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Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2023-03-15

Item Status Links
Climate Law (including adaptation)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
National Adaptation Strategy (NAS)
  • previous adaptation policy (superseded)
National Adaptation Plan (NAP)
  • previous adaptation policy (superseded)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
Sectoral Adaptation Plan (SAP)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
  • being developed
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
Regional Adaptation Plan (RAP)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
Climate Risk Assessment (CRA)
  • being developed
  • completed
  • completed
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
  • Established
  • Established
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
Finland is situated at a latitude between 60 and 70 degrees north, with a quarter of the country extending north of the Arctic Circle. With a total area of 338,400 km2, it is Europe’s seventh largest country. The land boundary with Sweden is 614 km, with Norway 736 km and with Russia 1,340 km long.

Finland lies between the Scandinavian mountains and northern Russian plains. Its terrain is a varying mosaic of low hills, broad valleys and flat, low-lying plains, with higher fells in the north. The landscape is a mixture of forests, lakes and mires. Nearly all of Finland is situated in the boreal coniferous forest zone, and 72 % of the total land area is classified as forest land. Some 9 % of it is farmed.

In the west and south, Finland has an approximately 46 000 km coastline along the Baltic Sea. About 10 % of Finland’s total area is inland waters. There are some 190,000 lakes and 180,000 islands, with almost half (73 000) of the latter along the Baltic Sea coast.

The Baltic Sea is the second largest brackish water basin in the world in terms of water volume. The Baltic Sea water is a mixture of ocean water and fresh water brought in by numerous rivers. The Baltic Sea has a severe eutrophication problem, which is the consequence of more than a century of nutrient loading caused by human activity (settlements, industry, agriculture, and forestry) in the Baltic Sea region. During extremely severe winters, the Baltic Sea may freeze over almost completely covering over 400,000 km², but during extremely mild winters, maximum ice area is less than 50,000 km².

The Baltic Sea is linked to oceans through the narrow and shallow Danish Straits. When sea levels rise in close by sea areas, the rise will be evident in the Baltic Sea, too. The isostatic land uplift counteracts sea level rise on the Finnish coast, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia. Land uplift has been stronger than sea level rise everywhere on the Finnish coast in the 20th century. Recently, and particularly in the future, the accelerating rate of sea level rise may change the situation.

The latest projections estimate that in the Gulf of Finland the risk of coastal floods will already increase by 2050s and this increase will accelerate during the end of the century, while in the Bothnia Bay region the risk of coastal floods will most likely remain unchanged or decrease until 2050 and then increase during the end of the century.

Finland's climate displays features of both maritime and continental climates. The annual mean temperature is several degrees higher than in most land areas at the same latitudes. The mean annual temperature is ca. 7 °C in south-western Finland, and decreases towards the north. The 0°C limit is near the Arctic Circle. The highest and lowest temperatures measured are +37.2°C and -51.5°C. The annual mean temperature has increased over 2°C since the 19th century. The most common wind directions are from the south and southwest.

The mean annual precipitation in southern and central Finland is usually between 600 and 750 mm, slightly lower near the coast. In northern Finland, the annual precipitation is 450 to 650 mm. The observed extremes of annual precipitation range from less than 300 mm to more 1,000 mm. The seasonal variation is similar throughout the country, with the driest months being February, March and April. The highest daily precipitation sums are measured during July and August exceeding 30-50 mm and rarely 150 mm. On average, more than half of the days have some precipitation, less near the coastal regions. In southern Finland, some 30% of the annual precipitation is in the form of snow, which remains on the ground for about four months. In Lapland, 50-70 % of the annual precipitation is snow and it remains on the ground for 6-7 months.

According to the national classification, in 2020 forestry land covered 26 million hectares, or 77 per cent of the total area incl. inland waters. The total volume of Finland’s forest stock amounts to 2529 million m3 according to the national forest inventory. The growing stock has increased 65 % in the last 50 years. The most common tree species in Finland are Scots pine, Norway spruce and birches. There are approximately twenty indigenous tree species growing in Finland. In 2020, private individuals owned more than 50 % of Finland’s forests, state 35 %, private companies about 7 % and the rest by other owners. Numerous protection programmes and decisions have contributed to a threefold increase in the area of protected forests over the last 30 years.

