through appropriate programming of the new EU financial perspective.

In the case of investment activities, municipalities will commission the implementation of plans to external contractors.
According to the revised law on Environmental Impact Assessments, it is necessary to take into account climate risk analysis. This applies mainly to projects of type I (in the EIA Report), but it is not obligatory for type II projects. Other projects are not covered by this legal requirement. Guide to Investment Preparation Respecting Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation as well as Resilience to Natural Disasters (Ministry Of Climate and Environment, 2015) covers methodologies for integrating climate change adaptation and mitigations into the development of infrastructure projects. This methodologies mostly rely on the rules of risk assessment.

In Poland, projects which are co-financed from EU funds are obliged to use the methodologies indicated in the Guide. The Guide indicate the methods that should help investors (including beneficiaries of EU funds in the period 2014-2020) in preparation of investment projects and / or in the application of EU funds in the field of issues related to climate change adaptation and mitigation and resilience to natural disasters.

The aim of the Guide is to provide methodologies and hints concerning the way in which climate issues should be included in the process of developing of investments and projects at the stage of:
• SEA and EIA in relation to: 1. Climate mitigation; 2. Climate adaptation and resilience including ecosystem based approaches
• Cost - Benefit Analysis, including calculation of shadow costs and external costs of GHG emissions, carbon footprint analysis, sensitivity and vulnerability analysis of projects in relation to climate changes and natural disasters
• risk analysis including climate-related risks
• climate options analysis and assessment, including climate impact on projects and projects impacts on climate
- Joint projects, joint working groups, informal cooperation, various forums for the exchange of opinions and information, including conferences, meetings, etc. are carried out
- The scientific sector is involved (incl. IMGW-PIB, IOS-PIB, ETU)
- MKiS coordinates and monitors the implementation of strategic projects carried out also by other ministries,
- General Directorate for Environmental Protection (GDOS) and regional directorates for environmental protection (rdos) are very important stakeholders at the national level. MKiS is leading two working groups (WG) operating within GDOS “Environment for Development Partnership” national network - WG on EIA and WG on climate change adaptation.
- A representative of the MKiS is a member of the Steering Committee of the strategic programme implemented by the National Centre for Research and Development - BIOSTRATEG.
- MKiS strictly cooperates with Ministry of Funds and Regional Policy (managing authority for EU funds).
- Air temperature - Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) https://www.imgw.pl/sites/d[…]1-2020-poster-pion-min.pdf.
- Water level in the Baltic Sea - IMGW-PIB (https://baltyk.imgw.pl/).
- Precipitation -IMGW-PIB (https://meteo.imgw.pl/?mode[…]a_warszawa&mode=details)
- Flood risk - IMGW-PIB and National Water Management Authority (https://www.powodz.gov.pl/pl/o_mapach)
- Impact of climate change on agriculture and adaptation methods for agriculture - Instytut Uprawy Nawozenia i Gleboznawstwa (http://www.iung.pl/.)
- Water quality - Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (GIOS) (https://www.gios.gov.pl/pl/stan-srodowiska/monitoring-wod)
- Greenhouse gas emissions - National Centre for Balancing and Emission Management (KOBiZE). (https://krajowabaza.kobize.pl/ )

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

- - Joint projects, joint working groups, informal cooperation, various forums for the exchange of opinions and information, including conferences, meetings, etc. are carried out
- The scientific sector is involved (incl. IMGW-PIB, IOS-PIB, ETU)
- MKiS coordinates and monitors the implementation of strategic projects carried out also by other ministries,
- General Directorate for Environmental Protection (GDOS) and regional directorates for environmental protection (rdos) are very important stakeholders at the national level. MKiS is leading two working groups (WG) operating within GDOS “Environment for Development Partnership” national network - WG on EIA and WG on climate change adaptation.
- A representative of the MKiS is a member of the Steering Committee of the strategic programme implemented by the National Centre for Research and Development - BIOSTRATEG.
- MKiS strictly cooperates with Ministry of Funds and Regional Policy (managing authority for EU funds).
List of selected good practices implemented in Poland:
1. a series of climate hackathons - events during which participants develop technological solutions (Slupca, Zamosc, Kraków, Gdansk)
2. preparation of Climate Change Adaptation Plans for cities with population over 100,000 (44 cities)
3. ClimCities trainings, addressed both to self-governments and inhabitants of small and medium towns in Poland, concerning adaptation to climate changes (trainings take place in 10 cities in Poland) (http://climcities.ios.gov.pl/)
4. Climate Cities - urban workshops aimed at improving the quality of life of citizens and supporting cities in their transformation towards climate neutrality and resilience to climate change
5. creation of a regional network of energy advisors by NFOSiGW https://doradztwo-energetyczne.gov.pl/kontakt
6. urban Lab - a pilot tool for improving the quality of life of city dwellers in line with the smart city idea". (Rzeszów, Gdynia).
The main goal of the Strategic Adaptation Plan 2020 is to ensure sustainable development and effective functioning of the economy and society in the conditions of climate change. The main goal will be achieved through the implementation of specific goals and the directions of activities indicated within these goals:
1. Ensuring energy security and good environmental condition
2. Effective adaptation to climate change in rural areas
3. Development of transport in the conditions of climate change
4. Ensuring sustainable regional and local development, taking into account climate change
5. Stimulating innovations conducive to adaptation to climate change
6. Shaping social attitudes conducive to adaptation to climate change

Source: Strategic adaptation plan for sectors and areas sensitive to climate change until 2020 (with a perspective until 2030). Ministry of the Environment 2013
1. Intensification of activities in the field of counteracting and adapting to climate change in cities

The key challenges in the climate policy are the efforts to limit the impact of cities on the climate and build resilient social and spatial structures. In the national policy, the roles of individual levels of administration should be clarified, including, in particular, the place of local government in counteracting climate change.
2. Providing up-to-date and reliable information on the state of the environment

There are observed deficiencies in the collection of data and the use of IT systems for city management. Moreover, there is insufficient access to information about the environment and communication in this regard, which hinders the implementation of the adopted climate policy.
3. Increasing social awareness of the issues of climate change

In Polish society, social capital deficits are observed and the associated low level of involvement of local communities for the common good. It should be pointed out that a society aware of climate threats is more solidarity in accepting difficult and often costly investments.
4. Integrating activities and undertaking intersectoral cooperation

Activities in the field of environmental protection and adaptation to climate change overlap with elements of other sectoral development policies. The implementation of its objectives requires not only appropriate planning of activities at the local government level, but also good coordination at the national and supranational level.
5. Taking environmental and climate challenges into account in spatial planning objectives and tools

The current system of spatial planning does not shape sustainable forms of land use. It allows development to be directed where it is undesirable from the point of view of environmental protection, social and economic development and security, and has high social costs. This system is flawed in terms of the principle of subsidiarity. It seemingly gives the commune far-reaching planning powers. In practice, however, they are difficult to enforce due to the mechanisms of financing the development of spatial development and legal regulations enabling the development of areas that do not have zoning plans.
6. Rationalization of water management

Poland has large water deficits and a relatively low level of rainfall. In addition, there are shortcomings in capturing rainwater. Water management is directly related to spatial management. At the same time, we observe the lack of communication between these areas in the urban policy of Polish cities, both in terms of legal solutions, planning and operational activities.

