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National circumstances relevant to adaptation actions

Spain has a total surface area of 506,023 km2, being the second largest country in the European Union. It is part of the Iberian Peninsula, together with Portugal. In addition to the Spanish mainland, the country also includes the archipelagos of the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.

The relief of Spain is characterised by its mountainous nature and its organisation into large units around an inland plateau, the Meseta, at more than 600 metres above mean sea level. This is divided into two sub-plains by the Central System, and around it are located mountain systems, depressions and peripheral mountain ranges. The layout of the mountain systems, with a general direction from west to east, except for the Iberian System and the Catalan Coastal Mountain Ranges, has a great influence on the climate, as it establishes natural barriers to the penetration of humid air masses from the Atlantic.

Due to its geographical location, Spain is under the influence of two very different seas, the Atlantic Ocean, which is open and large, and the Mediterranean Sea, which is only connected to the previous one through a small opening, the Strait of Gibraltar, which allows for an exchange between the waters of both, with very different salinity and temperature. The Spanish coastline extends along 7,876 km of coastline, divided between the peninsula, the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands.

Due to its complex orography and geographical location, Spain has a remarkable climatic variety, ranging from humid Atlantic conditions, with annual rainfall of more than 2000 mm, to large semi-arid areas, with severe hydrological stress, and even cold alpine climates in some isolated areas. This climatic diversity is the result of its latitudinal location on the northern edge of the subtropical belt, its complex orography dotted with major mountain ranges, its peninsular nature, and the presence of two surrounding bodies of water with very different characteristics: the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, extreme events such as droughts, heat waves, or severe rainfall and floods are recurrent phenomena.

The natural regime of rivers depends mainly on rainfall, either through surface runoff or through underground contributions. Spain's great climatic diversity, together with other morphological and geological aspects, explains the great hydrological contrasts that exist. Spain is a country particularly affected by the phenomenon of drought, with an enormous variability in rainfall, with occasional heavy rains. These characteristics have forced the hydrographic basins to be intensely regulated by means of numerous reservoirs with a total capacity of over 55,000 hm3.

Spain is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the European Union and belongs to an area designated as one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots on the planet. Its geographical position, its rich geological diversity, the great climatic, orographic and edaphic variability, the palaeobiogeographic history and the existence of islands are some of the factors that have led to this high biological diversity as well as a high rate of endemicity.

The number of vascular plants, for example, exceeds 8,000 species, of which nearly 1,500 are endemic. This represents about 85% of the vascular plant species inventoried in the European Union and half of the European endemic species. Regarding animal species, Spain is home to approximately half of the 142,000 species estimated for Europe. It is also one of the EU Member States in which it is possible to find the largest and most numerous areas of territory in a natural or semi-natural state.

Spain has four of the nine biogeographical regions of the European Union (Atlantic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Macaronesian), which is associated with very different flora and fauna communities. The diversity of the physical environment results in the existence of a great diversity of ecological niches. The palaeogeography and palaeoclimatology of the Iberian territory led to the arrival and sequential extinction of floristic and faunal elements from different origins that have shaped the biological communities present today. The insular nature of part of this territory is another factor that contributes substantially to the richness and high rates of endemicity in Spain. In addition to the aforementioned factors, it should be noted that the very human history associated with the settlement of the Iberian Peninsula and the islands has shaped the natural environment of Spain.
According to data from the National Statistics Institute (INE), the resident population in Spain on 1st January 2020 was 47,332,614 inhabitants, 0.84% more than the previous year and 17% more than in 2000.

The natural increase is negative, as there are currently more deaths than births each year in Spain, which means that the population is shrinking and is undergoing an ageing process, only compensated by the effect of immigration.

The demographic evolution in Spain in recent years has been shaped by a high population growth between 2000 and 2009, mainly due immigration, followed by a stabilization with small fluctuations from 2010 onwards. Spain's foreign migration balance, which was negative between 2010 and 2015, has been positive again since 2016, giving rise once again to population growth after the downward trend of recent years.

There are almost one million more women than men and resident foreigners represent 11.1% of the population. The birth rate stands at 7.6 births per 1,000 inhabitants, one of the lowest rates in the EU. The child population is only 14.53%. In contrast, the percentage of people over 65 years constitutes 19.58% of the total population and will continue to increase in the coming years, and could reach 32% of the population by the middle of the century.

Spain has a constrictive population pyramid, with a narrower base than the central area, reflecting an ageing society with a tendency to become older. With one of the highest life expectancies in the world, Spaniards live on average more than 83 years.

On the other hand, a large part of Spain is suffering from a worrying depopulation. For decades, the migration from rural areas to cities has led to sharply negative population trends in smaller municipalities, threatening their continuity, which also produces a significant increase in pressure on environmental quality in cities.

In the last decade, depopulation has become an even more widespread process, and no longer linked only to the smallest municipalities. From 2010 to 2019, 76.6% of municipalities have lost population, most of them with less than 1,000 inhabitants. But depopulation already affects 63% of small towns and more than half of the provincial capitals.

In addition, it is important to consider the impact of the floating population which, mainly as a result of tourism, produces significant cyclical and seasonal population variations in certain regions.
Current economic situation

As indicated in the "Spanish Economic Situation Report" of October 2020, prepared by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Digital Transformation, the current economic situation is marked by the impact of the global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). At the beginning of 2020, the Spanish economy was in a growth phase, lasting more than five years. The economic scenario has changed completely due to the health crisis and the impact of the measures needed to contain it.

The Spanish economy has been particularly affected due to the weight of the sectors most directly impacted by the restrictions (catering, leisure, hospitality, culture, tourism and passenger transport) which pose the main short-term risk to the economy.

Labour force

Data from the National Statistics Institute (INE) indicate that in 2019 the total active population was 23 million people and the unemployment rate stood at 14.1%. 28.5% of inactive people are inactive due to family or care responsibilities, a figure above the Eurozone average and higher, in general, among women. Because of COVID-19, in the last quarter of 2020 the unemployment rate increased to 16.13%.

Employment is distributed as follows: service sector 75.5%, industry 14%, construction 6.5% and agriculture 4%. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 crisis, there has been a decrease of more than five points in the weight of the service sector, dropping to 70% of the active population.

Gross Value Added (GVA) by economic sector 2019.

The services sector in Spain contributes three quarters of GVA (74.5%), followed by the industrial sector (16.1%), construction (6.4%) and agriculture (2.9%). The latter has been the only sector that has grown during the crisis COVID (Eurostat), ensuring the production and supply of staple food products, contributing to meeting the basic needs of the population.

Information by sector:

1. Industry

As indicated by the Environmental Profile of Spain (EAP) and according to Eurostat data, in 2019 Spanish industry, with a contribution of 178,082 million euros and a growth of 3.2 % compared to 2018, accounted for 6.5 % of the GVA of EU industry. In the period 2010-2019, the GVA of European industry grew by 24.6 % while that of Spanish industry grew by 10.7 %. In 2020, according to data from the statistical bulletin of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism, there has been a significant fall (-11.1%) in the sector's GVA due to the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

2. Energy

According to the 2018 report on Energy in Spain by the Ministry for Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge, primary energy consumption in Spain reached 129,813 ktoe in 2018 with a decrease of 0.3 compared to 2017.

In terms of energy sources, the contribution of fossil fuels in the electricity mix decreased in 2018, due to the increase in hydro production. A large year-on-year decrease in coal consumption of 10.8% (compared to 2017) can be highlighted. Natural gas, on the other hand, recorded a slight decrease of 0.7%, and the consumption of oil products recorded an increase of 0.4%. Renewable energies, on the other hand, increased their consumption level by 8.8% compared to the previous year.

Final energy intensity, defined as the ratio of final energy (excluding non-energy uses) to GDP, follows a similar profile to that of primary energy in Spain. It shows a turning point in 2004, starting a downward trend under the impulse of the first energy saving and efficiency plans. In recent years, final energy intensity has stabilised.

With regard to electrical energy, according to data from the Spanish Electricity Grid (REE), the demand for electrical energy in Spain during 2019 showed a 1.6 % decrease compared to the previous year, reaching a total of 264,635 GWh demanded, this being the first decrease in demand since 2014.

The installed capacity of the generating fleet in Spain has increased by 6.0%, ending 2019 with 110,376 MW. Of the total installed capacity, 50.1 % corresponds to renewable energy facilities, which have exceeded non-renewable technologies for the first time on record.

In terms of electricity generation, the share of renewable generation in total peninsular generation fell (38.9% compared to 40.2% in 2018) due to the lower production of hydroelectric plants (27.6% lower than in the previous year).

Non-renewable generation has reached 61.1% of the peninsular total, favoured by the increase in production from combined cycle plants, which have almost doubled their weight in the generation structure, rising from 10.7% in 2018 to 20.7% in 2019. On the other hand, coal-fired generation has fallen, accounting for only 4.3% of the mix, the lowest value since statistical records were first kept.

3. Transport

According to the PAE, in 2018, road continued to be the mode of transport with the highest share of total domestic passenger traffic, accounting for around 86 % of the total passenger-km transported, followed by air and rail transport, both with 7 % of the total. The same is true for internal freight traffic, where road accounts for around 80% of the total tonne-km transported, followed by maritime transport, with 13% of the total.

Both inland passenger and freight transport increased in the last year, in all modes of transport, although not all of them did so equally. In 2018 air transport was the mode of domestic passenger transport that increased the most compared to the previous year, registering an increase of 9.3 % compared to the value of 2017, and road was the mode of transport that increased the least, with only 2.5 % growth compared to the same year. In inland freight traffic, it was maritime transport that experienced the largest increase in 2018, registering 4.4 % more tonne-km transported than in the previous year.

Even though domestic road passenger traffic is growing every year, these increases have been decreasing since 2015, while in domestic rail passenger transport, the increases are higher and higher. This trend observed in recent years seems to be in line with the objective of transferring traffic to rail, both passengers and freight, proposed, among others, by the National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan and the European Commission's Objectives for 2050.

4. Tourism

In a pre-COVID-19 scenario, and according to the National Statistics Institute (INE), 83.7 million tourists visited Spain in 2019, making it the second largest tourist destination in the world. This figure was 1.1 % higher than in the previous year, a growth which, although slowing, has maintained the positive trend since 2009. Also, the total expenditure made by international tourists in 2019 was over 92.2 billion euros, an increase of 2.8% over the previous year.

The situation caused by COVID-19 led to a standstill in the sector from the third month of 2020. In April 2020, the flow of international visitors was zero due to the border closures imposed by the state of emergency. This situation highlights the vulnerability of this sector and its impact in the national economy.

6. Waste

According to Eurostat data, 137.8 million tonnes of waste were generated in Spain during 2018. 112 million tonnes of them were treated. 2.4 million tonnes of waste went to backfilling operations, 57 million tonnes of waste went to landfill and 48.7 million tonnes of waste were recycled.

According to INE data (Statistics on waste collection and treatment, 2018) in 2018, 485.9 kilograms of municipal waste were collected per inhabitant, 0.4% more than in the previous year. Of this, 391.3 kilograms per person per year corresponded to mixed waste and 94.6 kilograms to separate collection.

Reporting updated until: 2021-03-15

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy (NAS)
  • actual NAS - adopted
  • previous NAS - superseded
National adaptation plan (NAP)
  • being developed
  • previous NAP - superseded
  • previous NAP - superseded
  • previous NAP - superseded
Sectoral adaptation plan (SAP)
  • actual SAP - adopted
Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
  • completed
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
The Spanish National Adaptation Plan (PNACC) 2021-2030 identifies Climate and climate scenarios as one of the priority areas of work, in line with the previous PNACC. Among the objectives identified are:

- Maintaining and improving atmosphere, land and ocean systematic observation and monitoring of the state of the climate and of key variables of the climate system, including the availability and accessibility of data for both the general public and specialised sectors.

- Maintaining and improving meteorological observation for early warning of adverse weather and climate events, as well as warning services and communication to prevent potential associated impacts.

- Making the best possible knowledge on future climate change scenarios and projections available to all interested parties, so that society can plan its responses with the most reliable and up-to-date information.

- Improving the development of climate services to transform basic climate data and information into specific climate products and applications that are useful for various domains of action.

-Training stakeholders so that they can make the best use of available knowledge, tools and data on scenarios and projection of future climate change.

- CLIMATE MONITORING:

In Spain, atmospheric climate data and analyses are provided by the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET, in its Spanish acronym). Other data from the oceanic and terrestrial domains are collected by several institutions. The Spanish Oceanographic Institute and the State Ports Authority are the reference in oceanographic observations. The Directorate-General for Water (MITECO) manages the main water observation networks; the Autonomous Organisation of National Parks, together with AEMET, OECC and the Biodiversity Foundation, promote the Global Change Monitoring Network in National Parks, an infrastructure for in situ data collection - meteorological-terrestrial and meteorological-oceanic - in the National Parks Network, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Autonomous Communities have the network of agro-climatic stations of the Agro-climatic Information System for Irrigation (SiAR, in its Spanish acronym). Some Autonomous Communities also have their own observation networks and carry out monitoring work (e.g. the Annual Bulletin of Climate Indicators produced by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia).

The OECC regularly coordinates the compilation of these climate variables. The OECC collected the main evidence available on climate impacts in Spain, covering several relevant systems and sectors (forestry, agriculture, extractive industries, extreme events, human and health), in a study published in 2012 “Evidencias del cambio climático y sus efectos en España” (“Evidence of climate change and its effects in Spain”). In 2020, the study “Impactos y riesgos derivados del cambio climático en España” (“Climate change impacts and risks in Spain”) also reviews some of the main observed effects of climate change and its impacts on sectors such as agriculture, water resources, coasts, health, energy and tourism.

With regard to the extreme climate events, their impacts and the early warning systems, AEMET is in charge of weather warnings as established in the National Plan for the Prediction and Monitoring of Adverse Meteorological Phenomena (Meteoalerta). This plan aims to provide the most detailed and up-to-date information possible on adverse atmospheric phenomena that may affect Spain, as well as to maintain continuous real-time information on their evolution. These warnings serve as a basis for the corresponding Civil Protection administrations to launch alerts which, in turn, trigger the adoption of measures to respond to the phenomena.

The Spanish Insurance Compensation Consortium (“Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros”) is a public business institution attached to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Digital Transformation covering insurance on extraordinary risks. This Consortium has a register of insured damages caused by floods (fluvial and coastal) and high winds (up to 120 km/h).

- MODELLING, PROJECTIONS AND SCENARIOS

The production of regional climate change scenarios for the Spanish territory throughout the 21st century represents a key element of the National Adaptation Plan (PNACC). AEMET is responsible for coordinating this PNACC component, making them available in AEMET’s climate services website (http://www.aemet.es/en/serviciosclimaticos/cambio_climat), which includes both numerical and graphic information on the projections of climate change for the 21st century regionalized over Spain and corresponding to different emission scenarios.

In the initial phase of the first PNACC (2006), a first generation of regional projections was produced in 2007, based on the IPCC-TAR scenarios, together with the report "Generation of Regional Climate Change Scenarios for Spain". The second phase produced the collection of projections ‘PNACC-Scenarios 2012', based on the IPCC-4AR scenarios. They were generated from different GCMs and scenarios, using both dynamic and statistical methods. Additionally, a more friendly and user-focused set of products was elaborated, based on the results of a producers-users workshop held in 2011. AEMET produced a third collection of regional climate change scenarios for Spain (PNACC-Scenarios 2017), derived from IPCC AR5 scenarios.

In order to facilitate the use of these downscaled climate change scenarios, OECC, AEMET, the Biodiversity Foundation and the Spanish National Research Council have developed a flexible and friendly tool, the AdapteCCa Climate Change Scenario Viewer (http://escenarios.adaptecca.es/), that allows users to visualise and download data of the last generation of regional climate change projections over Spain.

In addition to PNACC-Scenarios, the CLIVAR-Spain scientific committee (www.clivar.es) publishes assessment reports (some of them available in English) that provide an overview of the Spanish research groups involved in climate science and of the progress made in detecting and projecting climate change in Spain.

Furthermore, a variety of projects have been implemented for the development of sectoral projections in some of the priority areas of the PNACC:

- In the coastal area, the project "Climate Change on the Spanish Coast" (C3E) was implemented by the University of Cantabria, on behalf of the OECC. The objective of the project focused on elaborating databases and developing methodologies and tools aimed at assessing impacts and vulnerability, and identifying adaptation measures that can respond to the needs of the National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change in coastal areas, on a scientific, technical and socio-economic basis, taking into account climate variability and present and future climate change.

- Regarding the water resources, the assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources and droughts in Spain, completed in 2017, has been carried out by the Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas (CEDEX, for its acronym in Spanish) based on a request from the OECC. The study is an update of a previous study (2010), and the initial climate values are taken from global climate models and emission scenarios used in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report.
- PNACC-Scenarios - The first dataset of climate change scenarios for Spain (PNACC-Scenarios 2012) was based on the global climate projections used in the fourth IPCC report (AR4), using the B1, A1B and A2 emission scenarios, and carried out in the context of the CMIP3 Global Climate Model Intercomparison (GCMs) initiative. These global projections served as the basis for several regionalisation studies applying regional climate models (ENSEMBLES at the European scale and ESCENA at the national scale, both with a resolution of approx. 20km) and statistical regionalisation techniques (AEMET and ESTCENA, with point information for a subset of stations/locations of the AEMET network). The information from these projects was harmonised and made publicly available through AEMET and the ESCENA and ESTCENA projects.