Reference: Finland’s Eighth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The population of Finland was approx. 5.5 million at the end of 2021. It increased by an annual average of 0.39 per cent between 1990 and 1999, by 0.35 per cent between 2000 and 2009 and by 0.30 per cent between 2010 and 2020. The population density averages 18 inhabitants per km², but ranges from 2 inhabitants per km² in Lapland in northern Finland to 187 inhabitants per km² in the southern Helsinki-Uusimaa region.

Many rural communities have a declining population, particularly in northern and eastern Finland. The urban population made up 72 % of the total population in 2020. The corresponding figure in 1990 was 63 %. Internal rural-urban migration was strong in the mid and late 1990s. Rural-urban migration is still on going. Internal net migration to urban municipalities declined in the early 2000s but has increased steadily since, reaching an average of 9,000 internal migrations between 2015 and 2019.

Net migration to Finland increased steadily during the late 1990s and the 2000s. In 1994, the migration gain for Finland was about 3,000 migrations, whereas in 2006 it reached over 10,000 migrations. Between 2010 and 2020, net migration to Finland has varied between 12,000 and 18,000.

The number of one-person households has increased and the average household size has decreased. The total number of households at the end of 2020 was 2.8 million. Forty-five % of households, or 1.3 million of them, consisted of only one person. The average size of a household was two people. Finland’s current average household size is low in comparison with other countries.

The population is ageing. In 2020, the proportion of people aged 65 and over was 23.1 %.; in 1990, it was 13.5 %. This trend will accelerate in the coming years and decades. Life expectancy has risen rapidly during the past 30 years. At present, baby girls may expect to reach the age of 84.6 and baby boys the age of 79.0. The proportion of elderly people of the total population is increasing due to declining mortality rates and therefore longer life expectancy. Despite this trend, population growth has slowed down, and it is expected that the natural increase in population will decrease in the coming decades. In autumn 2021, Statistics Finland estimated in its population projections that the Finnish population will increase to 5.6 million by 2034 due to net migration but will then decline if fertility rates and amount of net migration remains at the current observed level in the future. By 2040, Statistics Finland estimates that more than one-quarter of Finland’s population will be 65 years old or over.

Finland has approximately 10 000 indigenous Sámi peoples population. More than 60 per cent of them now live outside the Sámi Homeland. The Sámi culture has its own unique challenges from adaptation perspective, particularly due to the strong dependency of the traditional Sami livelihoods, such as reindeer herding and fishing, to the environment.

Reference: Finland’s Eighth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Finland has an open economy with prominent service and manufacturing sectors. As an EU member country and a member of the euro area, Finland’s economy is integrated with the economies of other EU countries. Foreign trade is important, with exports accounting for approximately 40 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP). The cold climate, energy intensive industry structure and long distances have led to a relatively high energy intensity and per capita greenhouse gas emissions.

The national economy reached the pre-pandemic level in 2021. However, it is predicted that average GDP growth will remain moderate in the next few years because of a predicted decline in exports and manufacturing output due to economic sanctions imposed against Russia and declining growth in private consumption as a result of increases in consumer prices. Finland’s GDP per capita is above the EU average.

Industry

The main manufacturing industries include metal, chemical and forest industries. In 2020, the metal industry accounted for 45 % in total value of sold output of manufacturing industries. The chemical industry accounted for 19 %, the forest industry 17 %, and the food industry 11 %. Total industry accounted for 20 % of the GDP in 2020.

Agriculture

Climatic conditions in Finland are a decisive factor affecting the feasibility of crop production. The growing season is too short for many cultivars grown elsewhere, and, therefore, frost-resistant varieties have been developed. Because of the short growing season, the yield levels of the field crop species are considerably lower in Finland than in central Europe. The harsh winters also reduce productivity, as they restrict the cultivation of winter cereals. In many parts of Finland, livestock farming, especially dairy farming, is the only profitable form of agricultural production.

