Last update:Jan 11, 2017

Item Status Links
National adaptation strategy Adopted

Turkey's National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan 

Action plans Adopted Turkey's National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan 
Impacts, vulnerability and adaptation assessments Currently being undertaken
Research programs Currently being undertaken
Climate services / Met Office Established
Web portal Online See link here
Monitoring, Indicators, Methodologies Currently being revised
Training and education resources Currently being undertaken
National Communication on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Submitted

NC5 

The key requirements for climate change adaptation in Turkey are stipulated in national and rural development strategies, particularly in Ninth (2007-2013) and Tenth (2014-2018) Development Plans. In this context various studies have been conducted to enhance the capacity of national and regional institutions to respond to impacts of climate change.

 

The National Climate Change Strategy (2010-2020), developed under the coordination of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, through an effective working process by the participation of public institutions, private sector establishments, non-governmental organizations and universities, was approved by the Primeministry Higher Planning Council on 3 May 2010. 

 

The National Climate Change Strategy includes objectives on adaptation to climate change as well. Some of the objectives on local/urban adaptation are:

  • Strategies for efficient use of urban land shall be developed in order to prevent the formation of urban heat islands.
  • Increasing open green space systems in urban areas shall be encouraged and urban forestry shall be improved.
  • Measures shall be taken in order to reduce urbanization pressures on rural and natural areas.
  • Regional flood plans shall be prepared and integrated into provincial disaster plans.
  • River basin master and management plans for 25 river basins shall be developed within the scope of development, multi-purpose usage and protection of all ground and surface water resources in Turkey.
  • Possible adverse impacts of climate change on vulnerable ecosystems, urban biotopes and biological diversity shall be identified; vulnerability assessments shall be carried out and measures shall be taken for ecosystem and biodiversity protection.
  • Use of architectural styles and construction materials appropriate for local climate shall be encouraged.
  • Efficient use of wastewater shall be promoted in urban green areas.
  • Rainwater capture, use, and recycling strategies shall be developed for settlements and buildings, including the introduction of new technologies.

 

In order to ensure implementation of the National Climate Change Strategy, National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) was published in 2011 and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan was published in 2012. 

National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan have focused on five important fields which are supported by technical and scientific studies and participatory processes. Main actions are as follow:

 

Water resources management

  • Integrating adaptation to the impacts of climate change into water resource management policies
  • Strengthening water resources management capacity, interagency cooperation and coordination with regard to adaptation to climate change
  • Develop and expand R&D and scientific studies to ensure adaptation to the impacts of climate change in water resources management

 

Agricultural sector and food security

  • Integrating climate change adaptation ınto the agriculture and food security policies
  • Developing a ‘Soil And Land Database And Land Information System' taking into consideration the effects of climate change
  • Sustainable planning of water utilization ın agriculture

 

Ecosystem services, biodiversity and forestry

  • Integration of climate change adaptation approach to ecosystem services, biodiversity and forestry policies
  • Identifying and monitoring the ımpacts of climate change on biological diversity and ecosystem services
  • Identifying the land use changes due to the impacts of climate change in forest land

 

Natural disaster risk management

  • Identifying threats and risks for management of natural disasters caused by climate change
  • Strengthening response mechanisms for natural disasters caused by climate change
  • Organizing the training activities that will increase public awareness and participation with regard to the disaster and risk impacts that may arise due to climate change

 

Public health

  • Identifying the existing and future effects and risks of climate change on human health
  • Developing the capacity to combat risks originating from climate change ın the national healthcare system
  • Strengthening the capacities of health sector organizations against health risks arising due to climate change

 

Online National Climate Change Action Plan Monitoring System which also includes adaptation actions was established in 2012. The system is used actively by the representatives of the institutions which are responsible for implementation of the actions since 2013. Monitoring and Evaluation Report of the NCCAP is prepared regularly each year on the basis of the information entered in the system. Currently, monitoring system is under revision.