Source:http://obserwatorium.miasta.pl/

In addition, other barriers include: no regional adaptation plans; lack of tools and methods to calculate the benefits of using natural methods, e.g. natural water retention measures, instead of gray infrastructure; urbanization pressure.
The main national strategies that are guiding the climate adaptation actions in Poland are "Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030” (NAS 2020); "National Environmental Policy 2030" (PEP2030); "National Urban Policy 2023" (KPM2023); "Strategy for Responsible Development by 2020 (with a perspective until 2030)" (SOR2020).
1. NAS2020: The overarching goal of that strategy is ensuring sustainable development and effective functioning of the economy and society in the conditions of climate change.

Main goals and actions of NAS 2020:
a) Ensuring energy security and good environmental condition:
- Adaptation of the water management sector to climate change
- Adaptation of the coastal zone to climate change
- Adaptation of the energy sector to climate change
- Protection of biodiversity and forest management in the context of climate change
- Adaptation to climate changes in spatial management and construction
- Ensuring the functioning of an effective health care system in the conditions of climate change
b) Effective adaptation to climate change in rural areas:
- Creating local systems for monitoring and warning against threats
- Organizational and technical adaptation of agricultural and fishing activities to climate change
c) Development of transport in the conditions of climate change:
- Developing design standards that take into account climate change
- Management of communication routes in the conditions of climate change
d) Ensuring sustainable regional and local development, taking into account climate change:
- Monitoring of the state of the environment and early warning and response systems in the context of climate change (cities and rural areas)
- Urban spatial policy taking into account climate change
e) Stimulating innovations conducive to adaptation to climate change
- Promoting innovation at the level of organizational and management activities conducive to adaptation to climate change
- Building a support system for Polish innovative technologies conducive to adaptation to climate change
f) Shaping social attitudes conducive to adaptation to climate change
- Increasing awareness of the risks associated with extreme phenomena and methods of limiting their impact
- Protection of vulnerable groups against the effects of adverse climatic phenomena
2. PEP2030 - Goals and actions related do climate change adaptation:
a) Development of the potential of the environment for the benefit of citizens and entrepreneurs
b) Environment and health. Improving the quality of the environment and ecological safety
c) Environment and economy. Sustainable management of environmental resources
d) Environment and climate. Climate change mitigation and adaptation and disaster risk prevention
e) Environment and education. Developing environmental competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) of the society.
f) Environment and administration. Improving the effectiveness of the environmental protection instruments
3. KPM 2023 - Goals and actions related to climate change adaptation:
a) Review of legal regulations in the field of equipping local governments with instruments encouraging property owners to retain and use rainwater
b) The government will include measures supporting flood risk management in national sectoral policies, including the implementation of critical infrastructure.
c) Review of legal regulations in the field of construction law related to the impact on the environment and in the field of ensuring the resistance of buildings to climate change.
d) Supervising the implementation by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management of the priority program "Green Investment Scheme (GIS)"
e) The minister responsible for the environment will develop climate change adaptation plans (MPA) for cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants and he will coordinate actions for adaptation to climate change at the national level.
f) Review of the effectiveness of the application of the law on water management in terms of investment rules in areas exposed to the risk of flooding.
g) Funds at the national level are available both through Regional Operational Programs and the National Operational Program - Infrastructure and Environment. Important partners in the field of environmental projects are the National and Provincial Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management.
4. SOR2020 - Actions and timelines related to climate change adaptation:
a) Strategy for the transformation to a low-carbon economy (from 2019)
b) Roadmap for Transformation Towards a Circular Economy (2017 - 2025)
c) Land management for sustainable development (from 2018)
d) Ecological Transport program (since 2017)
e) Water for agriculture (2017 - 2023) - a program to support family farms and improve water management in agriculture in conditions of periodic water shortages and excesses
f) Clean air (2016 - 2023) - Solving environmental issues, including reducing the problem of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and adapting urban areas to climate change
g) State Raw Material Policy (from 2018)
h) Forest Coal Farms (2017-2050)
5. Financing adaptation:

Local government units already have various sources at their disposal for adaptation financing. For example, the funds of the Operational Program Infrastructure and Environment 2014-2020 were directed to cities, which were planning to implement measures to manage rainwater. Public education initiatives can be financed from funds transferred within the regional framework operational programs. The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management have introduced an adaptation component to the financial offer by the program "Counteracting environmental threats with the liquidation of their effects ". One of the sources of funding for adaptation is also the participation of cities in the Life + or Horizon programs.

Main sources of financing:
1. State:
a. National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOSiGW)
b. Regional Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (WFOSiGW)
c. Country budget
2. EU:
a. Operational Programme Infrastructure and Envrionment (2014-2020)
b. Regional Operational Programme (2014-2020)
c. Life+
d. Horizon
3. Foreign, outside the EU:
a. World Bank
b. International Monetary Fund
c. EEA and Norway Grants
4. Other:
a. Entrepreneurs
b. Banks
c. Investment funds
d. Foundations

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


1.Adaptation Plans for cities over 100 000 inhabitants (MPA).

Adaptation Plan for cities over 100 000 inhabitants are the implementation of the Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change(NAS 2020), the first governmental document in response to the challenges of adaptation to climate change. The project was carried out in 2017- 2019 by the Ministry of Climate and Environment and in cooperation with local authorities of 44 cities mostly over 100 000 inhabitants. The developed plans were approved by city councils and are valid until 2030. Since then, local governments should consider MPA in their policies and long – term planning, diverse needs of stakeholders and local communites. MPA was prepared for the following cities by far: Bialystok,Bielsko-Biala,Bydgoszcz,Bytom,Chorzów, Czestochowa, Dabrowa Górnicza, Elblag, Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Kraków, Legnica, Lublin, Lódz, Olsztyn, Opole, Plock, Poznan, Radom, Ruda Slaska, Rybnik, Rzeszów, Sosnowiec, Szczecin, Tarnów, Torun, Tychy, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zabrze, Zielona Góra, Grudziadz, Jaworzno, Slupsk. MPA, as well as Warsaw Adaptation Plan (as part of the Adaptcity project overviewd below) contributes to protecting about 30% of the Polish population against the effects of climate change. Climate Change Adaptation Plans are continued at the local level in smaller towns and communities. Each MPA was developed with experts. Its main goal is to improve safety of city dwellers and increase protection against the harmful effects of climate change. It takes into account the local conditions and problems, because cities differ in terms of threats and difficulties they face. The comparison of MPA in 44 cities depicts different level of detail f. ex. in planned activites.