Between 1990 and 2020, the number of active farms fell from 130,000 to 45,600. At the same time, the average farm size increased from 17 to 50 hectares. Total agricultural production as well as cultivated area have remained almost at the same level since 1990.

Water services

Water services in Finland are mostly provided professionally, and service reliability is high. The public sector plays a key role in safeguarding sustainable water services. Municipalities are currently responsible for organising water services, and municipalities are the most important owner group for water utilities. By law, municipalities must develop water services in their territory and, where necessary, take measures to secure access to water services.

Water utilities as service providers see to water abstraction, supply of water for household use, and wastewater sewerage and purification. The main networks of water utilities cover more than 90% and wastewater sewer networks about 85% of Finnish households. In sparsely populated areas, the access to water for household use is often based on private wells. Of the water supplied by water utilities, 65% is groundwater or artificial groundwater.

The built environment

There are 712 built-up areas covering approximately 2.3 per cent of the land area in 2021. In 2000, the corresponding proportion was 1.8 per cent. The population density in these built-up areas was 683 inhabitants per km² in 2021. Density has declined by 70 inhabitants per km² since 2000 as the lower density fringes of these built-up areas have grown. However, in some of the biggest urban regions, the density has started to rise slightly in the main urban area particularly after 2010. Approximately 65 per cent of the inhabitants of all urban areas live in neighbourhoods with a population density of more than 20 inhabitants per hectare. Often there is no distinct boundary between urban and rural areas, as in many cases there are some tight restrictions on construction close to urban areas. This has led to ea dispersed and fragmented urban structure. In Finland, the starting point for construction planning is a healthy and safe building that is fit for purpose.

Energy and electricity

The energy-intensive basic industries, cold climate and long distances underline the significance of energy for the wellbeing of Finland’s inhabitants and the country’s competitiveness.

In 2020, total energy consumption was 1,277 PJ. Industry is the largest energy consuming sector, with a 45 % share of final energy consumption. Space heating accounted for 26 % and transport for 17 % of energy consumption, while the share of energy used for other purposes was 12 %.

Wood fuels is the biggest energy source covering 28 % of the energy supply. Oil and nuclear energy are second and third with 22 % and 18 %, respectively. Finland’s domestic energy sources are wood-based fuels, hydropower, wind power, waste, peat and ground and air heat-pump energy. Nearly 38 per cent of total energy consumption and 43 % of final consumption were covered with renewable energy sources in 2019.

In 2020, electricity consumption totaled 81.6 TWh; while the domestic electricity production was 66.6 TWh. This consisted of combined heat and power production (27 per cent), nuclear power (34 per cent), hydropower (24 per cent), conventional condensing power (three per cent), wind power (12 per cent) and solar power (0.3 per cent). In 2020, more than half Finland’s electricity production was produced with renewable energy sources for the first time in around 50 years. The production of electricity with renewable energy souces amounted to 10.9 TWh, of which 6.0 TWh were produced with black liquor and 4.3 TWh with other wood-based fuels.

Policy measures promoting wind power have been highly successful, resulting in a viable industry and wind power being built in the 2020s fully on a market basis and without economic subsidies. Thanks to investment grants and tax support, the fastest relative growth can be seen in solar energy, even though the absolute amounts remain modest. Hydropower plays a central role as a regulating power source. A fifth nuclear power unit is currently being commissioned.

The Finnish electricity wholesale market is part of the Nordic and Baltic power market. The Nordic and Baltic power market is price coupled with the continental electricity markets. Physical day-ahead and intra-day trading takes place in the power exchange Nord Pool. Finland has strong power connections with neighboring countries allowing fluent functioning of the electricity wholesale market. Scandinavian precipitation largely determines the electricity price on the Nordic power exchange.