The update of the scenarios for Spain, the PNACC- Scenarios 2017, is based on the information available in the latest IPCC report (AR5 - CMIP5) and in the dynamic regionalisation (EURO-CORDEX, a continuation of ENSEMBLES) and statistical (AEMET and VALUE, the latter a continuation of ESTCENA on a European scale) projects. The new global projections are based on the new generation of emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and the regional projections of EURO-CORDEX reach a resolution of approx. 10km, although they are mainly restricted to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The statistical projections remain point-based, for the same network of locations as in the PNACC-Scenarios 2012.
 

The CLIVAR Exchanges special issue "Special Issue on climate over the Iberian Peninsula: an overview of CLIVAR Spain coordinated science", No. 73 (https://www.clivar.org/publications/exchanges), includes detailed information on regional assessment and projections of climate change scenarios on the Iberian Peninsula based on CMIP5 data, including the description and analysis of the PNACC-Scenarios 2017 data.

1. Dynamic Regionalisation: The EURO-CORDEX Initiative:

EURO-CORDEX currently provides projections with different regional climate models (RCMs), nested to different CMIP5 global climate models, for the historical scenario and the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios. For Europe the standard resolution is 0.11°.

Representative observational data for regional climate in Spain are taken from Spain02_v5, an interpolated gridded observational dataset generated within the framework of EURO-CORDEX (Herrera et al. 2016; available at http://www.meteo.unican.es/datasets/spain02). This information source provides daily precipitation and temperature data between 1971 and 2015, on the same 0.11º grid used by the EURO-CORDEX models. The periods considered are 1971-2000 for the observed and historical climate simulated by the RCMs, and 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 for the future periods corresponding to the projections of the RCMs according to the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios.

2. Statistical Regionalisation: The VALUE Initiative

This project has counted with the participation of the Santander Meteorology Group (CSIC-UC) and AEMET, which have contributed with different techniques based on transfer functions and analogues, thus covering a wide range of methods. Three of the techniques analysed in this project, together with an additional AEMET technique based on analogues, have been applied to generate projections for the PNACC-Scenarios 2017 over the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.

The projections obtained by applying these statistical regionalisation techniques (SDMs) to data from a series of locations in the AEMET network of stations are point projections. The available projections come from two sources:

- AEMET's climate services (Climate Projections for the 21st Century, Statistical Regionalisation, AR5-IPCC, Analogue Methods and SDSMs).

- The climate data service of the University of Cantabria (ANALOG, GLM, MLR methods).

Additionally, two daily data sources are considered as reference for the above data: the AEMET network of stations used for the calibration of the statistical regionalisation techniques and the Spain02 grid of observations (based on the same EUROCORDEX grid), in both cases for minimum and maximum temperature, and precipitation.

The information from the 2017 PNACC-Scenarios is distributed through AEMET (http://www.aemet.es/en/serviciosclimaticos/cambio_climat) and the "AdapteCCa climate change scenario viewer" (http://escenarios.adaptecca.es/), which allows the visualisation of the information of the original variables (for temperatures, precipitation, wind and humidity), as well as different climate indices defined in the basis of them, and the data (provided on a daily scale) to be downloaded in an easy-to-read format, thus facilitating their access and use.

EURO-CORDEX projections for the available scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 have been included in this viewer, considering both original values and values adjusted using a bias adjustment method included in the VALUE intercomparison (EQM quantile adjustment method described and validated together with other alternative bias adjustment methods in Gutierrez et al. 2019: https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5462): Adjusted data alleviate problems arising from biases in regional climate models (which may differ systematically from observations) by calibrating model outputs to actual observations over a historical period. Adjusted data are therefore more suitable for calculating indices that depend on absolute thresholds (e.g. frost days, i.e. with minimum temperature below zero degrees). Recommendations on the use of adjusted data advise that both original and adjusted values should be provided (see Casanueva et al. 2020: https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.978). Both have therefore been included in the viewer, so that the results can be compared and the uncertainty due to this factor can be analysed for each of the indices.

The publication of the IPCC's Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), which will include a new package of global projections, entails a new updating in the near future of the regionalized projections for Spain (PNACC-Scenarios), under the coordination of AEMET and, if appropriate, in coordination with Copernicus, in order to align the national projections with the global scenarios and models used in AR6. It is also planned to make these projections freely available through AEMET's climate services website, as well as other suitable and versatile tools, such as the AdapteCCa Scenario Viewer, which will be developed in order to continue offering the most up-to-date information available. The bias correction methods, the distillation of global and regional scenario results and the dissemination of good practice in the use of projection data for impact and vulnerability analysis are still areas for further improvement.

TOOLS:

- The AdapteCCa Climate Change Scenario Viewer (http://escenarios.adaptecca.es/) - In order to facilitate the use of these downscaled climate change scenarios, OECC, AEMET, the Biodiversity Foundation and the Spanish National Research Council have developed a flexible and friendly tool that allows users to search for data according to their needs. This viewer allows to visualise and download data of the last generation of regional climate change projections over Spain. Two kinds of projections are available: those produced with statistical methods, which are part of the Spanish National Adaptation Plan (PNACC), as well as the projections produced with regional models of the atmosphere inside the european branch of the international meta-project CORDEX.

This tool of climate projections and services has a visual and intuitive interface with graphic and cartographic facilities and downloadable products, and it has been integrated in the adaptation platform AdapteCCa. This friendly tool, tailored to user needs in order to improve the products, maintains its own system of permanent updating and communication with users through a specific Working Group. This working group is integrated by all the institutions involved in its development, which jointly make decisions on its implementation and respond to user queries, keeping the viewer as a living tool that responds to user needs.

- Regarding the sectoral projections and tools, the results of the project "Climate Change on the Spanish Coast" (C3E), completed in 2014 and based on the projections of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, include a series of tools - freely available to all stakeholders - that support the integration of climate change adaptation into the planning and management of coastal zones and the activities that take place there. These tools are a WEB viewer for consulting results (https://c3e.ihcantabria.com/), with a simulator of changes in coastal dynamics due to climate change, and the report "Climate Change on the Spanish Coast". All this has served as a basis for the elaboration of the "Strategy for the Adaptation of the Spanish Coast to Climate Change" and is also reflected in the framework document of the Marine Strategies.

The capabilities of these tools include numerical and geo-referenced queries of the main climatic-oceanographic variables affecting coastal dynamics, including waves, pressure, wind and sea level, for periods of current climate (based on observations and analysis) or future climate (based on trends and projections), the main impacts of climate change on coastal zones, including beach retreat due to sea level rise, sediment transport, the exposure of territorial units to different levels of flooding, the vulnerability of territorial units in terms of population, land use and natural assets, etc.

- On the assessment of the impact of climate change on water resources and droughts in Spain (CEDEX, 2017), the study is complemented by an application (CAMREC: https://www.adaptecca.es/ca[…]en-espana-aplicacion-camrec) that allows to visualized the maps in GIS apps.
The assessment of impacts, vulnerability and risks associated to climate change in Spain has accumulated more than 15 years of experience, since the first National Adaptation Plan was launched in 2006. During this time, methods and tools have been developed and multiple sectoral impact and risks assessment have been done in Spain, leading to a collective good level of adaptive capacity.

Based on these national impact and risks assessments, together with other recent studies from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC), it can be concluded that Spain is one of the countries in Europe most vulnerable to climate change. Over the period 1980-2016, Spain was the fifth EU country with the highest economic losses in absolute terms caused by climate-related events, and increasing risks of droughts, biodiversity loss, forest fires, coastal flooding and heatwaves are among the critical ones and rank Spain in the top 3 most vulnerable EU Member States.
Observed climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • Water scarcity
Solid mass
  • Subsidence
  • Solifluction
Key future climate hazards Acute Chronic
Temperature
  • Wildfire
  • Temperature variability
Wind
  • Storm (including blizzards dust and sandstorms)
Water
  • Heavy precipitation (rain hail snow/ice)
  • other
  • Other: Water quality deterioration
Solid mass
  • Subsidence
  • Solifluction
Climate change exacerbates the existing and chronic problem of land degradation and desertification in some Spanish regions, with consequences in soil productivity and water quality.

Intensive agriculture farming linked to overexploitation of water resources leads to severe risks to both surface and groundwater bodies in terms of quality and quantity, which climate change exacerbates.

High demands and overexploitation of natural resources, such as water, soil or forests are existing pressures that are also being aggravated by climate change, as happens also with the overexploitation of marine resources and the intensive occupation of the coastline.

Water quality deterioration can be intensified by alterations to the hydrological cycle due to climate change.

Temporal peak demands of water, food and energy concentrated in coastal urban and tourism areas are also pressures that will be significantly affected by climate change, which poses an additional challenge for this massive seasonal tourism.

Air quality may get worse under the effects of climate change. In cities, the concentration of certain gases may increase under conditions of higher luminosity and temperature increases.

Fragmentation of the territory is one of the main pressures for biodiversity. The impacts of climate change in Spain affects the suitable climate for many species and populations, and fragmentation challenges the options of adapting by preventing shifting their distribution along the space to their climate niche.
There are many strong interrelationships among key climate-related hazards in Spain that, acting simultaneously, can greatly increase their effects and consequences. For example, heat waves, droughts and extreme winds multiply the forest fire risk, or coastal flooding become stronger and more severe when at the same time sea level rise, heavy precipitation and storm surge happen.

Some examples of cascading effects from the climate-related hazards identified on Spanish ecological systems and economic sectors are:

Decrease in water resources due to changing precipitation patterns and longer droughts has implications for agriculture and livestock farming, urban supply, hydroelectric production, and ecosystems.

Spread of invasive species, that is one of the most important pressures on biodiversity in Spain, can be increased as a secondary effect of climate change that benefits generalist species with a rapid colonizing capacity. They can also have potential implications for human health.

Key affected sectors

Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
In this sector, the general impacts on agriculture, livestock and aquaculture and food are analysed.

Agriculture and livestock are sectors closely dependent on climate and soil. The impact of climate change varies depending on factors such as geographical location and sub-sector (type of crop or livestock) so that the analysis of impacts depends on the element under analysis. Agriculture suffers directly from all the effects of climate change and also indirectly from other climate change impacts such as increased soil erosion, floods and droughts, as well as an increase in pests and diseases.

The increase in average temperature causes phenological changes of earlier spring and later autumn. Due to longer summer temperatures, flowering and harvests are earlier.

The increase in minimum summer temperatures and heat waves generate episodes of heat stress in animals, which reduces their welfare, their intake, and their production, which can even be fatal.

Finally, it should be noted that the alterations resulting from climate change also affect fish, shellfish and aquaculture resources.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The likelihood of key climate hazards continuing into the future is considered high. Furthermore, this area is considered to be highly exposed to climate hazards. Increasing temperatures and heat waves, as well as varying and decreasing availability of water resources, significantly affect agriculture and livestock farming.
Vulnerability
high
The vulnerability of the sector to climate change depends to a large extent on the sub-sector analysed (agriculture, fisheries, livestock, aquaculture, etc.) and, within each sub-sector, much depends on the type of crop and livestock or fish species. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding impacts, vulnerability and adaptation needs. However, given the high sensitivity of the sector as a whole, vulnerability to climate hazards is considered high.

Climate change in the agricultural sector comes on top of other factors such as rising input prices, falling market prices for products, introduction of exotic species and pathogens, depopulation of rural areas, etc., which increase the vulnerability of the agricultural and livestock sector and sub-sectors, and adaptation measures must therefore be cross-cutting.

The adaptive capacity of the sector depends to a large extent on the generation and availability of information, financial, training and technological support, and market prospects. Also, risk perception or the existence of an adequate regulatory framework are variables that affect adaptive capacity.

In general, it could be said that the sensitivity of the sector is high and that there are adaptive capacities and measures that can moderate its vulnerability in the future.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
The sector's risk to climate hazards depends on the element analysed.

A recent analysis published in 2021 for identification and prioritization of climate-related risks in Spain can be found in https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]awebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf. According with this assessment and other studies, the potential impacts of climate change on the food system as a whole are considered serious because of the important consequences that may arise from it and given its strategic value in providing food security at national level.

Important consequences are also expected for the distribution of crops in the long term, as some areas will no longer be optimal and others will become suitable, thus affecting relative competition between countries and regions. Climate change risks will also have a significant impact on the production and quality of agricultural, livestock and forestry products.

In addition, extreme weather events are expected to have a greater impact, becoming more frequent and more intense. In addition, other impacts such as the emergence of new pests and diseases, both in crops and animals, are expected to increase. Excessive heat has an impact on animal welfare, with negative repercussions on production. In some areas, loss of pasture productivity is another factor that can have a negative impact on livestock utilisation.
Impact/key hazard
high
Spain is home to an extraordinary diversity of habitats and species, both terrestrial and marine. It also has a high number of endemic and migratory species. The impacts of climate change on biodiversity are generally considered to be high in terms of frequency and magnitude.

Among the impacts observed are the following:

Regarding vegetation, warming is producing the expansion of thermophilic species into areas where they were not found due to the existence of climatic barriers. The naturalisation of allochthonous species has also been detected in areas with milder climates in Spain, and the modification of the limits of the bioclimatic levels has been recorded, with species typical of the lower levels moving up to higher altitudes.

Some Iberian reptiles have seen their northern limit of distribution move towards higher latitudes.

Migrations of migratory birds are strongly controlled by climatology. With regard to spring migration, the arrival of migratory birds has been brought forward by about a week since the mid 1970s. The hot years in Spain favour an earlier arrival and the drought in Africa during the winter delays it. The date on which the birds leave Spain in autumn has fluctuated over the last few decades, with a certain tendency to leave earlier in recent years.

In marine and coastal systems, the impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, acidification, loss of calcifying species and changes in primary productivity, have consequences such as habitat reduction, geographical shift of associated species and widespread losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functionality.

Climate change also exacerbates the loss of ecosystem services, affecting regulating services (pollination, climate regulation, regulation of air quality and water quantity and quality, protection from hazards, soil formation), material goods (food, energy, various materials and medicinal resources) and non-material goods (learning, psychological well-being or identity).
Key hazard likelihood
high
The likelihood that key climate hazards will persist in the future is considered high. Furthermore, this is an area that is highly exposed to climate hazards.

For example, marine and coastal systems are highly exposed to phenomena related to sea level rise and storm surges that become more frequent with climate change. Forest systems are exposed to chronic hazards such as temperature increases and acute hazards such as increased virulence of forest fires, and aquatic ecosystems are heavily exposed to hazards related to temperature change of water bodies, increased intensity of heavy rainfall and increased periods of drought, among other hazards.
Vulnerability
high
Vulnerability in the area is considered high overall despite significant adaptive potential. There is a very important presence of highly sensitive "specialist" and stenoic species (with small ecological ranges). We also find ecosystems with little ecological plasticity and limited adaptive capacity.

In general, ecosystems and species linked to water are more sensitive to climate change. In the case of river ecosystems, actions aimed at recovering the natural structure and functioning of rivers, floodplains and riparian forests greatly increase their adaptive capacity. In other cases, such as on islands and high peaks, the potential for adaptation depends on the physiological adaptive capacity of the species and the possibility of interventions to support adaptation is lower.

The development of guidelines for integrating adaptation into natural resource management instruments and protected area planning and management is an important tool for improving resilience in protected areas. Also the designation of new marine protected areas (such as the Mediterranean Cetacean Corridor, itself designated a ZEPIM) and terrestrial protected areas with the designation of new Biosphere Reserves (the last three approved in 2019) and the future Sierra de las Nieves National Park (in the pipeline).

Adaptation through Nature-based Solutions (NBS) can reduce the risks of climate change on biodiversity and provide multiple additional benefits such as carbon storage, improved water quality, protection of human health, biodiversity conservation and livelihood support.
Risk Future Impact
high
The severity of the potential impacts of climate change on the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, together with the significant vulnerability and exposure to the environment, mean that the overall risk can be described as high.

The risk is increasing due to the accelerating rate of changes in species distributions, changes in phenology, altered population dynamics and changes in species composition or ecosystem structure and function, affecting marine, terrestrial and freshwater systems.
Impact/key hazard
low
Buildings are affected by a number of impacts derived from climate change hazards, including sea level rise and extreme waves, heavy rainfall and temperature increase.

Floods have caused property damage of around 800 million euros per year. (Impacts and risks from climate change in Spain, 2020). Nevertheless integration of flood risk in urban planning is reducing risk in new urban developments.

Rising sea levels and extreme waves also cause damages to coastal buildings, urban infrastructure networks (mainly sanitation and transport) and other constructive elements.