Each MPA consists of:
- risk analysis and identifcation of the main climate threats
- indication of specific goals and priority areas of adaptation plans
- characteristics of preferred activities
- monitoring and evaluation including indicators which will show the progress of implementation.

MPA is excellent example of governmental engagement in local adaptation plans.

At the national level, the MPA project was coordinated by the Ministry of Environment (now the Ministry of Climate and Environment). It was aimed to provide support for 44 major Polish cities. The overarching goal was to identify and analyse adaption challenges each city may face, draft plans for local authorities, indicate sources of funding and raise awareness for the need for adaptation. The MPA Project was cofounded (85%) by the EU Funds (Cohesion Fund within the framework of Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment) and the Polish State Budget (15%).

All Urban adaptation plans were developed in 2017-2019 under one methodology by one contractor. Urban areas have been identified as a priority in the implementation of the adaptation to climate change policy in Poland. Over 30% of the Polish population lives in project partner cities.

The following Project Goals were fulfilled:
• Determination of vulnerability of the largest cities to climate change
• Planning for adaptation actions at the local level
• Raising awareness of the need for adaptation to climate change at the local level

Polish Ministry of the Climate and Environment supported local governments from both – organisational and financial side.

MPA’s are under review. Monitoring of the activities specified in the plans will be a source of information on implementation progress. Monitoring is entrusted to an entity appointed by the local authority and is also carried out by the MKiS every two years, including the project sustainability check procedure.
2. ClimCities. CLIMate change adaptation in small and medium size CITIES

The CLIMCITIES project was devoted to adaptation to climate change in small and medium-sized Polish cities. Financed under the Bilateral Cooperation Fund of the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area for 2009-2014 (85%) and from the state budget (15%) took place in 2017. Aimed at cities with a population of approx. 50 thousand. up to 99 thousand and smaller.

The main goal of the CLIMCITIES project was to develop the adaptability of small and medium-sized cities in Poland to climate change by ensuring local access to knowledge on adaptation to climate change and the implementation of adaptation goals defined in Polish Strategic Plan for Adaptation(NAS 2020). Public administration employees gained the opportunity to broaden their knowledge and acquire new skills necessary to undertake activities for the adaptation of the city to climate change and to effectively involve local communities in these activities.

The project included a series of trainings for representatives of local government administration and local leaders involved in pro-ecological and environmental activities. Participants learned how climate change effects cities and how to adapt.

Moreover, as part of the CLIMCITIES project, experts developed climate change adaption plans for 5 cities .The strategies- a tool for undertaking adaptation measures for the city and its inhabitants - was developed by experts from the Institute of Environmental Protection and National Research, in close cooperation with the local governments and its residents. The task of the team was to prepare a comprehensive diagnosis of threats and support local government authorities and city residents in conscious and responsible responses to the forecasted climate changes and their anticipated effects.

The benefits of the project include increase of the climate change and adaptation awareness among local communities and increase competences of local governments in solving urban climate problems.
3. LIFE_AdaptCity_PL - a pilot strategy to adapt to climate change for the Capital City of Warsaw

Project realized in 2014–2019. The observations and research carried out in the ADAPTCITY project have enabled the description of key climate-related phenomena that have an adverse effect on Warsaw and its residents. These phenomena are:1)Increase in air temperature, and thus the number and intensity of hot days and hot nights, 2)Increase in the frequency and intensity of precipitation causing local flooding.3)Increase in intensity and scale of floods or droughts.4)Increase in intensity of storms and strong winds.The forecast of climate change carried out until the end of the 21st century stated that all these phenomena may intensify in Warsaw.Therefore, the project's goal was to take effective measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change in the Warsaw ecosystem and to start adaptation measures in other metropolises in Poland.This goal was achieved through:1.Support for the Capital City of Warsaw in developing the first strategy for adaptation to climate change in Poland using an ecosystem approach.2.Stimulating the activity of authorities, administration and city services of large Polish cities to take actions for adaptation to climate change -based on Warsaw's experience.3.Showing the purposefulness and possibilities of using prognostic climate maps to build strategies for adapting the city to climate change.4.Raising awareness of the global problem of climate change among city authorities and encouraging them to get involved in European action.

The project was implemented by: The Institute for Sustainable Development in partnership with the City of Warsaw, the Union of Polish Metropolises and Verband Region Stuttgart. The ADAPTCITY leaves behind products, such as:
- Strategy for adaptation to climate change in the Capital City of Warsaw until 2030 with a perspective until 2050;
- A set of nearly 100 generally available maps that can be used by both municipal services and Warsaw residents to deepen their knowledge about the nature of climate change now and in the longer term -until the end of the 21st century.
- Arousing interest in the topic of climate change among both residents and municipal services, willingness to deepen knowledge and a sense of the need to adapt to its effects.
-Unique methodology for preparing adaptation strategies to climate change along with in-depth participation techniques used during its preparation.

During the implementation of the ADAPTCITY project, the awareness of administration employees of the largest Polish cities and Warsaw residents regarding climate change and activities that may contribute to their prevention or adaptation to them increased significantly.
4. National Urban Policy 2023(KPM2023)