Turkey is actively involved in all programs of the World Meteorological Organization. Some of these programs can be sorted as the Global Observation System-GOS, the Global Climate Observation System-GCOS, the Surface Radiation Network-SRN and the Global Atmospheric Watch-GAW. Under the Global Observation System, surface observations, marine observations, high level observations and the observations made with aircrafts as well as satellite and radar are performed.

 

In Turkey, measurement under surface observations is made at 1,280 points in total. 69 maritime automatic meteorological observation systems were put into operation for sea surveillance purposes. 1 mobile high-level measurement station, 11 weather radars are available. Apart from these, works for the installation of 7 more radars continue. In addition, in some municipalities and within the scope of their projects, ozone measurements for special researches are carried out at many points. Besides, air quality data is provided to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme-EMEP which is the scientific part of the long-range transboundary air pollution agreement with the United Nations.

 

In Turkey, within the Turkish National Sea Level Monitoring System (TUDES), 20 automatic tide gauge stations are available. Besides the measurement of sea level at tide gauge stations, meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction are measured and the data is collected in a data processing center in Ankara. Within the scope of terrestrial climate observations, within the framework of the Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Program, in Turkey monitoring activities are carried out at 602x Level 1 observation areas as of year 2012. In the hydro-meteorological observation network, 3,713 flow monitoring stations (FMS) are available. In the measurement of Air Quality, across Turkey, there are 198 air quality measurement stations running as integrated to the National Air Quality monitoring network.

 

Several climate modeling studies have been carried out for Turkey and its surrounding in recent years. Detailed information could be obtained from the national communications submitted to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

 

Regional Climate Model (RCM) projections in the TR2013-CC carried out by Turkish State Meteorological Services by using dynamic downscaling method are based on general circulation models (GCM) in CMIP5 project and RCP scenarios. RCP4.5 is chosen as mild model and RCP8.5 as severe model.

 

TR2013-CC main characteristics

Data Sets of Global Model

Regional Model

Data Sets of Sensitiveness Analysis Test

Period

HadGEM2-ES

MPI-ESM-MR

GFDL-ESM2M

RegCM4.3.4

  • CRU (1971-2000)
  • UDEL (1971-2000)
  • UDEL-C (1971-2000)

1971-2000 (RF)

 

While domain was chosen, it was tried to catch optimum size to correctly demonstrate effects of sea and air masses, in addition to considering computing capacity and time schedule. Domain is located 27.00o-51.00 o (N) and 5.00o-55.00o (E). Four RCPs that are used for IPCC-AR5 have been defined for radiative forcing levels. In this study, 3 GCMs have been used, that also have been take part in AR5 and CMIP5.

 

Representative Concentration Pathways (IPCC, 2013)

RCPs

Radiative Forcing

Time

Pathway shape

Concentration  (CO2 eq) ppm

Emissions

(KYOTO -GHGs)

RCP 8.5

>  8.5 W/m2

In 2100

Rising

> ~1370 CO2-eq in 2100

Stabilization in 2100

RCP 6.0

~6.0 W/m2

After 2100

Stabilization without overshoot

~850 CO2-eq

(at stabilization after 2100)

Decreasing in last quarter of century

RCP 4.5

~4.5 W/m2

After  2100

Stabilization without overshoot

~650 CO2-eq

(at stabilization after 2100)

Decreasing in middle of century

RCP3-PD

peak at ~3W/m2 before

2100 and then decline

Before 2100

Peak and decline

peak at ~490 CO2-eq before

2100 and then decline

Decreasing in first quarter of century

 

 

 

In study of reference run outputs, the HadGEM2-ES model has much high consistency on summer and winter temperature. It is colder of 1.5-2 °C in spring and autumn and annual average is approximately 1 °C. Despite it considerably has consistence in winter precipitation, in terms of annual precipitation, it is wetter about %20.