The increase in temperature affects the quality of indoor spaces causing losses in comfort and habitability in dwellings and/or the adoption of maladaptation solutions. It also causes thermal stress and reduced thermal comfort in public spaces, deterioration and deformation of building elements and materials and street furniture.
Key hazard likelihood
medium
The exposure of buildings to climatic hazards is very varied, there is no clear pattern that allows an overall assessment to be made. This is, among other factors, due to Spain's geographical variability, the significant length of its coastline, the presence of two archipelagos particularly sensitive to extreme coastal weather events and the presence of a very important fluvial network. This vulnerability also depends on urban size and planning.
Vulnerability
medium
The long lifespan of buildings and infrastructure increases vulnerability and means that the urban environment faces significant risks from climate change (damage to materials and structures, increased maintenance costs, loss of value of real estate assets, etc.).

Responding to society's emerging needs inevitably requires a very significant transformation of the Country´s housing stock. Buildings and public spaces were designed in Spain for situations, needs and ways of life different from the current ones and without consideration of future climatic conditions.

Integrating adaptation to climate change in the building sector by advancing in regulations to improve the energy and water performance of buildings in line with projected future climate scenarios will help to reduce vulnerability. There is significant scope for adaptation in the building sector, which in turn requires significant investments to be made in the coming years.
Risk Future Impact
medium
Advances in urban planning and building codes are reducing the risks of potential future impacts in new urban developments and buildings, but old buildings will need integral improvements. The establishment and maintenance of adequate habitability conditions, will require the use of diverse resources and a wide range of actions, both public and private.

To achieve a more resilient building, it is also necessary to advance the deployment of urban green infrastructure, the recovery of rainwater and greywater from buildings and to innovate in terms of materials and technologies.
Impact/key hazard
low
The observed impacts of climate change on the industrial sector in Spain are wide ranging from damage to facilities due to extreme weather events, interruptions in supply chains, impacts derived from a reduced availability of certain resources (such as water from droughts and changing precipitation patterns) or alterations in industrial processes as a result of variations in production conditions (for example, an increase in temperature and heat waves, with effects on cooling systems). In general, most of the observed impacts have low consequences.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The likelihood of the occurrence of key climate-related hazards affecting Spanish industry is high, exposing the sector to changes in wind and precipitation patterns, changing temperature, sea level rise where the facilities are located in coastal areas and especially to increased frequency and intensity of extreme events, that can cause damage to the industrial cycle.
Vulnerability
medium
The adaptive capacity of the Spanish industrial sector depends on the size of the business. It is higher in large corporations because of its technological and human resources, and the research and innovation capacities, but lower in SME that in general are more vulnerable and need support to integrate climate change adaptation into their business strategies and actions.

The Spanish Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation 2021-2027 includes financing lines aimed to develop innovation technologies to boost industry and business and making them more resilient to climate change.
Risk Future Impact
medium
Based on the variables analysed (impacts, vulnerability and exposure), it can be said that the sector's risk to future impacts will be medium.

Many risks posed by climate change to the industrial activity and services in Spain are shared by other sectors with close relationship with the industry, such as transport, tourism and energy, also included in this reporting.

Some of the potential impacts, that increase the level of risk in the sector, according with a recent analysis published in 2021 for identification and prioritization of climate-related risks in Spain
(https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]nawebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf), include:
- Reduction in the availability of water resources for industry uses and the service sector.
- Impacts on industrial infrastructures located on the coast due to coastal flooding and sea level rise, extreme weather events, erosion, and saline intrusion.
- Shortage of services, especially water and energy.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Impacts of climate-related disasters in Spain are dependent of the different acute climate-related hazards identified.

Regarding acute temperature-related hazards, heat waves severely impact human health in Spain, with an observed increasing trend. Cold waves are events with low frequency, but the impacts on health can be high and, if accompanied of heavy snow precipitation, other key systems (transportation, urban mobility) can also be severely impacted. Wild/forest fires in Spain have consequences in loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, water quality, landscape degradation and many others.

Regarding acute wind-related hazards, there have been observed serious impacts from cyclones, affecting many sectors throughout Spain, with significant loss and damage to people and property. Storms also have severe impacts in Spain and, specifically, Mediterranean storms can produce severe winds and torrential rainfall, with potential evolution to tropical-like storms over warming surface of the Mediterranean Sea in autumn (medicanes).

Regarding acute water-related hazards, droughts in Spain are a regular extreme event with drastic impacts on agriculture and other sectors. Heavy precipitation, linked to floods (coastal and inland), have important impacts in Spain to people, infrastructure and property.

Regarding acute solid mass-related hazards, avalanches are restricted to the highest mountain system in Spain, namely Pyrenees, with limited impacts. Landslides are also restricted to sloppy areas when heavy precipitation occurs, with impacts mainly in the transport infrastructure system, and subsidence are linked to coastal areas, namely deltas, where the sediment supply has been disrupted.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Regarding heat waves, projections point out to an increase in frequency and magnitude along the century, with consequences on the mortality, more acute in absence of adaptation measures.

Suitable climatic conditions for wild/forest fires in Spain are projected to increase by climate change along the century, enlarging the exposition of forest systems to the hazard.

Research on the acute wind-related hazard in Spain indicates that, in general, no significant change is projected over the 21st century in the frequency of cyclones and explosive cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic. With regard to regional wind, no significant changes in extreme winds are projected for the Iberian Peninsula for the 21st century, considering the 50-year return period value and the frequency of days with wind above a given threshold (80, 100 and 120 km/h).

Climate change will progressively increase the frequency and severity of floods, increasing the economic and social impacts. Projected annual damage along the 21st century due to coastal floods in Spain will be much higher than damages from fluvial floods.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Spain is one of the countries in Europe most vulnerable to acute climate-related hazards, but the degree of vulnerability depends on each of the hazards identified modulated by the adaptive capacity. In general, over the period 1980-2016, Spain was the fifth EU country with the highest economic losses in absolute terms caused by climate-related events.

The capacity of Civil Protection in Spain to manage emergencies is based on a solid strategic framework for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in Spain, materialized through a Civil Protection National System and the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan that, in synergy, are strengthening the resilience of Spanish society to climate-related hazards.

The adaptive capacity is based, on one hand, in the Spanish expertise in assessing the vulnerability to climate change, with more than 15 years of experience, since the first National Adaptation Plan was approved in 2006. During this time, knowledge, methods and tools have been developed -based on the use of projections and scenarios- that facilitate the management of climate-related hazards in those sectors vulnerable to climate change. On the other hand, a solid governance scheme has been established in Spain to guarantee adequate coordination, information and participation for effective disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Risk for Civil Protection to manage emergencies from climate-associated hazards depends on the different hazards, considering the potential consequences for human and natural systems under uncertainty.

Highest risks are identified from acute climate-related hazards of fluvial, pluvial and coastal flooding, forest fires, heat waves, droughts and other extreme weather events (storms, winds, storm surges, etc.) on sectors such as water management, biodiversity, agriculture, buildings, coastal areas, health, energy and transport. A recent analysis published in 2021 for identification and prioritization of climate-related risks in Spain can be found in https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]nawebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf
Impact/key hazard
high
The observed impacts on coastal zones are high in frequency and magnitude. The main impacts refer to temporary or permanent flooding, increased erosion, loss of wetlands and brackish water intrusion (Wong et al., 2014).

Sea level rise and the increased destructive power of extreme coastal storms increase the risk of flooding in low-lying areas and the acceleration of coastal erosion. These aspects produce diverse impacts on the coast, including shoreline retreats and changes in the sedimentary and erosive regime, with effects on coastal ecosystems and also on infrastructures and the building.

There are numerous ecosystems located in the supralittoral and maritime fringe (deltas, marshes, estuaries, lagoons and beaches, etc.) that are affected by sea level rise. Rising temperatures also have important impacts. Seagrass meadows are currently under stress due to climate change. Heat waves cause massive mortality in species such as Zostera in the Atlantic or Posidonia meadows in the Mediterranean.

Saline intrusion is also an important impact from a natural and socio-economic point of view, due to the salinization of land dedicated to agriculture.
Key hazard likelihood
high
At the regional scale, the Spanish Mediterranean coast presents high or very high exposure values to climate-related hazards and will increase in the future compared to other Mediterranean areas.

Sea level rise combined with other climate-related hazards will lead to more frequent coastal extreme events in Spain.
Vulnerability
high
The vulnerability of the sector is high. Initiatives have been developed to increase the adaptive capacity of coastal zones. However, given the length of the Spanish coastline (7,871 km) and the existing pressures, further progress is needed in different lines of work to reduce vulnerability.

Coastal ecosystems are subject to very specific environmental conditions. This causes a great richness and important endemicity, especially in a semi-enclosed sea such as the Mediterranean and also in the around the archipelagos. This strong specialization is in turn an important factor of vulnerability to hazards arising from climate change.

Initiatives have been developed to improve coastal adaptive capacity, such as the implementation of the Spanish Coastal Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. The Environmental Plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas (PIMA Adapta-Costas) represent a set of good practices developed for this sector. Pilot Nature-based Solutions in coastal areas have shown promising results that need to be further explored. For example, pilot use of Posidonia meadows as a green climate change adaptation measure in port areas shows a wave attenuation effect.
Risk Future Impact
high
A recent analysis published in 2021 for identification and prioritization of climate-related risks in Spain can be found in https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]awebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf. According with this assessment and other studies updated in 2019, an increase in coastal flooding is projected, moderate in intensity, but more important in frequency.

At national scale, flooding level could increase in 2040 by 8% on the Atlantic and Cantabrian coasts and the Alboran Sea, around 6% in the Canary Islands and between 2% and 3% on the rest of the Mediterranean coast and the Gulf of Cadiz, assuming that the current trend of sea level rise continues during the first half of the century.

In addition, climate change contributes to other anthropogenic pressures and processes, especially urbanization processes, which are contributing to coastal erosion and will be intensified by the effect of climate change. The Canary Islands, Galicia and the Cantabrian coast are the areas where there may be the greatest retreat, up to 3 m in 2040. In the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean coast the retreat could be 2 m around the Strait of Gibraltar and 1.5 m in the rest.
Impact/key hazard
medium
Climate change and climate variability produce impacts on different components of the energy system, affecting energy resources, energy generation, transport, distribution and storage, as well as consumption patterns.

In Spain, a very relevant issue is the water-energy nexus. Some technologies are water-intensive (thermal power plants, hydroelectric power plants, etc.), and water will become a scarcer resource due to climate change. For example, reduced hydropower production because of reduced river flows poses a threat to the proper management of the electricity system.

Climate change is changing the patterns of availability of renewable resources (wind, solar, hydro and biomass). Initial analyses point to a moderate increase in solar resources and a certain tendency towards a decrease in wind resources, although with significant territorial variations. However, the projected impacts are more relevant, and negative, in the hydro and biomass sectors.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Changes in annual or seasonal patterns of precipitation, average water and air temperatures and average wind speeds can affect the performance and optimal operation of power plants.

Also changes in weather patterns, and especially the increased frequency and intensity of extreme events, can cause damage to critical infrastructure critical to electricity, gas or liquid fuel systems.
Vulnerability
medium
The availability of renewable resources (wind, solar, hydro and biomass) will vary depending on the resource analysed. Vulnerability will be higher in the hydro and biomass sectors. This is because a significant reduction in hydropower production is expected as a result of reduced river flows. Productivity of biomass-oriented agricultural and forestry crops is also expected to be reduced due to lower water availability.

Initial analyses point to a moderate increase in solar resources and a somewhat decreasing trend in wind resources, albeit with significant territorial variations.

Further progress is needed in the development of energy transition policies to reduce the vulnerability of the sector. The potential for indigenous production with renewable energy, together with the degree of energy diversification and the reduction of energy demand can reduce the vulnerability associated with Spain's energy dependence. According to the National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan 2021-2030 (PNIEC), dependence would be reduced to 61% by 2030, driven especially by the transformation of the transport and electricity sectors.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
The level of risk will be different depending on the element analysed: primary energy supply; electricity generation; transport, storage and distribution or electricity demand. The level of risk will also be different depending on level of dependence on water resources or the exposure to extreme events.

In relation to demand, climate scenarios point to an increase in the number of days per year with high temperatures, leading to an increase in peak electricity demand associated with cooling needs at certain times of the day and seasons. If appropriate measures are not taken to target the most vulnerable sectors of the population, there could also be an increase in seasonal energy poverty rates in certain regions associated with cooling needs.

It is necessary to make progress in the analysis of energy system risks and the necessary adaptation measures for their incorporation in the successive National Integrated Energy and Climate Plans.

It is therefore essential to analyse and quantify the negative impacts of climate change on the energy system and to implement actions to reduce the vulnerability of the sector and the risks associated with climate hazards. The ultimate objective is to guarantee an energy system that is resilient to the effects of climate change in our territory in a scenario of rapid decarbonisation.
Impact/key hazard
low
The financial sector and the insurance business are not exempt from the impacts of climate change, including physical financial risks, which may involve for example direct damage to assets and indirect impacts from supply chain disruption, or the increase of climate risks covered by insurance activity that may affect their long-term sustainability.

With regard to the financial sector, significant progress is currently being made in the analysis of physical risks and their disclosure, and specific analyses are expected to be available in the short and other factors.

As for the insurance business, the weather risks that most affect the sector in Spain are flood risk (70% of claims) and atypical cyclonic storms. Its main risks are covered by the extraordinary risk coverage of the Insurance Compensation Consortium (Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros - CCS). According to their data, it cannot be concluded that so far there has been an increase in the number of these extreme phenomena in Spain, although an increase in claims can be observed which is associated with the increase in the number of insurance policies and greater exposure to the risk.

Regarding the combined agricultural insurance system, although for some weather risks the evolution of the loss ratio shows an upward trend over the years, it is considered that this is also largely due to the increase in the penetration of agricultural insurance. It considerably increases the total volume of indemnities, but the risk is diluted among the insured mass and improves the solvency of the agricultural insurance sector. In addition, the system relies on the Insurance Compensation Consortium as a reinsurer, which has absorbed excess of loss claims when they have occurred, providing stability to the system.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The exposure of the insurance activity to the hazards associated with climate change is high given the very nature of this activity, which is based on the transfer of risk. Climate hazards, which can be associated with catastrophic damage, are generally covered by the insurance sector through a variety of insurance policies.,

The coverage of extraordinary risks, managed by the Insurance Compensation Consortium (Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros - CCS), includes damage caused by hydrometeorological events that to some extent will be affected by climate change: extraordinary floods and atypical cyclonic storms. The risk that causes most damage in Spain is flooding and, for the purposes of coverage, this is understood as the flooding of land caused by rainfall or thawing; by water from lakes with a natural outlet, from estuaries or rivers, or from natural surface water courses when they overflow their normal channels. Likewise, it includes the marine phenomena on the coast, even if there is no flooding. Atypical cyclonic storms include, among others, tornadoes and extraordinary winds, characterized by gusts in excess of 120 km/h.

However, not all climatic risks are covered by the extraordinary risk insurance, some of which may even have catastrophic effects. Hail and other direct effects of precipitation, lightning, strong winds of less than 120 km/h and landslides, as well as the effects on property of wildfires are the responsibility of ordinary insurance and are therefore covered by private insurers. In addition to property coverages, there are other lines, such as life, health and accident, which are highly exposed to additional perils such as rising temperatures, heat waves or diseases.

With regards to agricultural insurance, the climatic risks related are mainly floods, drought, strong winds, frost and hail, covered through the combined agricultural insurance system.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
The Spanish “extraordinary risk coverage” system places us in a favorable position to address the insurance challenge of climate change. The peculiarity of this system resides in its compulsory nature and universalization through a broad insured base that allows providing a very broad coverage at a very affordable cost for the policyholders. The system is self-sustainable and does not require any type of contribution from the budgets of any public administration. The system has already been tested under some scenarios with altered conditions, and so far it has responded adequately. Another system strength is its adaptability and flexibility, having evolved over time according to the needs of the Spanish insurance sector, and facing challenges that have translated into improvements in the coverage regime through the corresponding legal modifications, such as new risks (wind) and new areas (loss of profits, life, ...).The system is considered to be prepared and capable of making adjustments in terms of coverage, modification of thresholds, assumption of new risks, adjustments to surcharges, etc.

Combined agricultural insurance is one of the most vulnerable, due to the sector's great dependence on climatic factors, but it is also one of the most adaptable thanks to its structure and operation, since it is integrated by public and private actors representing the interests of all the parties involved. The system is renewed annually through the preparation of the Annual Combined Agrarian Insurance Plan, achieving the continuous adaptation of the insurance to the needs and reality of the agricultural sector.

As for ordinary risks not covered by the Insurance Compensation Consortium (Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros - CCS), to date there is not enough disaggregated and comparable information available to allow a precise assessment of their vulnerability, although their adaptive capacity is also considered broad.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Public-private collaboration, a particular feature of the Spanish insurance system, guarantees economic stability and the capacity to face indemnities derived from events of a catastrophic nature such as floods, the main climate risk in Spain. In general terms and with a view to a short term horizon, it can be said with some certainty that the insurance sector will have no problem in assuming the climate risks derived from climate change, although it is true that in the longer term and in more unfavorable scenarios, knowledge of the variation of existing climate risks, and the new emerging risks, will be decisive in order to adapt the system and design new products to cover the new risks without endangering the sector. The continuous search for solutions to correctly assess the risks will allow the effects of climate change to continue to be insurable, and to have an adequate capital provision, by sector, to cover them.