It is a document that defines planned actions of the government administration regarding urban policy and is addressed to all Polish cities. The document contains recommendations for actions in the field of climate change in cities in following areas: water management, spatial management and construction, improvement of the natural environment quality, supporting pro-ecological actions, coordination of these actions, monitoring and warning system on environmental threats. The update of the National Urban Policy is planned by the end of 2021 and it will change the perspective of its functioning from 2023 to 2030. Over the five years since the adoption of the document, certain trends in urban policy have strengthened and the recommendations has been followed(f.ex. development of Adaptation Plans - MPA in 44 cities).The policy has been reviewed by experts. Among the most important priorities now are: adaptation to climate change, creating sustainable urban mobility, undertaking low-carbon and energy efficiency measures in cities, air quality, strengthening cities' resilience to socio-economic and environmental crises.
1. PEP2030: One of the important elements of PEP2030 strategy is climate change mitigation and adaptation and natural disaster crisis prevention. The core of that is a strategic project on adaptation to climate change which focuses on developing urban adaptation plans for 44 Polish cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants (MPA). The main activities under the individual plans concern blue-green infrastructure at the urban level and their further development. The goal is to adapt to climate change and to be prepared to manage the risks associated with climate change
2. National Urban Policy: Environmental protection and adaptation to climate change
a. Activities in the field of coordination of actions. This includes that the minister responsible for the environment will develop climate change adaptation plans for 44 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants – MPA – based on a document Guidelines for the Urban Adaptation Plans preparation. In addition, the minister responsible for the environment prepared (based on the guidelines of the European Commission) a Guide to Investment Preparation Respecting Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation as well as Resilience to Natural Disasters. Also, the minister responsible for the environment is coordinating actions at the national level for adaptation to climate change and promote modern, comprehensive, flexible functional solutions in the field of infrastructure and counteracting the negative effects of climate change. It will support, promote and disseminate information on good practices and ongoing pilot programs on adaptation to climate change (e.g. through the KLIMADA portal).
b. Activities in the field of water management including review of legal regulations to retain and use rainwater. In addition, programming in national infrastructure investment policies of co-financed European funds in the field of improving the quality of the urban environment, stopping the decline in biodiversity, increasing the ability to prevent and respond to the effects of natural hazards, and increasing the resilience of cities to threats related to the negative effects of climate change
c. Activities in the field of spatial management and construction including review of legal regulations in the field of construction law related to the impact on the desired and optimal methods of supplying buildings with energy, heat, cooling and in terms of ensuring the resistance of buildings and construction and technical infrastructure to climate change
d. Activities in the field of supporting pro-ecological activities and attitudes including supporting market activation for environmental protection and the development of conscious consumer attitudes, promotion of sustainable consumption patterns, application of "green" public procurement, and promotion of "green" jobs.
e. Activities in the field of monitoring and warning about environmental threats includes review of the effectiveness of the application of the water management law with regard to rules for investment in flood prone areas (floodplains).
3. The Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOS-PIB) is implementing the Project co-funded by the European Union, entitled: “The knowledge base on climate change and adapting to climate change impacts, together with knowledge dissemination channels, to strengthen economic, environmental and societal resilience as well as to support management of extraordinary risks associated with climate change” (KLIMADA 2.0). The project comprises numerous tasks, the main objective of which is to raise knowledge on climate change and its impacts with the aim to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation measures undertaken in the sectors vulnerable to climate change.
4. Another project is related to risk management related to climate change is “CLIMCITIES - Climate change adaptation in small and medium sized cities". The Project CLIMCITIES was focused on adaptation of small and medium sized Polish cities to climate change. The project has been mainly implemented in Polish cities with a population of between 50 and 99 thousand inhabitants. The main aim of the project CLIMCITIES is to develop adaptability of small and medium sized Polish cities to climate change by providing local actors with access to knowledge on climate change adaptation as well as achieving the adaptation goals of the EU’s and national adaptation strategies.
5. In 2020, the National Disaster Management Plan was updated, where climate factors and climate change were taken into account. Preventive and preparatory actions were developed for floods, strong winds, severe frost, intense snowfall, drought and heat. A risk assessment of threats which may cause the occurrence of an emergency situation was developed using risk matrices developed for the needs of subreports to the Report on National Security Threats, also taking into account threats which in recent years were the subject of meetings of the Government Crisis Management Team
6. An important document in the water management sector is the Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought (PPSS), which is currently being developed by the State Water Company Polish Waters and will be adopted in the near future. This document, together with river basin management plans, flood risk management plans and water maintenance plans, will contribute to improving water management in Poland in the context of adaptation to climate change. The objective of the PPSS is to ensure adequate quantity and quality of waters for the society, environment and all sectors of the national economy.
Operational Program – Eastern Poland (2014 – 2020)

The additional instrument of financial support for 5 provinces of Eastern Poland: Lubelskie, Podlaskie, Podkarpackie, Swietokrzyskie and Warminsko-Mazurskie, which complement and strengthen the activities carried out under the regional and national programs for 2014-2020.The aim of the Program is to increase the competitiveness and innovation of the Eastern Poland macroregions.

When selecting projects for financial support these elements were taken into consideration: - environmental protection;
- effective use of resources including the design solutions for the management of available resources: water, energy, raw materials, limiting the amount of produced energy, wastewater, hazardous substances, waste and emissions, permanent surface transformations (e.g. use of recycled materials in the construction or reconstruction of a project);- resilience to natural disasters - locating the project in a place that will not be threatened by flooding, inundation, landslide or other event resulting in damage or destruction of the infrastructure created as a result of the project implementation; - mitigating and adapting to climate change including the design solutions that reduce the emission of pollutants into the air; solutions that allow to adapt to the conditions of periodic high insolation of the project location, the occurrence of torrential rains or sudden thaws (e.g. a rainwater sewage system with increased capacity).

In addition, the implementation of climate goals is reported by assigning weights to individual categories of expenditure, indicating their importance for mitigation or adaptation to climate change. According to the Rio Markers methodology, it will be 100% for actions directly implementing climate goals, 40% for actions indirectly contributing to their implementation and 0% for other actions. This mapping allows to track the stream of expenses related to the fight against climate change. Infrastructure projects should also take into account the polluter pays principle, according to which polluter bears the cost of environmental damage in the total investment cost.

Operational Program- Infrastructure and Environment (2014-2020)

The national program supporting a low-carbon economy, environmental protection, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, transport and energy security. Currently, there are 8 projects implemented under the program in the Environmental Sector, among them for ex. water and sewage management for the protection of water resources in Poznan, protection against flooding of the Klodzko Valley, with particular emphasis on the protection of the City of Klodzko.

There has been 6 calls for proposals within Operational Program- Infrastructure and Environment (2014-2020) in the field of adaptation to climate change. The current one, closed on December 31 2020 “Adaptation to climate change along with securing and increasing resistance to natural disasters, in particular natural disasters and environmental monitoring supports projects regarding to the rainwater management systems in urban areas. There has been 17 projects picked like : Development of the rainwater management system in Bialystok, Construction of a rainwater system in Plonsk, Management of rainwater based on green and blue solutions in the city of Turek.