HadGEM sensitiveness tests

Temperature (oC)

RCM

CRU

UDEL

RAW

 

Precipitation (mm/day)

RCM

CRU

UDEL

RAW

WINTER              

SPRING

SUMMER            

AUTUMN

ANNUAL(Average)           

0.436

8.294

20.792

10.412

9.987

0.561

9.712

20.859

12.480

10.906

0.258

9.503

20.834

12.177

10.694

  1.762

  9.867

20.763

12.349

11.190

 

WINTER              

SPRING

SUMMER            

AUTUMN

ANNUAL(Average)           

2.159

2.622

0.947

1.830

1.886

2.126

1.974

0.686

1.333

1.531

2.064

1.881

0.653

1.347

1.487

2.452

2.101

0.733

1.497

1.697

 

 

Looking at 2013-2099 precipitation and temperature, a significant rising of temperature attract attention from middle of the century in both scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5. In particular, in RCP8.5 rising exceeds 6 °C. However, it is not detected a regularly upward or downward trend regarding precipitation. It can be said that the precipitation characteristics and regimes very likely will change.

In study of reference run outputs, the MPI-ESM-MR model has much high consistency in winter temperature. It is colder of 1.0-1.5 °C in summer, spring and autumn and annual average is approximately 1 °C colder. Despite it considerably has consistence in spring, autumn and annual average precipitation, it is 15-20% wetter in winter and %30 drier in summer, 

MPI sensitiveness tests

 Temperature (oC)

MPI/RCM

CRU

UDEL

 

Precipitation (mm/day)

MPI/RCM

CRU

UDEL

WINTER

0.525

0.561

-0.076

 

WINTER

2.52479

2.12642

1.97092

SPRING

8.628

9.712

9.309

 

SPRING

1.92056

1.97368

1.87821

SUMMER

19.603

20.859

20.700

 

SUMMER

0.41729

0.68574

0.65310

AUTUMN

11.003

12.480

11.961

 

AUTUMN

1.28402

1.33274

1.30774

ANNUAL (average)       

9.950

10.906

10.474

 

ANNUAL (average)   

1.53222

1.53063

1.45418

 

The findings based on MPI ESM-MR are very similar to those of HadGEM2-ES. Rising of temperature will be seen particularly in the last quarter of century. 4 °C rising according to RCP4.5 and exceeding 6 °C according to RCP8.5 are projected. Although there is no exact signal of trend on precipitations, southern parts will likely have less precipitation.

The study with GFDL-ESM2M has been completed and details could be found http://www.mgm.gov.tr/FILES/iklim/iklim-degisikligi-projeksiyon2015.pdf in Turkish.

More information on modeling studies by Turkish State Meteorological Services is also available at http://www.emcc.mgm.gov.tr/climate-change.aspx and http://www.mgm.gov.tr/iklim/iklim-degisikligi.aspx.

The General Directorate of Water Management under the Ministry of Forestry and Water Works is executing "Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources" project started in December 2013. The aim of the project is to determine the impacts of climate change scenarios on surface and underground water bodies and to identify the adaptation activities, implementation region based on river basin districts covering whole Turkey.

In order to evaluate the impact of climate change, temperature and precipitation projections  of Turkey have been produced for a domain, including Turkey, with 20 km resolution and for a period between the years 2013-2099, by using three general circulation models from CMIP5 archive and RegCM4.3.4 regional climate model for dynamic downscaling. RCP4.5 is chosen as mild and RCP8.5 as severe scenario.

 

Data Sets of Global Model

Regional Model

Data Sets of Sensitiveness Analysis Test

Period

HadGEM2-ES

MPI-ESM-MR

GFDL-ESM2M

RegCM4.3.4

  • CRU (1971-2000)
  • UDEL (1971-2000)
  • UDEL-C (1971-2000)

1971-2000 (RF)

 

While domain was chosen, it was tried to catch optimum size to correctly demonstrate effects of sea and air masses, in addition to considering computing capacity and time schedule. Domain is located 27.00o-51.00 o (N) and 5.00o-55.00o (E). Four RCPs that are used for IPCC-AR5 have been defined for radiative forcing levels.