Climate change impacts could, potentially, harm the solvency of insurance entities by hindering their ability to adjust their risk management schemes or implying an increase in premiums that reduces insurance coverage, rendering it ultimately unfeasible and with the probable need to increase the capital to cover such possible losses. Spain, with an insurance system based on a public-private partnership and a very broad insured base, is, perhaps, in a comparatively better situation to fase this challenge regarding extraordinary risks.

In addition, the insurance activity can contribute to reducing harm and increasing societal resilience. For example, the CCS collaborates with competent institutions in the knowledge and management, prevention and reduction of these risks, both by sharing its data on indemnity damages, essential for identifying risk areas and estimating risk evolution trends, and in the form of awareness-raising and dissemination initiatives. These initiatives influence the behavior of the policyholders themselves (risk awareness, self-protection measures, etc.), which can contribute to reducing the overall risk, together with a reduction in exposure and vulnerability.

All the branches of the sector will be affected by climate change, but probably the branch that will be most intensely affected will be that of Combined Agricultural Insurance, due to its great climatic dependence and the catastrophic dimensions of the losses suffered by the sector, caused fundamentally by major droughts and phenomena such as hail. However, insurance activity is one of the sectors with the greatest adaptive capacity, being continuously updated, working in collaboration with research centers and counting on the participation of all the relevant agents that form part of the sector.
Impact/key hazard
high
Climate change impacts on the forestry sector are considered high in frequency and magnitude.

Reduced water availability has significant impacts. Changes in forest species ranges (latitudinal and altitudinal) have already been observed.

In addition, higher temperatures increase evapotranspiration, increasing water deficit, which in turn leads to lower annual growth rates in forests, with a consequent reduction in carbon sequestration rates.

Aspects such as increased soil water stress, reduced relative air humidity due to higher temperatures and increased wind speed increase the virulence of fires and make conditions conducive to large fires more frequent.

There is an expansion of the area of action and periods of activity of pests and diseases limited by the cold and a variation in the phenology of forest species.

An increase in erosion processes has also been observed as a result of a higher incidence of torrential rains.

All this translates into a reduction in nature's contributions to human well-being through the so-called ecosystem services, which can produce, on woodland in general and on tree stands in particular: processes of loss of stability; disorders in regeneration; or loss of biomass.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The likelihood of key climate hazards being maintained in the future is considered high due to the inertia of the climate system and the high exposure due to the nature of the area, embedded in the natural environment.

Increases in temperature and droughts, as well as associated precipitation anomalies, significantly affect the forestry sector, which has a high exposure to these hazards, due to Spain's geographical position resulting in high endemicity, the existence of species at the southern limit of their distribution (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Fagus sylvatica and Fagus sylvatica), the existence of species at the southern limit of their distribution and the high exposure to these hazards. e.g. Fagus Sylvatica, Abies Alba...) and the existence of relict formations dependent on stable climatic conditions (e.g. laurel forest, Prunus lusitanica, Quercus canariensis...).

The exposure of the area to climatic hazards is also high due to the very nature of the area, which is embedded in the natural environment.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
The vulnerability of forests is highly correlated with the conservation status of forest stands and is increased by processes of abandonment and lack of treatment. It also varies according to the hazard analysed and the adaptive capacity of each specific element.

This vulnerability takes the form of a higher incidence of: fires; pests; diseases; delay in natural regeneration; and risk of blowing down due to wind and snowfall. In short, disturbances that can lead to the disappearance of woodlands over large areas.

Regular silvicultural, regeneration or improvement treatments, applied periodically through adaptive forest management, are key to increasing the resilience of forest stands to disturbances. At present, and in a large part of Spanish forests, these treatments have been abandoned as a consequence of the process of sociological change related to the abandonment of the rural environment and the lack of profitability of forest products due to slower growth than in countries within the European Union, among other factors.

The greatest harm to society related to the vulnerability of forest stands is the loss of their functions. Particularly negative is the loss of environmental services: regulation of the hydrological cycle (with the loss of water and soil quality caused by runoff); improvement in the composition of the atmosphere through CO2 fixation (mitigation of climate change); and maintenance of biodiversity and landscape.
Risk Future Impact
high
The sector's risk to climate hazards is considered high due to the severity of potential impacts with a significant influence on the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Future projections foresee increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation (with significant geographical variability). This is a key issue given the significant exposure of the sector directly related to its insertion in the natural environment and the geographical situation of the country.

The worsening of forest quality is related to an increase in the risk of desertification in Spain. A study carried out in the framework of the PNACC analysed the impact of climate change on the risk of desertification by considering together the effects of the evolution of aridity and erosion. The study revealed that, by the end of this century, the area at risk of desertification would increase for all established categories, with the greatest projected change in the very high risk (+45%) and high risk (+82%) categories.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Climate change affects the health of the Spanish population through its direct effects - heat waves and other extreme events, such as floods and droughts - but also through indirect effects, such as increased air pollution and aeroallergens, changes in the distribution of disease vectors and the loss of water and food quality.

One of the impacts that has the greatest repercussions is the increase in morbidity and mortality associated with extreme temperatures. According to AEMET data, since 1984, the number of days per year on which heatwave temperature thresholds are exceeded in peninsular Spain has doubled. In addition, heatwaves in June are now 10 times more frequent than in the 1980s and 1990s, when they have a greater impact on health because the body is not yet acclimatised to the heat.

Climate change also has a strong influence on air quality, favouring adverse weather conditions (stable atmospheric conditions, increased radiation, high temperatures or generation of desert dust), which aggravate air pollution episodes with an impact on health.

In addition, the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events leads to human and material losses, injuries, traumatisms and mental health problems among the population.

In contrast, the impact on health associated with diseases transmitted by the loss of water or food quality, as well as vector-borne diseases, is low in Spain.
Key hazard likelihood
high
More than 80% of the population in Spain lives in urban areas, where exposure to air pollution episodes is higher and heat waves are aggravated by the "heat island" effect.

On the other hand, the expected increase in temperature favours the development, survival and reproduction rates of mosquitoes, the main transmitters of vector-borne diseases, exposing the entire population to this danger.

In terms of water quality and food safety, the current monitoring and surveillance system ensures compliance with quality standards, limiting the level of exposure.
Vulnerability
medium
The main health impacts, such as heat waves and air pollution, affect the most vulnerable population groups, such as the over-65s, children, pregnant women, people with chronic illnesses or debilitating conditions, exposed workers and people at risk of exclusion, to a greater extent.

The Spanish population is highly sensitive from a health perspective mainly due to its demographic characteristics and social inequalities, with an increasingly ageing society and a population at risk of poverty rate of 21.5% (INE, 2018).

In contrast, high adaptive capacity has contributed to reducing heatwave-related mortality in Spain. Since 2004, the implementation of the National Plan of Preventive Actions on the Effects of Excess Temperatures on Health has been a success in this area.

Also, in the fight against air pollution, there are several initiatives under development that will contribute to reducing the vulnerability of the population.
Risk Future Impact
high
The adaptive capacity of human physiology has limits so, despite the success cases in Spain, the implementation of adaptation measures to reduce the health impacts of climate change remains a priority.

Furthermore, although the public health system in Spain is consolidated, the COVID-19 crisis has revealed weaknesses and threats that need to be corrected.

For all these reasons, the sector's risk to climate hazards is considered high due to the severity of the potential impacts, the high level of exposure and the limited adaptive capacity of an ageing population with strong levels of inequality.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The observed impacts on the marine environment are high. Physical and chemical changes alter marine life and biodiversity. Increases in water temperature of between 0.1 and 0.75°C per decade have been observed, with the highest values in the Atlantic. Salinity and water acidification have increased in Spanish marine regions. The change is more accelerated in the Mediterranean.

Impacts differ according to the marine region analysed. The Atlantic has registered biogeographic changes and changes in the composition of macroalgae forests because the northern Iberian Peninsula is the southern limit of many species of macroalgae from cold-temperate systems. According to climate model projections, the Mediterranean basin will be one of the regions most affected by the increase in extreme events and global warming. Its acidification is also detrimental to the calcification of bio-building coralline algae. Climate change is currently the greatest threat to the marine ecosystems of the Canary Islands. The changes that are occurring in the distribution and abundance of certain marine organisms clearly show the effect of tropicalization.

In relation to fisheries, impacts on the distribution, abundance and phenology of some species have already been recorded, with consequences for the sector.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The exposure of the sector to climate-related hazards such as rising sea temperatures and marine heat waves is high and significantly affects fisheries and the marine environment in general.

There is a significant difference in exposure between benthic and pelagic species in all regions. The former are heavily exposed to changes in environmental conditions, the latter tend to move to more favourable areas reducing their exposure to these factors.

Target fishing species are undergoing documented displacements that affect the sector economically and may generate conflicts when it comes to allocating fishing rights.
Vulnerability
high
The marine and fisheries sector is sensitive to identified climate-related hazards and there is a need to improve adaptive capacity, which has a significant potential to reduce vulnerability.

Marine resources present different degrees of vulnerability to the effects of climate change and there are different mechanisms, legislative, planning, political and financial, that can contribute to the adaptation of fisheries and the marine environment to climate change.

At the planning level, the implementation of Marine Strategies and Maritime Spatial Plans can help to improve the resilience of these resources and ecosystems to climate change.

Moreover, the EU Common Fisheries Policy already considers the effects of climate change through scientific assessments of the different fish stocks that are the basis for the adoption of measures to manage their catches.

The European Maritime and Fisheries Fund defines priorities that can contribute to climate change adaptation through the diversification of traditional fisheries, reducing the impact of fishing on vulnerable marine ecosystems, or supporting aquaculture to diversify its production and protect itself against climate-related risks.

The creation of the Marine Protected Areas Network is also a prevention tool with significant potential for the adaptive conservation of biodiversity.
Risk Future Impact
high
The risk to the sector is high, despite its significant potential for adaptation with limits imposed by its high exposure.

There are significant impacts on the fishing sector and the marine environment in general. However, there are large differences depending on the element considered.

There is a high risk of loss of essential ecosystem services. Biodiversity and the different natural processes of marine ecosystems provide environmental services that are fundamental to human well-being. These services range from the support of marine species through habitats and nutrients, to the provision of food from fisheries and aquaculture, maritime transport, energy production and climate regulation.

It is necessary to continue advancing towards a management of fishing activity based on sustainability criteria, and with an ecosystem approach, with the general objective of improving the resilience of ecosystems and species.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
In general, the impacts of climate change on cultural heritage depend on the frequency and magnitude of the element under analysis.

Some of the effects of climate change on cultural heritage are already visible. Many properties located near the coast are affected by rising sea levels; fluctuations in the water table affect the structural stability of buildings of historical-cultural interest; and the increase in temperature coupled with the effects of atmospheric pollution lead to an increase in the processes of physical, chemical and mechanical erosion.

On the other hand, understanding cultural assets in all their dimensions, it is necessary to highlight the alterations in cultural landscapes caused by increased desertification, floods and extreme events.
Key hazard likelihood
different likelihood of their occurrence and exposure for different key hazards and/or climate scenarios
Exposure varies according to the elements analysed. In coastal areas, cultural assets such as coastal batteries, fortified enclosures, industrial fishing complexes or coastal salt pans are more exposed to sea level rise and extreme events. Exposure is also high for cultural assets related to water culture due to their location in flood zones, such as mills, bridges, etc. Other inland areas are considered less exposed.
Vulnerability
medium
Sensitivity varies according to the elements analysed, from constructive elements that can be considered safe and whose sensitivity is low, to cultural landscapes whose sensitivity may be higher.

So far, there is little knowledge about possible adaptation measures in this area, and the PNACC plans to promote the knowledge generation in this area.

On the other hand, it is important to promote the use of vernacular knowledge to improve adaptation possibilities in different regions and economic activities. Traditional knowledge can contribute to improving capacities and reducing vulnerability in territories with new adaptation needs because of climate change.
Risk Future Impact
different rating of risks for different key hazards and/or under different climate scenarios
Cultural heritage is an asset that must be protected against the new risks arising from climate change. The diversity of elements to be protected and their different levels of exposure and vulnerability mean that the risks are diverse and must be specifically analysed.

Spain also has an extensive heritage of vernacular knowledge that is closely adapted to the climatic conditions that characterise each corner of our geography. This knowledge, in the current context of climate change, is a valuable asset that can strengthen the adaptive capacity of human communities in the face of climate change.
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
Rural areas in Spain are affected by multiple climate-related hazards, often with cascade effects, as the rural territory integrates different activities, sectors and systems, such as agriculture, agroindustry, agrosystems, ecosystems, biodiversity, forestry and tourism.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Rural development in Spain is widely exposed to climate-related hazards because of its intrinsic characteristics: 73.2% of the Spanish surface is rural and 83.4% of the municipalities belong to rural territories, despite only 13.3% of the Spanish population live in those rural areas.

There are several factors related to these characteristics that increase the exposure of rural populations to climate hazards. This is the case of exposure to floods, in the case of populations located in flood-prone areas, or increased exposure to wildfires related both to the location of populations and to changes in land use, among others.
Vulnerability
high
Rural development in Spain has a high vulnerability closely associated with the features of the people living in the territory: 48,3% of the Spanish rural surface is under risk of depopulation (human population density lower than 12.5 inhabitants per km2) and 37.6% is under severe risk (lower than 8 inhabitants per km2). At the same time, 82% of the municipalities in rural areas have more men than women and aging plus masculinization are also driven factors for rural development, that challenge its adaptive capacity.

Some factors that increase territorial vulnerability have to do with the loss of traditional uses, increasing vulnerability to climatic hazards such as forest fires and increasing dependence on aid for the maintenance of the rural environment. Territorial and technological isolation also increase the vulnerability of some rural areas. In addition, the exodus from rural areas, such as the lack of employment opportunities, contribute to this vulnerability to climate change.
Risk Future Impact
high
A recent analysis published in 2021 for identification and prioritization of climate-related risks in Spain can be found in https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]awebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf. Risks affecting rural development include:
- Loss of rural livelihoods due to impacts on suitable areas for agricultural crop production and livestock production losses, animal welfare and even mortality due to temperature increases, droughts, heat waves and reduced rainfall.
- Increase in pests, pathogens and changes in the distribution of vectors affecting forest, crops and livestock.
- Abandonment of pastured systems due to viability failures resulting from price increases of other crops.
- Increased wildfires affecting rural areas due to increased/accumulation of fuel and more favourable conditions for ignition.
- Reduction in the availability of water resources for agricultural and rural uses
- Contraction of rural tourism due to the disappearance or degradation of tourism resources (landscapes, agrosystems, natural sites, etc.)
Impact/key hazard
mixed impacts for different hazards
The impacts observed on the tourism sector depend on the resource analysed. Given that climate change affects the tourism sector through three complementary pathways (tourism resources, infrastructure, and tourism demand), differences in frequency and magnitude are observed in relation to the impact under study.

The impact on some key resources that support the sector can be considered high. Elements such as snow and coastal sandy areas are key resources in the case of snow and sun and beach tourism, respectively.

The impact on tourism infrastructures can be considered medium overall, although particularly serious in tourist areas located along the coastline. Impacts on tourism demand itself have not been greatly affected so far, although the potential impact is expected to increase in the future.
Key hazard likelihood
high
The level of exposure is considered high in general terms. The main tourism sectors in Spain will be subject to excessive temperatures which will have an effect not only on sun and beach tourism associated with the summer season, but also on snow tourism due to the reduction of snow resources.

Coastal tourist destinations are also highly exposed to climatic hazards and suffer, for example, recurrent heavy damage from extreme events.

Although the impact is less likely on resources linked to cultural and inland tourism, exposure to the excess temperatures forecast for the whole territory persists.
Vulnerability
high
Summer tourism is particularly vulnerable to temperature rises, which are more pronounced at this time of year, which is precisely the high tourist season in most of Spain. In addition, the reduction in rainfall on the Iberian Peninsula, especially in summer and in the south, adds to the temperature increases, limiting the water resources available for certain tourist activities.

Resources and infrastructures located on the coastline affected by sea level rise are also particularly sensitive.

The increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves and in the number of tropical nights, especially relevant on the Mediterranean coast, make our country particularly sensitive to these changes.

In addition, the rise in temperatures in countries with traditionally adverse weather conditions may reduce the arrival of foreign tourists, without our country having the capacity to adapt to this cross-border phenomenon.
Risk Future Impact
high
Although a direct cause-effect relationship cannot be attributed, it should not be forgotten that the COVID-19 crisis is related to the impacts of climate change. The pandemic has demonstrated the vulnerability of the tourism sector worldwide, with a dramatic impact on Spain.

The high level of exposure, the high sensitivity of a crucial sector in our country, and our limited adaptive capacities in the face of certain hazards, make tourism one of the sectors most at risk.
Impact/key hazard
medium
Impacts of climate-related hazards on transport infrastructures in Spain affect the operability of the main physical components - roads, railways, airports and ports.