Regional Operational Program 2014-2020

Planning document specifying the areas and detailed actions that the self-government bodies undertake or intend to take to support the development of the voivodeship or region. There has been 16 regional programs - 15 for undeveloped regions ( voivodeships: dolnoslaskie, lubelskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, lubuskie, lódzkie, malopolskie, opolskie, podkarpackie, podlaskie, pomorskie, slaskie, swietkokrzyskie, warminsko-mazurskie, zachodniopomorskie, wielkopolskie) and one for the mazowieckie voivodeship ( central region with the capital of Warsaw). Under operational programs, it was possible to obtain financing for projects related to adaptation to climate changes.

National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management

The National Fund offers loans, subsidies and other forms of financing for projects implemented, by local governments, enterprises, public entities, social organizations and individals. Between 2015 -2020 it has supported dozens of programs in the field of environmental protection. Directly related to climate change adaptation are open calls in the following areas ( already completed, onging and planned) among others:
a. Adaptating to climate change and limiting the effects of environmental threats ( including financing of blue-green infrastructure
b. Environmental education ( including climate change)

Regional Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management

Regional Funds complement the above – mentioned stakeholders support measures, creating a coherent system of assistance in adaptation activities. There are 16 regional (voivod) units in Poland, which support implementation of projects on regional level within following priorities (in 2019 and 2020): adaptation to climate change, water management and protection, atmosphere protection, biodiversity protection, circular economy, environmental education. Each unit sets its own programs and open calls related to the priorities, so they may differ.

Within the EEA Norway Grants in the financial perspective 2014-2020, an amount of more than 100 million PLN in Poland has been allocated to co-finance projects in the field of building green-blue infrastructure in urban areas and building awareness of climate change adaptation in schools. The competitions were held in 2020 - the evaluation of grant applications is currently underway. The interest of municipalities has exceeded the financial allocation many times over.
As part of the adaptation policy for private sector involvement, attention should be paid to priority programmes financed by the Regional Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management. An example is the "Clean Air" programme, a nationwide financial support programme for the replacement of heat sources. It is a programme for owners and co-owners of single-family houses offering subsidies for heat source replacement and thermomodernisation works (http://czystepowietrze.gov.pl/). Another programme dedicated to the private sector is 'My Water'. The programme aims to protect water resources by increasing retention on properties next to single-family houses and making use of accumulated rainwater and snowmelt, including through the development of green and blue infrastructure (https://nfosigw.gov.pl/[…]/).

The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOSiGW) has introduced a programme for adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental risks. The aim of the programme is to increase the level of protection against the effects of climate change and natural hazards (inter alia in accordance with the lines of action set out in the "Strategic Adaptation Plan for Sectors and Areas Sensitive to Climate Change up to 2020 with an Outlook up to 2030") and major emergencies and serious failures, improving the removal of their effects and strengthening selected elements of environmental management. An additional objective is to disseminate modern, effective and efficient solutions in cities to improve the quality of life of citizens and improve the cities' resilience to the effects of climate change by selecting through a competition the best investment solutions in the field of green and blue infrastructure (https://nfosigw.gov.pl/[…]/).

Within the framework of the adaptation policy, a programme of support was introduced for innovations favouring resource-efficient and low-carbon economy, i.a. consisting in the implementation of innovative environmental technologies aimed at reducing the impact of plants/installations/equipment on the environment and the use or production of technologies which are part of one of the areas of National Intelligent Specialisations (KIS ) in accordance with an appropriate call (http://nfosigw.gov.pl/[…]/).

The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management also runs a priority programme "New Energy". The purpose of the program is to increase the level of innovation in the economy by supporting the implementation of projects in the field of modern energy technologies, aimed at the development of zero-emission energy, zero-emission industry, as well as systemic solutions to achieve maximum efficiency of energy production, management and use. These projects also include climate change adaptation aspects in their focus in the field of energy.
The PEP and SPA 2020 include performance indicators that are measured and reported every year. In turn, the Strategy for Responsible Development and PEP indicate strategic projects that include various smaller projects and initiatives. Their implementation is monitored and reported on a quarterly basis. These programs are implemented both by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, other public institutions, including those subordinate to the Ministry, but also by external entities selected in the form of collective procurement, including commercial ones.

As concerns implementation of the MPA project - individual adaptation plans are monitored by the Ministry of Environment and Climate, among others as part of the project sustainability check. The cities undertook to adopt the adaptation plans in the form of resolutions of municipal councils. Currently, plans have been adopted by 42 communes. The adopted plans have the status of communal strategic documents, which will be implemented and for which financial resources are guaranteed. The Ministry of Climate and Environment supports cities in the implementation of adaptation plans, including through appropriate programming of the new EU financial perspective.
the area of implementation, it should also be added that for the assessment of the implementation of adaptation policy in Poland, a system for monitoring the implementation of projects implemented under the EU funds is used, based on appropriate indicators of performance, output and result (environmental effect) specific for adaptation measures - the SL 2014 system. At the level of national funds, a similar system is used by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOSiGW) and the provincial funds for environmental protection and water management (wfosigw), which are also based on tracking the achievement of specific indicators of material performance, output and result, dedicated to projects in the area of climate change adaptation. NFOSiGW and WFOSiGW then submit reports on the implementation of the indicators and the objectives of the priority programs in the area of climate change adaptation to the Ministry of the Climate and Environment, usually at annual intervals.

The PEP 2030 includes a partial update of NAS 2020, and in the course of developing the PEP 2030, a review of the effectiveness and efficiency of NAS implementation was conducted for this update.
It is worth pointing out that municipal projects in the field of sustainable and adapted to climate change management of rainwater have so far been granted over PLN 1,1 billion from the Operational Program Infrastructure and Environment 2014-2020 as part of projects called "Rainwater management systems in urban areas". Similar support will be continued under the new EU financial perspective 2021-2027.

Moreover , as part of the initiative of the Ministry of Climate and Environment "City with Climate", the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOSiGW) Priority Program was launched under the name "Adaptation to climate change and limiting the effects of environmental hazards", in which a continuous call for applications has been carried out since 2019. The program aims to increase the level of protection against the effects of climate change, natural hazards and major accidents, to improve the removal of their impact and to strengthen selected elements of environmental management. The budget for the implementation of the program objective is up to PLN 657,775,000, including for grant forms of co-financing - up to PLN 157,915,000. Co-financing is provided for activities in the field of adaptation to climate change in cities, including green and blue infrastructure, elimination of impermeable surfaces, sustainable rainwater management systems with greenery and increasing retention in urban ecosystems.

Besides, the Ministry of Climate and Environment provided local authorities with the opportunity to obtain funding for storm water retention measures using green and blue infrastructure, as well as for awareness-raising activities in the field of adaptation to climate change in schools, under the 2014 European Economic Area Financial Mechanism, 2014-2021, the amount for the indicated type of allocation projects was PLN 110 million.