According to the results of the study, temperature in Turkey is expected to rise 4°C - 6°C for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively. It is not detected an regularly upward or downward trend regarding precipitation. It can be said that the precipitation characteristics and regimes very likely will change. Changes in surface temperature will likely cause the increase of frequency of extreme weather events such as number of tropical nights, heat waves etc.

In Turkey, water resources, which are already under pressure, becomes much more vulnerable due to the impacts of climate change.

In order to analyse how much our water resources would be affected from climate change and to determine adaptation measures required, "Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources Project" was started in 2013 and planned to be finalized by 2016.

Outcomes of the project covering all 25 river basins of Turkey will be:

•           Preparation of climate change projections for all river basins,

•           Determination of groundwater budget and the change in surface water levels for all basins

•           Running water budget modeling studies for all basins

•           Sectoral impact analysis (for the main sectors of domestic water, agriculture, industry, ecosystem) of climate change with respect to water resources in 3 basins

 

Results will be available at iklim.ormansu.gov.tr, following the completion of the project.

Across Turkey, various activities are also carried out in research institutions and in universities on climate processes and climate system including paleoclimate studies, modeling and prediction including general circulation models, research on the effects of climate change, socio-economic analysis including climate change impacts and response options, research and development on mitigation and adaptation technologies. Over 60 projects and nearly 170 thesis on these subjects have been carried out in Turkey. Apart from these, various studies on climate change are carried out in public institutions.

 

 

As the focal point, the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization coordinates the activities of combatting climate change in Turkey. Besides this, before becoming a party to the UNFCCC, with the Prime Ministerial Circular No. 2001/2 the Coordination Board on Climate Change (CBCC) was established. The CBCC was restructured in 2004, after Turkey became a party to the UNFCCC. Lastly, in 2013 it was restructured again and renamed as the Coordination Board on Climate Change and Air Management (CBCCAM).

 

Members of the CBCCAM are:

  • Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (Coordinator)
  • Ministry of European Union Affairs
  • Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of Economy
  • Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
  • Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • Ministry of Development
  • Ministry of Finance
  • Ministry of National Education
  • Ministry of Forestry and Water Works
  • Ministry of Health
  • Ministry of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communication
  • Undersecretariat of Treasury
  • Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency
  • Turkish Statistical Institute
  • Turkish Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges (TOBB)
  • Turkish Industry and Business Association (TUSIAD)
  • Independent Industrialists and Businessmen's Association (MUSIAD)

 

Under the CBCCAM, Working Group of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation (WGCCIA) was established in 2013 within the participation of relevant institutions. Ministry of Environment and Urbanization is the coordinator of the WGCCIA. Members of the working group involve in the adaptation issues at national level, such as Ministry of Forestry and Water Works for water management, ecosystem services, biodiversity and forestry, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock for agriculture and food security, Disaster and Emergency Management Authority for disaster risk management, Ministry of Health for public health.

 

In order to raise awareness on impacts of climate change and adaptation, the first project was implemented from 2011 to 2013, in 8 provinces selected as the pilot areas, workshops and seminars were held; nearly 500 people were directly given education on adaptation to climate change; climate camps were organized for the students in the secondary schools and teacher candidates; painting and essay competition on climate change was conducted for primary school students at the national level. Additionally, one and five-minute short films on climate change were produced to be broadcast on national television channels.

 

A follow-up project was started in 2015. Within this project, capacity building activities will be carried out for the local administrations besides the seminars, trainings and camps for the students and teachers in 16 provinces, painting, essay, photo and short film competitions for the students.

Ministry of Environment and Urbanization

General Directorate of Environmental Management

Climate Change Department

(http://www.csb.gov.tr/projeler/iklim/)

Document Actions