Wind and waves are the weather-related hazards that have the greatest impact on Spanish port operations and can paralyze activity in most of them. Strong winds, heavy precipitation, snow storms and low visibility are the hazards with more impacts on the operation of airports. Regarding the Spanish high speed railway network, the main impacts are due to extreme precipitation and winds while in the conventional railway network main impacts come from wildfires on railroad tracksides (with high temperatures conditions), extreme precipitation and winds. Finally, the main climate-related hazards that affect the State Road Network are floods, snow, ice and landslides.

Spanish airports register around 900 incidents per year due to meteorological events, most of them with low impacts, but 2-3% with serious consequences. On average, 1085 incidents associated with climate-related hazards affect the Spanish roads yearly in Spain, while 1100 are affecting the railway network.
Key hazard likelihood
high
A study has identified the sections of the State Road Network and the General Interest Railway Network that are potentially most exposed, identifying the types of climate-related hazards that most frequently affect the different sections of the networks and their repercussions on users and infrastructure.

Wind-related hazards affecting transport infrastructure in Spain are projected to have little change due to climate change along the century (no meaning the impacts will continue to be high) while floods, heat waves, wildfires and droughts are projected to increase.
Vulnerability
medium
The Spanish adaptive capacity to cope with climate change impacts in the transport sector is high, as there are a set of high level systems to anticipate potential service disruptions by means of operational early warning systems that are permanent monitoring and forecasting extreme weather events and take the necessary measures to minimize their negative effects.
Risk Future Impact
medium
Based on the variables analysed (impacts, vulnerability and exposure), it can be said that the sector's risk to future impacts will be medium.

According with a recent analysis published in 2021 for identification and prioritization of climate-related risks in Spain
(https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]nawebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf), the potential impacts posed by climate change to the transport sector that increase the level of risk in the sector include:
- Service disruptions due to increased fluvial and pluvial flooding.
- Ground subsidence affecting infrastructures due to reduced aquifer recharge.
- Increase in wildfires in railroad tracksides due to natural and unnatural causes because of increased/accumulation of fuel and more favourable conditions for ignition.
- Impacts on transport infrastructure next to the coastline associated with sea level rise and extreme coastal events.
- Reduction of the port operability due to increased frequency of waves wash over seawalls and levee failures.
- Damage and erosion to road surfaces and bridges due to the increased frequency of extreme events.
- Damage to railway infrastructure (electric overload of catenaries due to electrical storms, damage to tracks due to temperature rise, saturation of drainage systems, slope erosion and landslides).
- Interruption of rail traffic due to falling objects on the tracks and impact on the acoustic screens due to increased wind gusts, in particular for high-speed lines.
- reduction of airport operations due to increased fog and wind, fires during refuelling operations, difficulty in taking off of heavy aircraft and saturation of drainage systems due to increased extreme events.
Impact/key hazard
medium
Climate change significantly affect the urban environment, the quality of life in cities and the provision of essential services such as transport, water, energy, housing, health, and social services.

Urban metabolism, understood as the energy flows and matter cycles that circulate and feed cities and the territories where they are located, is specifically affected by the effects of climate change, having impacts on multiple areas, services, and sectors.

Heat waves and their impacts are increased by the so-called "urban heat island" effect and the intensity of this phenomenon depends on several features of the urban environment.

Flooding is also favoured by large impermeable urban surfaces, which prevent infiltration and favour runoff. Moreover, the location of a substantial part of urban areas on the coastline makes them particularly exposed to the effects of sea level rise and extreme coastal events.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Exposure to key hazards differs greatly between cities due to factors such as geographical location, city size and urban planning.

In relation to exposure, it is necessary to advance in the integration of climate change risks in territorial and urban planning and to incorporate the concept of urban green and blue infrastructures into planning, as multifunctional solutions based on nature, which reduce exposure and solve urban problems such as improving biodiversity, managing flood zones, reducing heat islands, combating climate change or improving air quality.

There is also a need to promote the incorporation of urban climate mapping into urban planning and management tools, which can encourage the creation of climate refuges and reduce exposure in these areas.
Vulnerability
mixed situation for different key hazards
Differences in the spatial features of the city, its morphology, the presence of vegetation or the albedo of the materials of urbanised surfaces make strong differences in the vulnerability of cities.

Adaptation measures implemented in cities, such as the enhancement of green spaces, the creation of flood resilient urban parks, the restoration of urban river sections, the use of permeable pavements and sustainable urban drainage systems, increase natural drainage and reduce the risk of severe flooding in cities. These are important vulnerability reduction measures.

In addition, urban planning that promotes green infrastructure and nature-based solutions increases the resilience of the city and achieves numerous co-benefits, such as improved air quality and biodiversity and improved health and quality of life for citizens.
Risk Future Impact
high
A number of risks, including high temperatures and floods, can have a great effect in urban spaces in the future.

The Spanish Urban Agenda (AUE), published in 2019, presents among its strategic objectives the prevention and reduction of climate change impacts and the improvement of resilience in the urban environment. These objectives are developed through proposals for action that are closely linked to this National Climate Change Adaptation Plan.

The EUA emphasises monitoring and evaluation and includes a dynamic system of indicators that should be shared with the PNACC. Some are purely descriptive, which should help the territorial administrations, fundamentally, to draw up their own diagnoses of the situation and which will be supplied by the General State Administration, and on the other hand, those of evaluation and monitoring, which are relevant to be able to measure the degree of effective implementation of the Agenda.

All the work must be shared with the Autonomous Communities and municipal authorities, through interdepartmental and intersectoral commissions, to tackle adaptation in the urban environment and promote inter-administrative coordination at city level.
Impact/key hazard
high
The overall amount of precipitation has declined moderately, and significant changes are occurring in the annual distribution, with a trend towards earlier spring and less summer rainfall.

Likewise, during the second half of the 20th century, a reduction of between 10 and 20% of available water resources has been detected in many basins of the Iberian Peninsula.

Some modelling studies of hydro-meteorological impacts under climate change scenarios indicate that actual changes seem to be happening faster than predicted by the models.

Extreme phenomena, droughts and floods, are also common in our country. In particular, in Spain floods constitute the natural hazard that causes the greatest damage, both in terms of material damage and loss of human life.
Key hazard likelihood
high
Projections for Spain show an increase in temperatures and a reduction in annual cumulative precipitation, with a significant variability in the distribution pattern of precipitation. This results into reduced availability of water resources for different uses, as well as for sustaining aquatic ecosystems.

Under the RCP8.5 scenario, a reduction in runoff of around 24% is expected by the end of the century, and this could reach 30-40% in the south of the peninsula and the archipelagos (CEDEX, 2017). Aquifer recharge will also be significantly reduced and could reach reduction values of around 3,000 hm3/year for a 2ºC scenario (JRC, 2018).

In relation to extreme events, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts is expected, and torrential rains and floods in some areas. Increased temperatures and reduced flows are also expected to result in a deterioration of water and associated aquatic ecosystems quality. In coastal areas, sea level rise will also affect transitional waters and coastal aquifers due to saline intrusion.
Vulnerability
high
In Spain, water demand is around 32,000 hm3 /year, and the main use of water is irrigation and agricultural purposes, which represents approximately 80.5%. Demand for urban supply accounts for barely 15.5% of the total.

According to the expected reduction in the water resources availability and the increase in agricultural demand due to the effect of rising temperatures and evapotranspiration, Spain is a country highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change in the water sector.

Moreover, under the criteria of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60), barely 54% of water bodies achieve good status, a situation that is likely to be aggravated by the increase in temperatures and the reduction of water flows.

Although Spain has a long trajectory of hydrological management and planning, and has been adapting over time to meet water requirements for different uses and to cope with droughts and floods, the adaptive capacity is limited.
Risk Future Impact
high
The projected reduction in the water resources availability and the water quality deterioration, together with the expected increase in demand for the dominant use of water in Spain, irrigation, draw a very complicated scenario for the already fragile balance existing in the management of water resources.

Our exploitation rates are high, we are very exposed and our adaptive capacity has limits, so the risk we face will require an unprecedented joint effort on the part of whole society, productive activities and the different territories.

In a country that already uses water intensively, it is essential to respond to the new pressures derived from climate change and to manage the uses priorities, proposing specific policies and actions to strengthen the integrated management of water and territory. The challenge is crucial because, without adequate intervention, we will not be able to guarantee water security for socio-economic activities and ecosystems, and we are heading towards a structural water crisis.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

Spain is a decentralized country with the competences in the area of disaster risk planning and climate change adaptation distributed within and between the different administrative levels, central, regional and local. To guarantee the adequate coordination, there is a solid governance scheme that brings together institutions, coordination bodies, working and advisory groups for an optimum planning and management of CCA and DRR.

The Spanish Climate Change Office (Ministry of Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge) is the technical central unit that coordinates, manages and follows up the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan (PNACC). Main high-level coordination and participation bodies dealing with Climate Change in Spain are the National Climate Council (CNC), The Coordination Commission of Climate Change Policies (CCPCC) and the Environmental Sector Conference (CS). On the other side, the National Civil Protection Council is the body for cooperation and coordination among all the Spanish Administrations for disaster risk reduction, including those risks associated with climate and climate change.

Technical coordination for climate change adaptation is under the Working Group on Impacts and Adaptation, and the Committee on Impacts, Risk and Adaptation is the advisory body that provides recommendation for the development of the PNACC. Besides, there are specific coordination bodies dealing with disaster risk management for different climate-related risks.
The Spanish Climate Change Office (OECC) plays a central role as the national hub on adaptation and as the coordination body in charge of planning, implementing monitoring and evaluating the main adaptation instrument in Spain at national level: the PNACC.

For the planning, OECC has concluded in 2020 the process of elaboration of the second PNACC 2021-2030 by means of a comprehensive governance scheme and participatory approach. The planning process has included seminars, online surveys, ad-hoc working meeting with sectoral institutions, public consultation (with more than 1.500 feedbacks from 182 organizations and stakeholders) and monographic discussions inside the high-level coordination and participation bodies dealing with climate change in Spain. In short, the planning process of the PNACC 2021-2030 has been developed under an inclusive participation of a wide range of institutions, organizations and stakeholders.

The implementation of the PNACC is by means of Work Programmes, that are adopted following a similar governance scheme and participatory approach as the PNACC itself, meaning involving main coordination bodies, institutions and stakeholders.

Regarding the monitoring of the PNACC and its Work Programmes, monitoring reports are regularly prepared by OECC in consultation with the Working Group on Impacts and Adaptation. So far, it has been published monitoring reports in 2008, 2011, 2014 and 2018.

Regarding evaluation of the PNACC, the first evaluation report was published in 2019 and covers the period since its inception in 2006. This in-depth evaluation has been carried out within the framework of the LIFE SHARA project ‘Sharing Awareness and Governance of Adaptation to Climate Change’ and the process involved a wide array of institutions and a governance scheme planned and executed around four main lines: (i) an ad-hoc advisory group that included experts from European, national, regional and local institutions, academia and NGOs; (ii) a synthesis of the documents derived from the PNACC (the PNACC itself, the three Work Programmes and the four Monitoring Reports); (iii) a detailed analysis of the state of implementation of the measures included in the PNACC and its three Work Programmes; (iv) a consultation to a large number of institutions and individuals (more than 300) that have been participating in the implementation of the PNACC. The evaluation assessed the progress achieved, the pending challenges and the lessons learned, using five criteria commonly applied in public policies evaluations: relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, coherence and added value. The evaluation process led to provide a set of recommendations to be taken into account in the revision of the next adaptation cycle and identified remaining challenges and emerging issues for further adaptation planning (which indeed have been integrated in the new PNACC 2021-2030).
Both Strategic Environmental Assessment of plans and programs (SEA) and Environmental Impact Assessment of projects (EIA) are processes where the dimension of the possible effects of climate change in the short, medium and long term are being considered in Spain, at national and regional levels. The Law 21/2013, of December 9, 2013, on Environmental Assessment, includes the obligation to take into consideration the potential climate change impacts on the plan, program or project under evaluation and the identification of adaptation measures.

In a regular base, the OECC is consulted to inform projects, plans and programs in order to guarantee the integration of climate change impacts and adaptation into the environmental assessment process. In the recent period, integration of climate change impacts and resilience into environmental assessment procedures has been produced in the water sector, coastal and urban planning, energy, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, transport and infrastructures.
The framework for disaster risk management in Spain is the National Civil Protection Strategy, adopted in 2019, and for adaptation to climate change is the new National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2021-30 adopted in 2020. The National Civil Protection Strategy has identified and described the key climate-related risks in Spain, that are well described and characterized with the projectionms of climate change.

For each of the key climate-related risks identified there are one or more planning and management instruments, where progressively climate change adaptation is integrated in a process facilitated by the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan. Multiple governance bodies and working groups dealing with each specific climate-related risk (e. g., floods, heat waves, droughts) are facilitation this integration.
OECC is regularly assessing and disseminating data and information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation by means of the Spanish Adaptation platform AdapteCCa.

AdapteCCa includes tools that allow users to access to databases and information in graphical, geographical and numerical formats. AdapteCCa also provides direct access to impacts and risk sectoral assessments.

AdapteCCa users can re-use freely all data and products from the platform, considering the terms of use of the data sources.

Other sources of relevant data for climate change adaptation are maintained in different institutions and databases such as the Spanish Meteorological Agency, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute, the State-owned Spanish Port System, the National Statistical Institute and others.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

Regarding vertical coordination, there are many governance bodies and networks that bring together institutions and stakeholders from central, regional and local levels that are taking coordinated decisions and developing climate change adaptation actions. The following list summaries these coordination bodies, that have different scopes, from a general climate change focus to specific and thematic aspects of climate change adaptation:

- The National Climate Council
- The Environmental Sector Conference The Coordination Commission of Climate Change Policies
- The Working Group on Impacts and Adaptation
- The Spanish Network of Cities for Climate
- The Technical Working Group for National and Regional Coastal Adaptation
- The Technical Working Group for Climate Resilience Projects in Cities
- The Spanish Network of Cities for Climate is a thematic network created in 2009 by the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces and the Spanish Ministry for the Ecological Transition for joint action on climate. As of 2019, the network included 316 Spanish local entities (over 60% of the Spanish population).
- The Pyrenean Climate Change Observatory is a crossborder initiative of territorial cooperation, bringing together regions from Spain, France and Andorra.
- At regional level there are also examples of networks and collaborations between regional and local authorities, such as the Basque Network of Municipalities towards Sustainability - Udalsarea 2030, or specific projects such as Life MIDMACC (Adapting the mid-mountains to Climate Change), with the participation of Aragon, Catalonia and La Rioja.
- Reinforce systematic observation, regionalised climate change projections and climate services
- Knowledge generation on impacts, risks and adaptation, methodologies and tools to analyse impacts of climate change
- Strengthening adaptation capacities
- Identify the main climate change risks and support implementation of adaptation measures
- Integrate adaptation into public policies
- Promote the involvement of all interested actors, governments, private sector, social organisations and the general public, to actively contribute to address climate change risks
- Strengthen governance on adaptation
- Fulfil and develop the commitments acquired by Spain in the EU and international context
- Promote the monitoring and evaluation of adaptation policies and measures
A systematic study of gaps and barriers to adaptation has not been carried out in the framework of the National Adaptation Plan. However, the topic was addressed in the in-depth evaluation carried out in 2019, as well as in various participatory workshops organised to collect assessments and inputs for the new Adaptation Plan 2021-2030. Some of the most relevant ones are highlighted below.

CHALLENGES
- Education: Full integration of capacity building for adaptation into technical and vocational training.
- Monitoring: Implementation of an indicator-based monitoring system on impacts related to climate change (already foreseen in PNACC 2021-2030).

GAPS
- Knowledge gaps: knowledge gaps persist, e.g. knowledge on transboundary effects or cost-benefit analysis methodologies is still very limited.
- Knowledge transfer gaps: there are still difficulties in applying scientific knowledge in the development of practical adaptation initiatives.

BARRIERS
- Risk perception: some economic sectors have a low risk perception of climate change, resulting in a lack of interest in adaptation (e.g. tourism sector).
- Sectoral integration: public management is organised on a sectoral basis, making the integration of adaptation into individual public policies difficult and challenging.
- Lack of economic feedbacks: the tax system and the insurance system do not provide sufficient incentives for adaptation.
- Short term policies and measures: the search for short-term results sometimes conflicts with long-term and proactive visions of adaptation.
The National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2021-2030 is the basic planning instrument to tackle the effects of climate change in Spain. It defines objectives, criteria, areas of work and lines of action to promote adaptation and resilience to climate change.

The general objective of the PNACC is to promote coordinated and coherent action to address the effects of climate change in Spain in order to avoid or reduce present and future damage from climate change and to build a more resilient economy and society. To achieve this goal, 9 specific objectives to complement the general objective have been defined.

The PNACC sets out a number of guiding principles that will steer adaptation policies and measures. These include the consideration of social and territorial dimensions, the foundation on the best available science and understanding, transversality and integration in different fields of public management and institutional cooperation. In addition, it emphasises the need to consider a series of basic universal principles, such as respect for human rights and intergenerational justice.

The Plan also identifies 4 strategic components that facilitate the definition and development of effective adaptation initiatives: knowledge generation, integration of adaptation into sectoral plans, programmes and regulations, mobilisation of actors, monitoring and evaluation.