Also, the Ministry of Climate of the Environment made available in July this year a budget of PLN 110 million for the implementation of the priority program: "My water ", and these funds were exhausted in less than three months, which also proves the great interest of the beneficiaries. Under this program, subsidies are granted to natural persons - owners of single-family houses for the retention, retention and management of rainwater and snowmelt. The program aims to protect water resources by increasing retention on the property and using the accumulated rainwater and snowmelt, including through the development of green and blue infrastructure. The Ministry plans that the program will also be continued until 2025 with the allocation of 210 000 000 PLN.

Within the EEA Norway Grants in the financial perspective 2014-2020, an amount of more than 100 million PLN in Poland has been allocated to co-finance projects in the field of building green-blue infrastructure in urban areas and building awareness of climate change adaptation in schools. The competitions were held in 2020 - the evaluation of grant applications is currently underway. The interest of municipalities has exceeded the financial allocation many times over.

The state of play concerning implementation of other initiatives/programmes, including sub-national level, is also described in sections 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 a,b.
The details and earmarked amounts for adaptation activities are described in section 4.2. The expenditure tracking methodology involves tracking and monitoring the physical output and result indicators to which the expenditure is linked - this applies to both national and EU level funds as well as EEA Norway Grants. Details on monitoring by indicators are described in section 4.1.b.The system for tracking marked adaptation expenditure is also linked to impact indicators.
Some adaptation activities are carried out at the sectoral level, in particular for agriculture, water resources, coastal zones and forestry (actions that are included in existing strategies). The implementation of the National Adaptation Strategy includes mainstreaming adaptation into sectoral policies, primarily those related to agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, ecosystems and water resources, coastal zones, urban sector, infrastructure, and, subsequently, the preparation of a programme for implementation.

The Ministry of Climate and Environment does not track climate spending by sector and does not collect such data. Data on expenditures on climate objectives or investments, for example on stormwater drainage infrastructure or green-blue infrastructure at the level of municipalities or counties can be obtained and aggregated from the data of the Central Statistical Office (public statistics). At the same time, climate expenditure tracking is carried out in Poland as part of the implementation of EU funds - every year reports are prepared in this regard as part of the implementation of the Partnership Agreement. In the IT system for the implementation of EU funds (SL 2014), it is also possible to obtain and aggregate data on climate-related expenditures through indicators associated with them (on the basis of the so-called Rio Markers). As stipulated in the General Regulation, the Member States aim to allocate 20% of their funds to measures related to the achievement of climate targets. Under the current Partnership Agreement for 2014-2020, Poland has committed itself to allocate at least 20% of the EU budget to these measures (i.e. around EUR 22.8 billion, including EUR 11.8 billion from cohesion policy programmes).

All programmes financed from structural funds with the exception of: Operational Programme Knowledge Education Development, Operational Programme Digital Poland and Operational Programme Technical Assistance, have an allocation for the implementation of climate objectives. Indicative amounts of support for climate objectives are included in both national and regional operational programmes.
The KLIMADA 2.0 project will identify and update key climate risks, impacts and vulnerabilities.

As a result of the strategic projects and initiatives of the Ministry of Climate and Environment identified in this Report and being developed or implemented, the climate risk is still being reduced and the climate resilience in Poland is gradually increasing. A very important completed activity lowering the climate risk of the country was the project concerning the development of adaptation plans to changes for the largest Polish 44 cities. Currently, these plans will enter the implementation phase - support for this stage will be provided by the Ministry of the Climate and Environment both as a result of further mobilization of financial resources from the national level as well as from the EU level (programming of EU funds support for the new financial perspective 2021-2027 is currently underway). In addition, financial resources will be mobilized from the EU under the Cohesion Policy 2021-2027 and from the national level for the development and implementation of climate change adaptation plans for smaller cities. Cohesion Policy funds will also be programmed for adaptation measures in rural areas ( green-blue infrastructure development, greening, restoration, increasing retention, including small water retention, active and passive flood protection, sustainable irrigation etc). The recently launched initiatives of the Ministry of Climate and Environment, i.e. "City for Climate", "My Water", the priority program "Adaptation to Climate Change", as well as the funds spent so far on adaptation to climate change within the implementation of the EU funds described in this Report constitute a very significant progress in building the country's resilience. Currently, the Ministry of the Climate and Environment has also launched hard measures aimed at legal changes in the area of climate change adaptation, which have been indicated, among others, in the National Environmental Policy 2030.

This Report indicates, among other things, the actions and projects undertaken by the Ministry of Environment to reduce vulnerability to climate change. A good example worth mentioning here is another programme in the forestry sector. Poland is implementing a comprehensive program of adaptation of forests and forestry to climate change. The main goal of this project is to prevent or minimize the adverse impacts of droughts. An important objective is to protect against excessive soils erosion and the strengthening of the resilience of forest ecosystems threatened with the escalating climate change.
The initiatives, projects and activities identified in this Report build to a significant extent the adaptive capacity of Poland. As a result of significant financial resources invested so far and various soft activities such as preparation of guidelines, training, awareness raising, implementation of strategic projects by the Ministry of Climate and Environment at all levels of government (local, regional and national), the adaptive capacity at all levels increases significantly. The next stage of building this capacity will be the introduction of hard legislative regulations, including, inter alia, the obligation to preserve the biologically active area when implementing new investments, as well as retention and local management of rainwater.
Based on monitoring of the implementation of indicators and targets set in NAS 2020 and PEP 2030 on climate change adaptation, it should be concluded that these targets are being implemented more than sufficiently. One of the goals of NAS 2020 was to develop climate change adaptation plans for cities with population over 100,000. The adaptation plans address the most important sectors at risk. From the plans for adaptation to climate change and analyses carried out by the Ministry of the Climate and Environment and the PEP 2030, it appears that the most important threat to Poland is extreme phenomena, primarily associated with heavy rainfalls, resulting in flooding and inundation, rapid surface runoff on land impervious to water, which we observe in excess, lack of green and blue infrastructure, insufficient local retention of rainwater, concreting and the prevalence of technical solutions, as well as the deepening phenomenon of drought. Therefore, it is a priority for Poland to implement actions that are to respond to the above mentioned threats related to climate change, such as construction of green-blue infrastructure, greening of cities, construction of sustainable rainwater management systems, development of local retention, use of nature-based solutions in adaptation to climate change and renaturalization. The progress made in the implementation of the above-mentioned priorities should be considered more than satisfactory - the activities and initiatives undertaken by the Ministry of the Climate and Environment in this area, both related to awareness-building and education (guidelines, strategic projects, training, etc.), including MPAs, providing financial resources both from the national and EU level (the "City with Climate" initiative, the NFOSiGW "Adaptation to climate change" programme, but also the "My Water" programme, and the funds from the MF EEA (more than 100 million PLN allocation for measures related to the construction of green-blue infrastructure and building awareness launched in 2020 in the financial perspective 2014-2021), as well as the planned legislative changes, contribute significantly to the implementation of the above mentioned objectives of the adaptation policy in Poland and the reduction of listed risks, gaps and issues.
The analyses carried out by the Ministry of the Climate and Environment, including the MPA project, show that the most frequently occurring obstacles to the implementation of adaptation measures are:
- limited funding for climate change adaptation activities in cities as well as the need for intensification of activities in the field of counteracting and adapting to climate change in cities.