With the aim of facilitating the integration of adaptation actions in the different fields of public and private management, the PNACC defines 18 areas of work, specifying objectives for each of them. These areas of work include: climate scenarios; human health; water resources; natural heritage, biodiversity and protected areas; agriculture, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture and food; coasts and the marine environment; and forestry, desertification, hunting and inland fishing. To these are added: the city, urban planning and building; cultural heritage; energy; mobility and transport; industry and services; tourism; the financial system and insurance activity; disaster risk reduction; research and innovation; education and society; and peace, security and social cohesion.

For each of the aforementioned areas of work, the Plan defines lines of action that specify the work to be carried out in order to achieve the objectives. The lines of action are presented in the form of fact sheets that include a justification for the interest and a brief description of the orientation. Some of the main departments of the administration responsible for or collaborating in their development are identified and indicators are defined, which will later facilitate the evaluation of the degree of compliance with the defined lines of action.

As a complement to the sectoral action, the PNACC defines 7 transversal aspects, which must be promoted in the different areas of work: the deepening in the geographical and social components of vulnerability to climate change; the analysis of cross-border effects; the gender perspective; the prevention of maladaptation and perverse incentives; the analysis of the costs and benefits of action and inaction; and the orientation towards action. For the practical application of these seven transversal aspects, a number of other lines of action are defined, which are also included in the annexe to this plan.

The varied nature of climate change adaptation actions and the multiplicity of public management areas, administrative units and actors involved mean that the sources of funding for the lines of action contained in this Plan must also be diverse. The PNACC outlines the main instruments and lines of work aimed at strengthening the financing of adaptation, which include specific recovery measures within the Next Generation EU instrument and the European Union Multiannual Financial Framework 2021-27 (with the ERDF, EAGF, EAFRD and EMFF European funds, the LIFE Programme and Horizon Europe), national funds (PIMA ADAPTA and sectoral budgets) and private financing.

The PNACC significantly strengthens the instruments for information and monitoring of public adaptation policies and the Plan itself, including:
- Reports on climate risks
- Sectoral adaptation reports
- PNACC monitoring reports

In addition, an initial set of indicators that should provide a dynamic overview of the effects of climate change and the progress achieved in adaptation is included, facilitating the continuous improvement of policies and measures. It also outlines the reinforcement of the Climate Change Adaptation Platform (AdapteCCa), created in 2013 under the PNACC framework, in order to consolidate its role as an access point to knowledge and to ensure its full functionality.

Adaptation to climate change requires coordinated and coherent action by Spanish society as a whole and, as such, it requires a system of governance that favours the participation of all actors involved, as well as detailed and action-oriented planning. To organise adaptation planning and programming, the PNACC defines two basic instruments:
- Work programmes: These detail the measures planned, within a specific temporal framework (the first one will cover the period 2021-2025), in order to develop the lines of action defined in the PNACC and identify, where appropriate, priority measures, organizations involved, budget and timeline.
- Sectoral and territorial plans: These are instruments for the detailed planning of adaptation in specific areas of work or territories. These plans include a diagnosis of the main risks outlined in the area in question, the definition of objectives that respond to those risks and a set of measures to meet the objectives.

The coordination of the PNACC 2021-2030 is the responsibility of the Spanish Climate Change Office (OECC), part of the Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge, but its definition, development and evaluation is a collective task. In order to facilitate the coordination, advice and participation in adaptation matters, the PNACC provides for several specific, permanent forums:
- Impacts and Adaptation Working Group (GTIA): The technical exchange forum that brings together departments of the Central Administration and the Autonomous Communities with the general objective of coordinating and integrating the different strategies and plans for climate change adaptation being developed at national and regional level in Spain.
- Impacts, Risks and Adaptation Committee (CIRA): Newly created, this committee will bring together people from the academic sector, non-governmental organisations, public management and businesses, particularly SMEs, with the aim of providing ideas and recommendations for the advancement of the PNACC and contributing expert opinions on adaptation in Spain.
- PNACC Seminars: Meeting spaces to facilitate the treatment, in a monographic manner, of topics that are considered relevant at any given time for the development of the PNACC and its corresponding work programmes.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported


INITIATIVES OF THE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES

The autonomous communities, in the exercise of their competences, have developed their own strategic frameworks, plans and programmes for adaptation to climate change, which they develop through numerous initiatives and actions.

The AdapteCCa platform (www.adaptecca.es) brings together summary information on this and provides access to and detailed knowledge of the frameworks and actions being developed in Spain at the regional level. Some autonomous communities have reinforced the legal framework by approving their own climate change laws.

Below is a summary by autonomous community of the most important regional instruments for adaptation to climate change:

Andalucía

Ley 8/2018, de 8 de octubre, de medidas frente al cambio climático y para la transición hacia un nuevo modelo energético en Andalucía

Plan Andaluz de Acción por el Clima (in progress)

Aragón

Estrategia Aragonesa de Cambio Climático horizonte 2030 (EACC 2030) (2019)

Declaración Institucional del Gobierno de Aragón en materia de Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Sostenible (2019)

Asturias

Estrategia de Acción por el Clima de Asturias (in progress)

Baleares

Ley 10/2019, de 22 de febrero, de cambio climático y transición energética

Estrategia Balear de Lucha Contra el Cambio Climático 2013-2020 (2013)

Canarias

Estrategia Canaria de Lucha contra el Cambio Climático (2009)

Cantabria

Estrategia de Acción frente al Cambio Climático en Cantabria 2018-2030 (2018)

Castilla y León

Estrategia Regional de Cambio Climático 2009-2012-2020 (2009)

Castilla La Mancha

Estrategia de Cambio Climático de Castilla-La Mancha. Horizontes 2020 y 2030 (2019)

Estrategia Regional de Mitigación y Adaptación al Cambio Climático 2010-2012-2020 (ERMACC) (2010)

Catalunya

Ley 16/2017, de 1 de agosto, del cambio climático

Decreto-ley 16/2019, de 26 de noviembre, de medidas urgentes para la emergencia climática y el impulso a las energías renovables

Estrategia Catalana de Adaptación al Cambio Climático 2021-2030 ESCACC30 (in progress)

Estrategia Catalana de Adaptación al Cambio Climático 2013-2020 ESCACC20 (2012)

Extremadura

Estrategia de Cambio Climático de Extremadura 2013-2020 (2014)

Estrategia de Cambio Climático de Extremadura 2009-2012 (2009)

Galicia

Estrategia gallega de cambio climático y energía 2050 (2019)

Plan regional integrado de energía y clima 2019-2023 (2019)

Informe de cambio climático de Galicia 2012-2015 (2016)

Informe anual sobre cambio climático en Galicia (2012)

C. Madrid

Revisión de la Estrategia de Calidad del Aire y Cambio Climático de la Comunidad de Madrid. Plan Azul + (2013-2020) (2019)

Estrategia de Calidad del Aire y Cambio Climático de la Comunidad de Madrid. Plan Azul+ (2013-2020) (2014)

Murcia

Estrategia de Mitigación y Adaptación al Cambio Climático de la Región de Murcia (2020)

Declaración de emergencia climática y ambiental (2020)

Navarra

Hoja de ruta de Cambio Climático 2020-2030-2050 (2018)

País Vasco

Anteproyecto de Ley de Transición Energética y Cambio Climático (2021) (in progress)

Declaración institucional de emergencia climática (2019)

Estrategia Vasca de Cambio Climático, Klima 2050 (2015)

La Rioja

Declaración de emergencia climática del Parlamento de La Rioja (in progress)

C. Valenciana

Ley Valenciana de Cambio Climático y Transición Ecológica (in progress)

Estrategia Valenciana de Cambio Climático y Energía. Horizonte 2030 (in progress)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES

Most large Spanish cities have approved their own climate change strategies or plans, which in many cases include adaptation objectives and lines of work. Some have conducted their own local-scale vulnerability and impact analyses or have specific adaptation plans, although the latter are still in the minority.

Further information can be found in the Sixth report on local climate change policies (2019): https://sextoinforme.redciu[…]tra_el_Cambio_Climatico.pdf
The incorporation of adaptation into sectoral policies is made concrete and consolidated through its integration into the government´s strategies, plans and programmes, as well as in the set of regulations governing activity in each sectoral area.

Some recent documents (strategies, plans, programmes) in which adaptation to climate change has been incorporated are highlighted below:

Spanish Urban Agenda (2019).

It is a strategic document that seeks to guide sustainable urban policies with social, environmental, and economic objectives. It contains a diagnosis of the urban and rural reality of Spain structured in 10 points. Point 3 is specifically dedicated to Climate Change. It contains a decalogue of priority objectives. Objective 3 is "Prevent and reduce the effects of climate change".

National Civil Protection Strategy (2019)

It develops an analysis of the main threats and risks of natural, human and technological origin that may give rise to emergencies and/or disasters in our country, as well as the strategic lines of action to integrate, prioritise and coordinate all efforts to optimise the resources available for their management. Climate change is considered a risk-enhancing factor (section 3.3).

Strategic Framework in SME policy 2030

Action Line 43 ("facilitating the transition to a low-carbon economy") includes "promoting information transfer and exchange actions that strengthen the capacities of companies to improve their resilience to climate change and developing methodological guidelines for the integration of adaptation into business strategies in various sectors".

Long-term decarbonisation strategy (2020)

Chapter 5 is devoted to adaptation to climate change. It raises "the need to assume adaptation to climate change as a State policy, due to its profound implications for the economy and the country's natural capital, and with it, the basic conditions to ensure the health and well-being of people of this and successive generations". It presents adaptation measures in 10 thematic areas.

Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan (under development)

Section 2.1.2 of the plan is devoted to adaptation to climate change, identifying potential impacts of climate change on the energy system and adaptive measures in the design phase and an analysis of the contribution to adaptation of some of the measures included in the PNIEC.

Other strategies, plans and programmes currently under development that will integrate climate change adaptation criteria include:

- National Health and Environment Plan.
- National Strategy for Green Infrastructure and Ecological Connectivity and Restoration
- Environmental Education Action Plan for Sustainability 2021-2025.
- National Security Culture Plan

Adaptation to climate change has also been incorporated into some regulations with the status of Law that are currently being processed, most notably the Law on Climate Change and Energy Transition, which dedicates its Title V to measures for adaptation to climate change. This law will promote the integration of adaptation into water planning and management, infrastructure planning and management, biodiversity protection, forestry policy, rural development, and urban planning.
To enable the active and conscious involvement of stakeholders, the PNACC is promoting access to information, communication, social research and public participation on adaptation issues.

a. Access to information

The Spanish Adaptation platform Adaptecca - https://adaptecca.es/- is a tool to facilitate access to information on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. This project is a joint initiative of the Spanish Climate Change Office and the Biodiversity Foundation which arose within the GTIA. It promotes the coordination and transfer of information, knowledge and experiences between the different Spanish administrations and the scientific community, planners, and managers, both public and private, and other agents, allowing a multi-directional communication channel between them.

AdapteCCa was launched in 2013 after a wide participatory process with potential users and stakeholders. In 2020 new functionalities have been included in the platform.

b. Communication

The PNACC has contributed to communicate climate risks and adaptation in Spain by developing communicative resources in different formats:

Exhibition on adaptation to climate change (2018): https://lifeshara.es/[…]/ExposicionAdaptacionLIFESHARA_life.pdf

Short videos on adaptation initiatives (2020):
https://lifeshara.es/[…]/iniciativas-de-adaptacion-al-cambio-climatico

Press breakfasts on adaptation (2017-2021)
- Beekeeping and climate change (13/12/2017)
- Visualising the future clime: new tools (24/05/2018)
- Climate change adaptation planning for the next decade (09/09/2019)
- Impacts and risks of climate change in Spain (03/02/2021)
- Adaptation case studies in Spain (03/03/2021)

National Adaptation Plan Questions and answers (2021)

c. Social research

Within the framework of the PNACC, support has been given to the development of social studies that will make it possible to recognise, among other issues:
- The evolution of social perceptions of the risks arising from climate change.
- Knowledge of climate change, impacts and adaptation, including the extent to which misconceptions and misunderstandings are pervasive.
- Attitudes to adaptation and possible social barriers to action.

Perception of climate change in Spain (2020)
https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/percepcioncc_red4c.pdf

Analysis of perceptions, attitudes and opinions of workers and their legal representatives on climate change (2021)
https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/analisis_cambio_climatico.pdf

d. Public participation

In order to promote the mobilisation of social actors, within the framework of the PNACC:
- Advisory forums and working groups are promoted.
- The development of self-diagnoses on risks, impacts and adaptation to climate change by key actors (companies, trade unions, NGOs and others) is supported.
- Sectoral and cross-sectoral forums for debate and exchange are encouraged.

d.1. Advisory forums and Working Groups

The National Climate Council (CNC), linked to the Ministry for Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge, involves different Departments of the National Administration, the Autonomous Communities, the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces, representatives from research institutions, social actors and nongovernmental organizations. Among its tasks, the Council draws proposals and recommendations to define policies to fight against climate change in the areas of climate change science, impacts and adaptation strategies, as well as strategies to limit GHGs emissions.

The Working Group on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (GTIA) was created in 2007 with representatives from the Central Administration and the Autonomous Communities, to coordinate adaptation strategies, plans and actions developed at national and regional level. Currently the GTIA has two technical groups, dealing with coastal adaptation and adaptation plans for ports.

Committee on Impacts, Risks and Adaptation (CIRA)
 

The PNACC 2021-2030 envisages the creation of a new Impacts, Risks and Adaptation Committee, which will bring together people from academia, non-governmental organisations, public management and business, especially SMEs, with the aim of specifically providing provide expert judgement and recommendations on adaptation in Spain.

This forum will be considered as a working group of the Committee of Experts on Climate Change and Energy Transition, foreseen in the draft Law on Climate Change and Energy Transition. In this sense, the group will contribute to the advisory, control and supervision functions assigned to the body in the Law.

d.2. Support for the development of self-assessments by key actors

The OECC, in collaboration with the Biodiversity Foundation, has supported the development of impact and vulnerability assessment and the identification, assessment and dissemination of adaptation measures by social organisations. The following list shows some of the most significant projects undertaken in recent years in the framework of the PNACC:

- Climate change adaptation measures in agriculture and livestock farming
(Unión de Pequeños Agricultores – UPA)
https://www.adaptecca.es/re[…]-frente-al-cambio-climatico
- Agro-ecological practices that adapt to climate change
(Sociedad Española de Agricultura Ecológica – SEAE)
https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/2018-seae_estudio-adapta-agroecologia.pdf
- Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into protected areas planning and management
(Europarc – España, 2018)
http://www.redeuroparc.org/[…]/01018_manual13_baja.pdf
- Adaptation to climate change in land stewardship projects
(Xarxa de Custodia del Territori, 2018)
https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/guia_cambio_climatico_y_custodia_2018.pdf
- Adaptation and health protection in the face of climate change. Catalogue of experiences and good practices in public administrations and companies.
(CCOO-ISTAS, 2019)
https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/catalogo_saludapt_def.pdf
- Employment Vulnerability Map for a Just Transition: Analysis of productive sectors and development of capacities and opportunities for climate change adaptation
(Unión General de Trabajadores – UGT, 2021)
https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/ugt_estudio_a4_proyecto_mavetj_2021_web.pdf
- Citizen science and climate change
(Asociación Red Camberra, under development)
- Climate change adaptation and mitigation measures for vector-borne diseases affecting animal health
(Unión Leitera Galega, under development)
- Adaptation to climate change in the beef sector
(Asociación Española de Productores de Vacuno de Carne – ASOPROVAC, under development)

d.3. National Adaptation Plan Workshops

The sectoral workshops of the PNACC are meeting spaces aimed at:
- Providing information to a set of key actors on the results of the PNACC projects on the assessment of impacts and vulnerability to climate change in their sector.
- Facilitating the exchange of ideas and experiences on climate change adaptation.
- Encouraging reflection and debate on the most appropriate adaptation strategies.
- Collecting contributions of interest for the development of activities in the framework of the PNACC.

The PNACC seminars have facilitated the participation of key actors in sectoral impact assessments on adaptation to climate change through various formulas:
a) Gathering input on the issues to be considered in the impacts, vulnerability and adaptation studies ("scoping").
b) Collaborative identification of sources and documentary resources useful for the assessments.
c) Collective identification and assessment of possible lines and measures of adaptation.
d) Sharing of knowledge and experiences on climate risks and adaptation.
e) Presentation of the results of the studies carried out so far.

To date, 14 thematic seminars have been held. The following thematic seminars have been held in the period 2018-2020:
- Arable and industrial crops (2018).
- Water management in the Iberian context (2018)
- Montados and dehesas (2019)
The private sector has a key role to play in adaptation, both through the internalisation of adaptation by companies themselves and by providing resources to third parties through the financial system, as recognised in the National Adaptation Plan (PNACC). The Spanish Climate Change Office (OECC) and the Ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO) promote and support various initiatives to engage with the private sector in implementing adaptation measures.