Removing this obstacle involves supporting adaptation activities through financial programs from the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management and EU funds (activities related to rainwater retention using green and blue infrastructure are also supported under the new edition of the EEA Norway Grants). Additionally, under the new EU financial perspective 2021-2027 we plan to continue support for projects in the field of sustainable rainwater management, as well as support for activities in the field of green-blue infrastructure, greening of urban space, in local government units - is also crucial for air quality improvement. Climate change adaptation projects will also be submitted for funding from the National Recovery Plan.
- city policies (e.g., changing priorities after local elections)-removing this obstacle involves creating urban policies at the national level so that priorities for cities are set by strategic documents such as SPA 2020, PEP2030, or the National Urban Policy.
- community (including local communities) reluctance and low public awareness - removing this obstacle consists in continuously raising awareness and educating the public on climate change adaptation. It is also very important to have a participatory model, applied as widely as possible by the Ministry of the Climate and Environment, in which stakeholders of a given policy are invited to cooperate, be consulted and kept informed about proposed actions.

The remaining barriers listed in section 3.2 of this Report are also effectively addressed:
- Providing up-to-date and reliable information on the state of the environment

Implementation of the KLIMADA II project and the MPA project. -
- Taking environmental and climate challenges into account in spatial planning objectives and tools.

Legislative changes in this area are being prepared, as described in this report.

Rationalization of water management
- The major financial instruments provided by the MKIS are used for the preparation and implementation of water management measures, including drought prevention and mitigation (in line with the priorities set out in section 4.3 c of this Report).
The KLIMADA 2.0 project will identify and update key climate risks, impacts and vulnerabilities.
National Environmental Policy 2030 - Development strategy in the area of the environment and water management" was adopted by the Government on 16 July 2019. It is a supporting document for NAS 2020, plays a role in its update and supplementation, as it also refers to the area of adaptation to climate change, including references dedicated to urban areas. A set of indicators has been introduced to progress the implementation of PEP2030. The defined values in 2020 were compared with the values in 2019 to analyse any changes and trends. In 2023, an evaluation of the first four years of PEP2030 implementation is planned (2019 Implementation Report. National Ecological Policy 2030 - development strategy for environment and water management).

In 2021, Poland began work on the SPA 2020 update, which will send an important signal to both national and European partners about the essence of adaptation issues in national policy, including the high priority for adaptation policy. Moreover, the SPA 2020 update:
- will complement and provide additional detail to the national strategic documents, namely: SOR, PEP 2030, KPM 2023,
- will contribute to the implementation of SDG targets 9 (9.1), 11 (11.5, 11.7, 11.B), 13 (13.1, 13.2, 13.3), 15 (15.3),
- will be a document implementing the New EU Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change, which was adopted on 24 February 2021.
On 15 July 2020, the Act on amending the Act on the principles of development policy and some other acts entered into force, in which a provision was introduced: The principles of sustainable development and environmental protection constitute the basis for drawing up and updating the concept of national development, medium-term national development strategy, voivodeship development strategy, voivodeship spatial development plans, supra-local development strategies, development strategies of communes, studies of conditions and directions of spatial development of communes and local spatial development plans. This means that future regional plans and strategies (and their updates) must take into account issues of sustainable development, climate change and adaptation to these changes.

General Directorate for Environmental Protection has published a brochure: 'Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment' (https://www.gdos.gov.pl/fil[…]ialywania_na_srodowisko.pdf).

Adaptation options for cities based on the climate risk and vulnerability assessment completed within the KLIMADA project have been identified for selected sectors including water management, agriculture, forestry, biodiversity and protected areas, which take into account geographical specificities. The assessment was based on climate scenarios developed at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computer Modelling at the University of Warsaw.

In 2019, the National Environmental Policy 2030 (PEP2030) was developed, which is linked to other horizontal development strategies. A set of indicators has been introduced to progress the implementation of PEP2030. The defined values in 2020 were compared with the values in 2019 to analyse any changes and trends. In 2023, an evaluation of the first four years of PEP2030 implementation is planned.

In order to standardise the Municipal Adaptation Plans (MPAs), an "Adaptation Manual for Cities" has been prepared. It indicates the areas that need special attention and how to prepare an MPA. The handbook also devotes chapters to the implementation, monitoring, evaluation and updating of MPAs. The guidelines presented in the handbook have enabled cities to develop Municipal Adaptation Plans and coordinate their implementation and impact (Adaptation Handbook for Cities - Guidelines for preparing a Municipal Climate Change Adaptation Plan, http://www.rpo.wzp.pl/[…]/podrecznik_adaptacji_dla_miast_20191126.pdf).

The Ministry of Climate and Environment is working to monitor the implementation of adaptation policies in the regions. Normally this will be done by monitoring indicators (comparison over the years). The financial programmes of NFOSiGW (National Fund for Enviromental Protection and Water Management) will depend on the degree of implementation of the adaptation policy.

In connection with the change of funds distribution principles within the new EU perspective (increase in the share of funds for the area related to climate change), the regional operational programmes will be changed (more emphasis will be put on the component related to adaptation to climate change).( https://klimada.mos.gov.pl/[…]ver_5_2_sierpnia_2017.pdf||).

Good practices and lessons learnt

Good practice: Climate Adaptation Plans (44MPA), funding programmes in cooperation with local governments, promotional activities, educational campaigns, activities promoting environmental and educational attitudes and involvement of local governments (City with Climate) Guide to Investment Preparation Respecting Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation...(MKiS). "Adaptation Manual for Cities" (MKiS) . Working goups in the Partnership: Environment for the Development (GDOS).