A pilot project (called Iniciativa ADAPTA - http://www.mapama.gob.es/es[…]141003_ivi_tcm30-179515.pdf ) has been developed by the OECC in collaboration with five main national companies that are pioneers in climate adaptation in key sectors of the Spanish economy: tourism, energy, transport, construction and food industry. Its main aim was to explore tools to incorporate consideration of risk, vulnerability and adaptation options into different business strategies. A second phase of this pilot project (Iniciativa ADAPTA-2 - http://www.adaptecca.es/sit[…]priorizacion_de_medidas.pdf ) used a variety of methods to undertake cost-benefit analyses of adaptation measures in two main energy and infrastructure companies.

Regarding adaptation knowledge and planning, since 2016, the PIMA Adapta Plan has included several calls for proposals for grants, on a competitive basis, to carry out climate change adaptation projects by different types of entities, including SMEs. Priority lines of action addressed by the beneficiary projects have included, for example, the development and implementation of adaptation business plans and strategies.

In this sense, MITECO has contributed to the development of analyses such as the one prepared by the Spanish Federation of Food and Drink Industries (FIAB): “Adaptation to climate change in business strategy. Challenges, opportunities and next steps for the food and beverage industry” (https://fiab.es/wp-content/[…]A-ESTRATEGIA-DE-NEGOCIO.pdf).

The participation of the private sector in adaptation policies is also a priority. Forums, such as the sectoral seminars and other participative activities are used to frame and define the contents of the national adaptation policy and associated stakeholder involvement. For example, private sector actors have been actively involved in the multistakeholder seminars developed for the evaluation of the first National Adaptation Plan (70 representatives have participated). Furthermore, with some specific sectors, like the insurance business, and as a result of the multistakeholder seminar, a specific collaboration has been put in place between the OECC and insurance entities that has so far resulted in the publication of the report "Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in the insurance business (2020)”.

Likewise, the private sector has promoted various collaborative initiatives related to climate change, which foster the sector's progress in adapting to its impacts, and which have the collaboration of MITECO.

The Spanish Group for Green Growth is an Association created to foster public-private collaboration and to jointly advance in the current environmental challenges, including adaptation to climate change. Through this platform, companies are encouraged to participate in the most relevant national and international debates on the subject, share information and identify opportunities for Spanish companies.

The Spanish Climate Action Platform, a joint initiative among the OECC, the Spanish Green Growth Group, the Spanish Global Compact Network and ECODES, proposes a public-private cooperation framework promoting the participation and alignment of entities' climate strategies with governmental actions to foster compliance of the Paris Agreement. The Spanish Climate Action Platform connects with the #PorElClima Community (https://porelclima.es/), an initiative that seeks to articulate all social actors mobilised against climate change by sharing and implementing best practices in the fields of mitigation and adaptation to accelerate private sector action, among other activities.

In the same way, Forética is an association of companies and professionals in corporate social responsibility / sustainability, whose mission is to promote the integration of social, environmental and good governance aspects in the strategy and management of companies and organisations. It has more than 200 members. One of the projects developed by Foretica has been the "Cities Climate Change Adaptation Toolbox", a collection of products and services that enable cities to adapt to climate change, including business solutions for cities.

In addition, the Climate Change Cluster, one of the business platforms in Spain, is made up of 62 large Spanish companies and led by Forética. The Cluster has produced the publication: "The Risks, Opportunities and Financial Impact of Climate Change: A Guide for Practitioners on the Recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD)".
The planning and development derived from the National Adaptation Plan (PNACC) 2021-2030 has been designed using an iterative approach, in order to ensure flexible, robust processes that avoid maladaptation and allow for the regular integration of the best available science and knowledge. In this framework, monitoring and evaluation processes acquire a strategic value in guiding adaptation initiatives, as they are essential to:

a) Recognise climate change trends, impacts and associated risks.

b) Recognise progress in the development of the PNACC and its work programmes and the remaining challenges.

c) Systematise and apply the knowledge acquired through the assessment of the results of the initiatives developed.

The National Adaptation Plan (PNACC) 2021-2030 foresees a system for adaptation information, monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) of impacts, vulnerabilities, risks, and increasing adaptive capacity that builds on the progress made in the previous PNACC and includes the following tools:

- Reports on climate risks and adaptation: synthesis reports on the evolution of the main risks and impacts derived from climate change and on the policies and measures aimed at building resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change in Spain. They will be prepared and published at least every five years. The first precedent was a report that summarized and integrated impacts, vulnerability and adaptation studies, "A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts in Spain due to the Effects of Climate Change”, published in 2005. In 2021, a new report about “Impacts and Risks associated to Climate Change in Spain” was published, a study that describes the main impacts of climate change on the different productive sectors and natural systems in Spain. A list is also compiled of the main risks derived from these impacts, as well as a proposed assessment of the degree of urgency to address them. To this end, published documentation is analysed in a total of 10 areas of work or sectors and natural systems considered priority subjects in the PNACC (water resources, terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture and livestock, marine environment, coasts, urban areas, health, energy, transport and tourism). It synthesises information on climate change impacts for each area of work and elaborates on the interrelationship of risks between different areas.

Also, multiple sectoral assessments of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation associated to climate change in Spain have been developed since the first PNACC was launched in 2006. These assessments, elaborated with an extensive and inclusive participatory approach, allow to monitor the main impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity in the many PNACC sectors.

- Sectoral situation reports for the analysis of the state of adaptation to climate change in one of the PNACC's areas or subareas of work. These reports may be prepared at the request of the Government or the Congress of Deputies.

- Climate change and adaptation indicators: Annex 3 of the PNACC 2021-2030 (https://www.miteco.gob.es/[…]/default.aspx) includes an interim set of indicators that will provide a dynamic overview of climate change impacts and progress in adaptation where appropriate, facilitating the continuous improvement of policies and measures based on the analysis of progress achieved and the identification of remaining challenges. An in-depth review of this initial list will be carried out in order to complete and, if necessary, adjust the initial collection. From 2021 onwards, and on a biennial basis, the data series relating to the defined set of indicators will be updated and made public. In a complementary way, sectoral indicators have been developed. For example, in 2016 a system of indicators was already developed in a very relevant sector: health and climate change.

- The Platform on Adaptation to Climate Change in Spain, AdapteCCa (https://www.adaptecca.es/): the platform has become a valuable instrument for accessing information on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Spain.

- Throughout the development of the PNACC, specific actions will also be carried out to evaluate the implementation of specific measures, promoting ex post case studies to analyze and evaluate the quality of responses to specific risks, especially in the case of extreme weather or climate events.
- The PNACC progress reports:

 Reports on the implementation of the first PNACC have been published regularly by the OECC since 2006. The Fourth progress report was launched in 2018 (https://www.miteco.gob.es/[…]/4informeseguimientopnacc_tcm30-485659.pdf) (previous reports were published in 2008, 2011 and 2014). It collects information about the implementation progress of the PNACC Work Programmes (WP), including actions carried out, results achieved, and an overall assessment of the WP in a qualitative manner. Factsheets on the actions carried out at the regional level are included as Annexes.

Within the framework of the PNACC 2021-2030 It is proposed that two monitoring reports will be produced, with indicative publication dates in 2024 and 2029. The PNACC 2021-2030 also identifies implementation indicators for all the action lines that facilitate the objective monitoring of the progress in the implementation of adaptation actions.

- Evaluation of the PNACC:

In order to recognise the progress made, challenges remaining and lessons learned in the development of the PNACC, the OECC developed an evaluation of the plan since it was launched in 2006 (https://www.miteco.gob.es/[…]/informeevaluacion_pnacc_tcm30-499212.pdf). Although the evaluation was strongly oriented towards assessing progress in the implementation of the PNACC, the process also partially assessed the increasing adaptive capacity in Spain. The evaluation process began in February 2018, with the constitution of an advisory group, made up of experts from different fields: European institutions, the General State Administration, autonomous communities, the academic sector and the non-governmental sector. This advisory group has contributed to guide the evaluation process. The evaluation exercise has drawn on a number of complementary sources, in particular:

a) The analysis of a wide range of documents, including international commitments and recommendations, as well as the conclusions of working groups and seminars.

b) The opinions, assessments and suggestions of people working in the field of adaptation in Spain, gathered through a survey, completed by more than 300 people, and a series of in-depth interviews with key actors in the field of adaptation in Spain.

c) The analysis of the fulfillment of the actions foreseen in the Plan and its successive work programmes. This work has led to the review of the approximately 400 actions proposed in the PNACC and the three successive work programmes through which the plan has been developed.

All this information served as the basis for the elaboration of the PNACC 2021-2030, which in turn foresees an in-depth evaluation in 2029 that will include an analysis of the plan's relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, coherence and added value
The state of play of the implementation of actions and measures planned under the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (PNACC) and its Work Programmes (Spanish NAS and NAPs) has been evaluated in depth and reported in the “Evaluation Report of the Spanish National Climate Change Adaptation Plan”, published in 2019: https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]acionpnacc_tcm30-499189.pdf

The evaluation was developed following four lines of work:
i. Setting up of an advisory group that included experts from European, national, regional and local institutions, academia and NGOs. It has accompanied the whole process, proposing orientation and approaches for the evaluation process.
ii. Synthesis of the documents derived from the PNACC: the document of the Plan itself, the Work Programmes and the Monitoring Reports.
iii. Detailed analysis of the state of implementation of the actions and measures included in the PNACC and its Work Programmes, both sectoral and transversal.
iv. Public consultation to a large number of institutions and individuals (more than 300) that have been participating in the implementation of the PNACC.

The evaluation concluded with the progress achieved, the pending challenges, lessons learned and recommendations and proposals for the next cycle of the adaptation planning in Spain.

Funding

At central level, the distribution of funding to increase climate resilience and fight against climate change has been changing over the last few years, from a significant concentration in the main unit responsible (Spanish Climate Change Office) to a more uniform distribution in budget lines that correspond to different units of the General State Administration with competences in vulnerable sectors (e.g. Water, Coast, Biodiversity, Forest, Desertification, Health, Agriculture, etc.); in addition, since 2013, resources from the auctioning of emission rights have been allocated to policies to fight climate change, resulting in a substantial increase in climate funding in general and climate change adaptation in particular.

One example is the funds managed through the Plans to Boost the Environment for Adaptation to Climate Change (PIMA-Adapta Plan). This is a tool for achieving the objectives of the PNACC. It was launched in 2015. This plan administers economic resources from the auctioning of emission rights and develops actions in different lines of work in the areas of water, coasts, ecosystems and biodiversity and National Parks.

At regional level, the Autonomous Communities have fully competences in planning and management the adaptation of many vulnerable sectors to climate change.

Regarding funding disaster climate-related risk reduction, there are also a main responsible at central level (Civil Protection General Directorate) together with regional units that, all together, conform the National System for Civil Protection-

As a result, the information available on the disbursement of funding in Spain for climate change adaptation and disaster climate-related risks reduction is dispersed and there is a lack of a comprehensive economic analysis at national level. To solve this issue, the Ministry of Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge has submitted a proposal to the EC Structural Reform Support Service (SRSP) in order to develop a comprehensive project for data collection, analysis and evaluation of public expenditure on adaptation and risk reduction in Spain. The project has been selected, is going to be implemented from Q2 2021 and results will be available by September 2022.
The varied nature of climate change adaptation actions and the multiplicity of public management areas and administrative units concerned mean that the sources of funding for the lines of action contained in the PNACC 2021-2030 must also be diverse.

A significant part of the sectoral effort to be made in terms of adaptation involves adjusting or rethinking existing lines of action so that they incorporate the climate change factor. In this sense, a significant part of this effort, in terms of public expenditure, will have to be made through the budgets of the department involved.

However, the PNACC 2021-2030 envisages the use of some instruments that will make it possible to reinforce the financing of adaptation and promote the leveraging of additional funds, both public and private.

PIMA ADAPTA: The PIMA ADAPTA instrument, which draws on revenues from the auctioning of emission allowances (ETS), has enabled a substantial increase in financial support for adaptation projects. It is an initiative that will continue to contribute to the development of the full adaptation cycle in Spain by promoting action at all levels (administration, academia, private sector and NGOs, etc.)

EUROPEAN FUNDS: The PNACC envisages the use of various European funds to finance the different lines of action contained in the plan, among them:

- European Recovery and Resilience Mechanism (ERM)
- European Social Fund (ESF+)
- European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
- European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) and European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD)
- European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF)
- LIFE Programme
- Horizon Europe
So far, no systematic monitoring or evaluation of the consequences of adaptation actions in terms of impacts, vulnerability and risk reduction has been carried out, although partial analyses have been developed in areas such as health (changes in mortality associated with high temperatures) or wildfires (evolution of the area burnt).

Within the framework of the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (PNACC 2021-2030), the following elements will be developed to facilitate more effective monitoring of progress in reducing impacts, vulnerability and risks:

- A set of indicators (Annex III of the PNACC) that will provide an overview of progress in the period 2021-2030 with a historical perspective where data series are available. This will allow quantitative identification of progress in terms of impact, vulnerability and risk reduction.
- Reports on climate risks and adaptation, which are synthesis reports on the evolution of the main risks and impacts derived from climate change and on the policies and measures aimed at increasing resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change in Spain.
- It is also foreseen to develop guidelines for the elaboration of climate change impacts and risk assessments.

In addition, monitoring reports are produced in a regular basis, showing in a qualitative way the actions carried out and the benefits observed. The most recent report was published in 2018: https://www.miteco.gob.es/[…]/default.aspx

Although the new set of indicators is currently under review, there are good sectoral examples of monitoring processes of adaptation to climate change in Spain. Some of these are:

Reduction in mortality due to high temperatures in Spain, despite more frequent, intense, and long-lasting heat waves:
- Time trend in the impact of heat waves on daily mortality in Spain for a period of over thirty years (1983-2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.04.001

Decrease in the area affected by forest fires, even though fire risk indices have increased because of climate change:
- "Forest Fires in Spain in a Context of Climate Change: Information and Tools for Adaptation" (INFOADAPT). https://www.adaptecca.es/[…]/infoadapt_memoria_final_proyecto.pdf
Actions in different sectors have been carried out to improve adaptive capacity:

- In coastal areas, land use planning has been enhanced and nature based solutions have been promoted.
- In rivers, nature based solutions (for example “room for the river” strategies) have been developed, reducing the number of floods, the number of people affected and the costs associated with these phenomena.
- In the agricultural sector, the implementation of pilot adaptation projects is demonstrating clear socio-economic and environmental benefits.

In addition, an important awareness raising initiative has been put in place through the dissemination of case studies through AdapteCCa https://www.adaptecca.es/casos-practicos and the LIFE Shara project: https://www.lifeshara.es/es[…]ptacion-al-cambio-climatico

At the same time, PIMA Adapta is contributing to good practices by funding pilot projects in different areas.
Adaptation priorities have been defined and addressed through the successive work programmes of the PNACC.

One of the objectives of the first National Adaptation Plan was to establish a continuous and cumulative process of knowledge generation regarding impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Spain, and to build and strengthen capacities to apply it. The plan was monitored through four monitoring reports showing progress on the plan's priorities and objectives.

Base on the knowledge generation achieved by the first NAP, the second PNACC has increased its objectives and priorities by focusing on establishing measures for adaptation in 18 areas of work and 7 cross-cutting issues.

The priorities proposed in each area are based on a series of criteria that will be published in the next Work Programme (2021-2025), including measures that contribute to managing imminent or very serious risks, those that have a high cost-efficiency ratio and those that are essential for the development of subsequent measures.
The main barriers to adaptation identified are those related to governance and financing issues.
 

The systematic analysis of investments in adaptation will be addressed, as mentioned above, through the project "Spending review on climate change adaptation and risk reduction policies and assessment of the economic impact of climate change-related risks in Spain". This project, funded by the European Commission's Structural Reform Support Programme (SRSP), aims, among other objectives, to obtain the most complete analysis possible of public spending (at central and regional level) in recent years on climate change adaptation and climate-related disaster risk reduction.

Regarding governance, the IARG and CIRA, described above, will be the channels for strengthening robust and effective governance of adaptation.

There are a number of strategic components of the PNACC, which have already had some development in the previous phase, but are given new impetus by the new plan and will help to overcome barriers to adaptation. These are:

- Knowledge generation: analyses will be carried out to detect knowledge gaps that need to be addressed.
- The incorporation of adaptation into sectoral regulations, plans, programmes and policies.
- Mobilisation of actors through dissemination, training, participation and social research.
- Monitoring and evaluation: the planning and development derived from the PNACC-2 will have an iterative approach, in order to ensure flexible, robust processes that avoid maladaptation, allowing for the periodic integration of the best available science.
In 2005, the report "A Preliminary Assessment of the Impacts in Spain due to the Effects of Climate Change” was published. It summarized and integrated impacts, vulnerability and adaptation studies. Since then, multiple sectoral assessments of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation associated to climate change in Spain have been developed within the framework of the first National Adaptation Plan (PNACC).

The new PNACC 2021-2030 foresees synthesis reports on the evolution of the main risks and impacts derived from climate change in Spain and on the policies and measures aimed at building resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change. They will be prepared and published at least every five years by the Ministry for Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge (MITECO), in collaboration with other ministerial departments and the Autonomous Communities.

In 2021, a new report about “Impacts and Risks associated to Climate Change in Spain” (https://www.miteco.gob.es/e[…]nawebfinal_tcm30-518210.pdf) was published. The study describes the main impacts of climate change on the different productive sectors and natural systems in Spain. A list is also compiled of the main risks derived from these impacts, as well as a proposed assessment of the degree of urgency to address them. To this end, published documentation is analyzed in a total of 10 areas of work or sectors and natural systems considered priority subjects in the PNACC (water resources, terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture and livestock, marine environment, coasts, urban areas, health, energy, transport and tourism). It synthesizes information on climate change impacts for each area of work and elaborates on the interrelationship of risks between different areas.

Likewise, many sectoral assessments of impacts, vulnerability, risks and adaptation will be developed or updated as foreseen under the PNACC 2021-2030 and its Work Programmes. In this sense, a variety of actions linked to the generation of knowledge are planned for this new cycle:

- Analyses will be carried out to detect knowledge gaps that need to be addressed.
- Guidelines will be developed for the elaboration of assessments of the impacts and the main risks of climate change (recommended contents and methodologies for sectoral assessments).
- Practical tools (projections, scenario map viewers, guidelines for the use of scenarios, manuals, etc.) will be developed for the elaboration of exposure and vulnerability studies.
- New types of analysis, such as worst case scenario analysis and environmental and social tipping point analysis, will be incorporated where appropriate.
- Specifically, the contributions generated by successive IPCC reports will be analysed in order to facilitate their transfer to the risk analyses and the design of actions carried out in the framework of the PNACC.
THE EVALUATION PROCESS

The PNACC 2021 - 2030 is the result of a collective process of analysis and reflection, a process that began with the in-depth evaluation of the first PNACC and its three work programmes.

In order to recognise the progress made, challenges remaining and lessons learned in the development of the PNACC, Spain has developed an evaluation of the plan since its creation in 2006. The evaluation process began in February 2018, with the formation of an advisory group made up of experts from different fields. This advisory group has contributed, with its assessments and proposals, to the orientation of the evaluation process.

The evaluation exercise has drawn on several complementary sources, including:
-The analysis of a wide range of documents, including international commitments and recommendations, as well as the conclusions of working groups and seminars.
-The opinions, assessments and suggestions of people working in the field of adaptation in Spain, collected through a survey completed by more than 300 people, and a series of in-depth interviews with key actors in the field of adaptation in Spain.
-Analysis of the fulfilment of the actions set out in the Plan and its successive work programmes. This task has led to the review of the approximately 400 actions proposed in the PNACC and the three successive work programmes through which the plan has been developed.

The evaluation identifies a number of "emerging issues" that need attention, such as the influence of social and demographic factors on vulnerability to climate change, the consideration of the transnational impacts of climate change, the integration of a human rights and gender perspective, and the role of lifestyles in building resilience to climate change.

The result was an evaluation report with 38 specific recommendations for the definition of the new PNACC.

THE PARTICIPATORY PROCESS

Prior to the initial writing of the PNACC, preliminary ideas and proposals were gathered from experts and key actors in the field of adaptation. Various consultation and deliberation formats were used for this purpose:
-Deliberative workshops: Four workshops were held through which the attendees were able to communicate, contrast points of view, debate key aspects and prioritise proposals in relation to the different aspects that make up the Plan.
-Expert contributions through an online form.
-Meetings with implementing agents: The drafting team held meetings with the different departments and potential administrative units responsible for the future development of PNACC-2 lines of action and measures, with the aim of analysing proposals and defining their practical application.

PUBLIC INFORMATION

The initial draft of the PNACC 2020-2030 was subject to a public information period from 4 May to 30 June 2020. Given the transversal and multisectoral nature of climate change adaptation, participation was broad, reflecting a high degree of interest and commitment. More than 1,500 comments were received from 182 organisations and individuals, which enriched the initial proposal.

PLAN DEVELOPMENT

The first work programme of the PNACC 2021-2030 is currently under development. For the period 2021-2025 will be defined:
-the measures foreseen to develop the lines of action defined in the PNACC
-the priority measures, considering the level of risk associated with the different impacts of climate change, as well as the potential benefits of the proposed adaptation measures
-the organisations responsible for and collaborating in the development of the measures
-indicators of compliance to facilitate monitoring and evaluation
Some autonomous communities have developed their own monitoring systems for their own plans, programmes and/or strategies:

The Monitoring and Evaluation System of the Andalusian Climate Action Plan consists of the implementation of a system of indicators for the evaluation of the development and fulfilment of its provisions.

The Community of Madrid is designing a system of indicators to monitor and evaluate the Community's Climate Change Adaptation Plan, which will include its Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategy 2021-2030.

The Climate Change Adaptation Plan for the Maritime Terrestrial Public Domain assigned to the Principality of Asturias, whose drafting is nearing completion, will incorporate a proposal of indicators for its monitoring, divided into three categories: climate and impact, economic and adaptation, as well as a battery of indicators of compliance with the Plan's cross-cutting measures.

In the Community of La Rioja, a law is being processed for the creation of an organisation specialised in energy, which will be the driving force, manager and interlocutor with other entities, with the aim of establishing the planning elements for adaptation to climate change and the monitoring and coordination of sectoral policies.

In the document Monitoring and Evaluation of the Catalan Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change 2013-2020 (ESCACC), a qualitative methodology was applied to determine the degree of adaptation of natural systems and socio-economic sectors according to the degree of implementation of the measures contained in the strategy. In addition, the document Global Indicator of Adaptation to the impacts of climate change in Catalonia (IGA 2018) proposes a methodology whose objective is to quantify the degree of adaptation based on more than forty sectoral indicators.

In the Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategy of the Region of Murcia, the climate change department of the Regional Administration was entrusted with the periodic evaluation of the degree of implementation and compliance with the established objectives.

The Climate Change and Energy Strategy of the Autonomous Community of Valencia defines specific indicators and monitoring variables associated with each sector in which measures have been established.

In the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, the Basque Climate Change Strategy (Klima 2050) establishes a biennial monitoring system, as well as a review of the strategy every 10 years. An evaluation of the first cycle is being carried out using a set of indicators.

The Autonomous Community of Extremadura prepares monitoring reports, in which a series of indicators are used to quantify the degree of achievement of the objectives set out in the planning.

For more detailed information on the efforts made by other autonomous communities in the field of adaptation, please consult the AdapteCCa platform:
https://adaptecca.es/contenido/comunidades-autonomas

Good practices and lessons learnt

LIFE NADAPTA:

The main objective of project LIFE NAdapta-CC (https://lifenadapta.navarra.es/en/home) is to increase Climate Change resilience in the autonomous region of Navarra through cross-sectorial coordination, long-term sustainability, participation and networking, contributing to the full implementation of the actions included in the Climate Change Roadmap HCCN-KLINa. This project aims at integrating different sectorial policies so that the fight against Climate Change is included in their planning and development. Therefore, it is a regional project that will allow the different sectors to move forward in a coordinated way.
Support for stakeholder assessments:

The OECC, in collaboration with the Biodiversity Foundation, has supported the development of independent impact and vulnerability assessment projects and the identification, assessment and dissemination of adaptation measures by social organisations, favouring tailored responses and the integration of local and stakeholder knowledge.
LIFE URBAN KLIMA 2050:

The main objective of LIFE URBAN KLIMA 2050 (https://urbanklima2050.eu/en/) is to contribute to the full implementation of the KLIMA Strategy 2050 in the Basque Country in Spain, whose fulfillment is based on the execution of 9 goals and 24 lines of intervention. The project will mainstream climate change policy into other sectoral policies (i.e. health, water and energy); implement a series of actions (best practice, demonstration and pilot) in three pilot areas (urban/peri-urban, river basin, and coastal); fine-tune citizen and administration capacities (structure, knowledge, tools, etc.); and improve governance in the climate change field, among others.
Participatory processes for the assessment of climate impacts, vulnerability and risks, including adaptive capacity:

In order to achieve effective stakeholder participation, pre-study seminars are being held (e.g. for the assessment of Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in the agricultural sector, in the insurance business, etc.), bringing together representatives of the main stakeholders in the sector, with the aim of sharing knowledge and the main aspects to be addressed in the assessments. Some studies have also included intermediate consultations or seminars to discuss preliminary results with the sector, or subsequent discussion workshops for analysis.
Integration of gender perspectives into the National Adaptation Plan (PNACC) 2021-2030:

The new PNACC has included the gender approach as one of the cross-cutting aspects, as well as social and territorial vulnerability, among others. The gender variable has also been considered among the socio-demographic variables that influence vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Specific lines of action have been identified for gender mainstreaming in adaptation, which will be implemented through specific measures developed in the work programmes. The participation of women has also been taken into account in the participatory workshops for the design of this new PNACC.
National Plan of Preventive Actions on the Effects of Excessive Temperatures on Health:

The aim of the Plan is to prevent the negative effects that excess heat has on the health of citizens, especially among the most vulnerable groups. It establishes measures to reduce the effects associated with excess temperatures and to coordinate the State Administration institutions involved. It also proposes prevention and control actions to be carried out by the Autonomous and Local Administrations, and the collection of predictive information on temperature and the daily evolution of mortality, establishing criteria that allow active monitoring of risks and the identification of warning signs.
Dissemination of adaptation case studies:

In the framework of the Life Shara project, several tools and resources have been developed to disseminate adaptation case studies in Spain on the Spanish adaptation platform AdapteCCa (https://www.adaptecca.es/).

The “AdapteCCa case studies page” showcase initiatives that are already being carried out in Spain, as well as European initiatives from the Climate Adapt platform (https://www.adaptecca.es/en/casos-practicos)

In addition, awareness raising materials have been produced to disseminate Adaptation Narratives through videos, posters and one exhibit (https://www.lifeshara.es/es[…]ptacion-al-cambio-climatico)
The AdapteCCa Climate Change Scenario Viewer (http://escenarios.adaptecca.es/) - In order to facilitate the use of the climate change scenarios, this friendly tool allows users to visualise and download data of the last generation of regional climate change projections over Spain. It has a visual and intuitive interface with graphic and cartographic facilities and downloadable products. It maintains its own system of permanent updating and communication with users through a specific Working Group integrated by all the institutions involved in its development, keeping the viewer as a living tool that responds to user needs.
LIFE SHARA:

The LIFE SHARA project "Sharing awareness and governance of adaptation to climate change" aims to collaborate in the construction of a society better adapted to climate change, cooperating with all the actors involved, generating knowledge and increasing social awareness. The project has contributed to the generation of knowledge in the field of adaptation and its dissemination through the AdapteCCa platform, the communication and training on adaptation to climate change, the promotion and reinforcement of the coordination and cooperation among key agents and the participatory evaluation of the impact of the National Adaptation Plan.
The Spanish Network of Cities for Climate (RECC):

The RECC is a thematic network created in 2009 by the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces and the Spanish Ministry for the Ecological Transition and Demographic Challenge for joint action on climate adaptation and mitigation. The network coordinates, fosters, provides technical support and contributes to translation of national climate and energy objectives at the local level. As of 2019, the network included 316 Spanish local entities (over 60% of the Spanish population).
Pyrenean climate change observatory (OPCC):

It is a crossborder initiative of territorial cooperation of the Working Community of the Pyrenees (CTP), launched in 2010 under the presidency of Midi-Pyrénées, regarding climate change. The members of the CTP, and therefore of the OPCC, are the Governments of Aragon, Nouvelle Aquitaine, Catalunya, Euskadi, Navarre, Occitanie and the Principality of Andorra.

The OPCC aims to monitor and understand the climate change phenomenon in the Pyrenees in order to help the territory adapt to its effects. Their vision is to be the reference platform of knowledge on adaptation to climate change in mountain ecosystems.
Coverage of extraordinary risks derivables from climate change:

Spain has an extraordinary risk coverage system that includes the main hydrometeorological hazards. The system is established by law and managed by the Insurance Compensation Consortium (Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros - CCS), of which it is a fundamental part. It increases stability and protects policyholders. The essential characteristic of the extraordinary risks system is the ability to automatically provide the insured party with coverage against some risks that are considered extraordinary, through their mandatory inclusion in the policies policyholders contract with insurance companies of their choice.
Spanish commitment with the 2030 Agenda is represented by a new reinforced governance architecture, including a Vice-presidency and a Secretariat of State for the 2030 Agenda and three main governance bodies: (i) the Governmental Delegated Commission for the 2030 Agenda, for the coordination between ministries, (ii) the Sectorial Conference for the 2030 Agenda, for the coordination with the regional and local governments and (iii) the Sustainable Development Council, for the coordination and participation of platforms and entities from the civil society, the private sector, and the academia. Synergies between 2030 Agenda and Climate Change Adaptation action in Spain, are ensured with the participation of the Ministry of Ecological Transition (and therefore the Spanish Climate Change Office) in this governance scheme.

Spanish government published in 2018 the Action Plan for the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda and is preparing a 2030 Sustainable Development Strategy that will continue the progress made by the Action Plan.

Within the Spanish 2018 Action Plan and the future Strategy there are many identified synergies among the specific targets of SDG13 (climate action) regarding adaptation (strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters; integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning; improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning), all of them considered in the Spanish Climate Change Adaptation Plan for 2021-2030.

Many other SDGs targets have also significant contributions on climate resilience and adaptation in Spain, such as resilient agricultural practices (SDG2), strengthen the capacity for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks (SDG3), sustainable water management (SDG6), sustainable marine and coastal ecosystems (SDG14) and combat desertification (SDG15).

In relation with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the National Civil Protection Council is the body for cooperation and coordination among all the Spanish Administrations with responsibility in disaster risk management and acts as the Spanish Committee for the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), assisted by a Technical Committee for monitoring and evaluation the progress of the implementation of the National Civil Protection Strategy.

Therefore, the National Civil Protection Council (Spanish Committee for UNDRR) coordinates the implementation and follow up of the UNDRR framework in Spain. The synergies between the Spanish climate change adaptation framework (the National Adaptation Plan coordinated by the Spanish Climate Change Office) and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction are based and built on the participation of the Spanish Climate Change Office as a member of the Spanish Committee for UNDRR.
Bilaterally, Spain and Portugal are cooperating in the framework of the LIFE SHARA project (Sharing awareness and governance of adaptation to climate change), that brings together the responsible institutions for climate change adaptation in both countries with the aims to strengthen the governance of climate change adaptation and increase resilience in Spain and Portugal. Within the project, a cooperation framework between Spain and Portugal has been set up, to promote the exchange of information on shared vulnerabilities and identify priorities for common actions between both countries. This mechanism will regularly continue beyond the cycle of the LIFE project as a permanent line of work.

Regarding international European and regional cooperation, Spain regularly contributes and participates in multiple exchange fora dealing with climate change adaptation such as G20, OECD, IPCC, EU and EEA working groups, GCA, Union for the Mediterranean.

Spain develops and intensive cooperation activity in the Ibero-American climate change adaptation context, where there are three well established networks supported by Spain that bring together responsibles on water, weather and climate change sectors: (i) the Conference of Ibero-American Directors of Water (CODIA), (ii) the Conference of the Directors of Ibero-American National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (CIMHET) and (iii) the Ibero-American Network of Climate Change Offices (RIOCC). They constitute forums for discussion, exchange of information and experiences and development of sectorial activities, including adaptation to climate change activities. Spain acts as the permanent Secretariat and supports activities related to adaptation aligned with the countries priorities.

The Spanish Cooperation Plan for Knowledge Transfer, Exchange and Management in Latin-American and the Caribbean (INTERCOONECTA https://www.aecid.es/[…]/Planintercoonecta.pdf), carried out by the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation, supports several actions for the technical and institutional reinforcement, including related to adaptation to climate change. Many of these actions are identified by the sectoral Iberoamerican networks refer above (RIOCC, CIMHET and CODIA).
As it will be referred in Part 2 of Annex VIII of Regulation (EU) 2018/1999, Spain supports adaptation climate change projects in many developing countries through different instruments, both bilateral and multilateral.

One interesting and innovative project supported in the last years to enhance adaptation action at the sub-national, national, macro-regional and international level is the RIOCCADAPT project (http://rioccadapt.com/), “Adaptation to climate change risks in Ibero-American countries”, funded by the ARAUCLIMA Program of the Spanish Development Cooperation. This project intends to facilitate action regarding adaptation to climate change, through the evaluation of current knowledge about ongoing experiences in this field in the Ibero-America region. The work is the result of the collaboration of more than a hundred authors from Ibero-American countries.

Spain also is a key partner in EUROCLIMA+ (http://euroclimaplus.org/en/), the EU flagship cooperation programme on environmental sustainability and climate change with the Latin American region. EUROCLIMA+ carries out actions that are of strategic importance for the implementation of the countries’ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), with the objective to reduce the impact of climate change and its effects in Latin America. The Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for Development (AECID) and the International and Ibero-American Foundation for Administration and Public Policies (FIIAPP) are implementation agencies of EUROCLIMA+.

Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge (MITECO)

Spanish Office of Climate Change (OECC)
Coordinating adaptation policies and responsible for reporting

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The information presented in these pages is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and updates by the EEA member countries. However, for those pages where the information is last updated before 01/01/2021, the information presented is based on the reporting according to 'Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information relevant to climate change' and updates by the EEA member countries.'