MPA should be a requirement for all cities. MPAs implementation to be coordinated by climate resilience experts. A need for education and guidance for local governments in preparing and implementing MPAs.
The Government Center for Security serves as the United Nations National Contact Point for the implementation of the Sendai Agenda for Action. One of the undertakings included in these activities is the creation of a platform for the exchange of information on national and international initiatives to reduce the risk of disasters. The platform is attended not only by representatives of government and self-government administration, but also research institutes, universities, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. As part of the platform, on November 25-26, 2019, the Government Center for Security organized the first National Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction

The most important, however, is the issue of amending the law on crisis management, which will enable the implementation of a risk management system in Poland. In January 2020, the Government draft act amending the Act on Crisis Management and Certain Other Acts (https://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm9.nsf/PrzebiegProc.xsp?nr=203) was submitted to the National Assembly, where it was directed to 1st reading in the Administration and Home Affairs Committee and for further work.

According to the solutions proposed in the draft amendment to the Act on Crisis Management, correlation between national and EU regulations will take place without the need to develop new planning documents from scratch, but using the existing ones. The report on threats to national security will continue to focus on risk assessment. After conducting it and identifying the most important threats to national security, it will be necessary to define strategic goals to reduce the risk of their occurrence, using the existing provisions and conclusions containing a hierarchically ordered list of projects necessary to achieve them, taking into account regional or local initiatives, i.e. undertaken in the area of the voivodeship . It is important to understand that only a properly conducted risk assessment identifies threats and areas in which it is necessary to take action, including increasing financial outlays for projects limiting the risk of disasters.

Crisis management plans, , will be divided into risk management plans and crisis response plans. It should be emphasized that these solutions have already been initiated in the 2018 National Crisis Management Plan.

Climate change, biological diversity, desertification, land degradation and drought are intricately related on the social, economic and environmental fronts. Because these issues are closely linked, the secretariats of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) are engaged in collaborative actions to solve these challenges at all levels. MKiS is actively involved in the work of all these conventions.
Poland is a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and therefore strives to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases responsible for global warming. Poland has organised three United Nations Climate Change Conferences. The conferences were held in Poznan (2008), Warsaw (2013) and Katowice (2018). The task of the COP24 summit was to set detailed rules for the implementation of the 2015 Paris Agreement, these were defined by the document "Katowice Climate Package" (Katowice Rulebook) and adopted by all Parties.

Cities in Poland participate in the Covenant of Mayors, a partnership programme in Europe to learn, be inspired and take action on climate and energy challenges. At the moment, 80 signatories in Poland have made the political decision to adhere to the Covenant. And 39 cities have already sent their Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (https://www.porozumienieburmistrzow.eu/pl/).

Poland has also started cooperation with the Slovak Republic on border waters. The cooperation focuses on water level assessment, cooperation in hydrology and flood control in the border waters, as well as implementation of tasks under the Water Framework Directive and the EU Floods Directive in Polish-Slovak border waters (https://www.kzgw.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-z-republika-slowacka). Cooperation on border waters was also undertaken with the Czech Republic (https://www.kzgw.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-z-republika-czeska) and Lithuania (https://www.kzgw.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-z-litwa).

By the end of 2020, 400 Ukrainian energy auditors were trained. This is an undertaking organised by the National Energy Conservation Agency S.A. (KAPE) together with the Foundation for Energy Conservation (FPE) within the E-ETAP (Energy Efficiency Training and Auditing Project) training project. Thanks to the financing of the project by NFOSiGW, the number of trained people could reach 400 (https://www.kape.gov.pl/blo[…]w-audytu-energetycznego-188).

Poland is also a signatory to the Helsinki Convention, which means that it monitors and protects the Baltic Sea environment. A team of experts working for HELCOM collects information on the state of the environment and pollution discharged into the sea. This data is analysed and, on this basis, recommendations are drawn up addressed to the Member States, obliging them to take specific actions aimed at protecting the Baltic area.
In its adaptation activities Poland cooperates with EU countries. Poland started, inter alia, the cooperation with the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic and Lithuania in the field of border waters. This cooperation is focused on the assessment of water status, cooperation in hydrology and flood control on border waters as well as implementation of tasks under the Water Framework Directive and the Floods Directive (https://www.kzgw.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-z-republika-slowacka).

Poland is a very active signatory of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)As part of EU Poland took far going engagements related to GHG emission reductions and implements Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (NAS 2020). It should be noted that Poland has organised three United Nations Climate Change Conferences of the Parties (COP). The conferences were held in Poznan (2008), Warsaw (2013) and Katowice (2018).

At the international level, Poland also cooperates with Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Sweden. Poland is a member of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - also known as the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM).

Another example of international cooperation on local level is the Covenant of Mayors. Currently, 80 signatories in Poland have taken the political decision to join the Covenant, while 39 cities have already sent their Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (https://www.porozumienieburmistrzow.eu/pl/).

The MKIS actively participates in the work of the UNCCD and in the work of the Carpathian Convention (CC)

As far as the works of UNCCD are concerned, the objective of active participation of Polish representatives in the works relating to the implementation of UNCCD convention has been achieved. As part of the implementation of this objective, members of the Polish delegation took part in the 14th session of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Affected by Severe Drought and/or Desertification (UNCCD COP 14). During this conference, Minister Slawomir Mazurek took part in the High-level Segment.

During COP 14, the Delhi Declaration was signed and agreement was reached on important decisions that will guide international efforts to combat desertification, land degradation, and drought.

In addition, as part of this objective, an MKIS staff member participates in the Working Group on International Environmental Aspects (WPIEI)-Desertification (EU Level).

As far as the CC is concerned, climate change is an area that was added to the scope of the Convention during the last meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CC COP 5 in Hungary in 2017, when the text of the CC was supplemented with a new article, according to which Parties are to pursue policies aimed at mitigating climate change in all sectors relevant to the CC, as well as pursue policies aimed at adaptation to climate change through, among other things, international cooperation. In doing so, COP 5 encouraged Parties to take action to implement the new article as soon as possible, even before it enters into force. The Hungarian Presidency, which regarded the issue of climate change as one of its priorities, initiated work on a long-term strategic vision until 2030 for combating climate change, as well as on a work plan in this area.

Since May 2020, the representative of MKIS actively participates in the work of the Working Group of the CC on (Adaptation to) Climate Change. Currently Poland chairs the CC and recognizes adaptation to climate change as one of the Convention's major action areas/priorities.

Ministerstwo Klimatu i Srodowiska (Ministry of Climate and Environment)

Department of Air Protection and Urban Policy
Coordinating adaptation policies and reponsible for reporting
Piotr Czarnocki
Chief Expert, including responsibility for coordination of reporting.
[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'