The system operator, Fingrid Oyj, is responsible for managing the national power balance and ensuring that the transmission system is maintained and used in a technically appropriate manner. The total length of the Fingrid’s main transmission network in Finland is 14 400 km. Furthermore, there are about 140,000 km of medium voltage (20 kV) power lines and about 220,000 km of low voltage (0,4 kV) lines mostly owned and managed by private utilities. Weatherproofing the power lines has substantially advanced in recent years owing to the Electricity Market Act (386/1995) which entered into force in 2013.

Transport and communications infrastructure

The entire length of the Finnish road network is about 454,000 kilometers. Of this, private and forest roads account for about 350,000 kilometers and municipal street networks for 26,000 kilometers. There are a total of 78,000 km of state roads which are maintained and developed by the Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, together with the regional ELY centers. Municipalities and cities are responsible for the street network and its condition in their own area. The maintenance of private roads is usually the responsibility of road municipalities, private landowners, communities or companies.

The length of the Finnish rail network is slightly less than 6,000 km, of which almost 3,300 km are electrified. There are a total of about 16,300 km of waterways, of which almost 4,000 km are merchant shipping lanes. There are just under 8,300 km of coastal waterways and 8,000 km of inland waterways.

Climate change may increase the risk of disruptions to the communications infrastructure due to incidents such as floods or electrical power outages. Preparedness for these, however, has been maintained in Finland for a long time. It is important to actively monitor their impacts and, where necessary, limit the risks with regulation concerning the reliability of communications networks.

Reference: Finland’s Eighth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The Government research institutes, in particular the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Finnish Environment Institute (Syke), the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) and the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) all have activities linked to climate monitoring and modelling. FMI is the main institute for physical climate variables, SYKE on hydrology, floods and water management as well as impacts on ecosystems, LUKE focuses on effects related to renewable natural resources, and THL on human health. The Finnish Museum of Natural History (Luomus) has a particular role in monitoring change in species and biodiversity.

In Finland, the prime source of atmospheric observations relevant to climate is the routine surface and upper air weather observations undertaken by FMI. Arrangements and conditions for data provision are consistent with WMO Resolution 40 (Cg-XII) on policy and practice for the exchange of meteorological and related data and products.

FMI makes observations of the atmosphere, sea and space at over 400 observation stations around Finland, and using remote sensing instruments such as radars and satellites. In addition to weather observations FMI monitors e.g. air quality, radioactivity and properties of the upper atmosphere.

Meteorological observations have been made at several stations in Finland for more than a hundred years. In December 2022, observation network consists of 185 automatic stations, 82 precipitation stations, 24 aviation stations, 2 sounding stations, 11 radar stations, 3 mast stations, 14 marine stations and 14 buoy stations. Long climatological time series form a necessary basis not only for the climatological research itself but also for estimates on the impacts of climate change.

FMI maintains a network of measurement stations for sea level, sea state, hydrography and currents in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. FMI operates 14 tide gauges on the Finnish coast. Thirteen of them were established between 1887-1933 and have been operating since then. The newest station was established in the Gulf of Finland in 2014. Since late 1990's sea surface temperature has also been measured at the tide gauges.

FMI measures sea state at four locations in the northern part of the Baltic Sea with Directional Waverider buoys. Together with the city of Helsinki, FMI measures waves also in the Helsinki coastal area. The Northern Baltic Proper wave buoy has been operating since 1996, Helsinki wave buoy since 2000, Bothnian Sea wave buoy since 2011 and Bothnian Bay wave buoy since 2012, excluding the ice season.

Baltic Sea monitoring is conducted together with SYKE using a research vessel Aranda, which gives the widest 3D overview of the physical state and nutrients in the open sea. The measurements provide accurate information on the water column including the near bottom layer. The measured parameters include dissolved oxygen that is measured by probes enabling 1-m measuring interval.

In addition, there are two kinds of monitoring stations: the intensive monitoring stations near the coast and the open sea stations. During the ice-free season, the intensive stations are measured one to three times a month and open sea stations twice a year. In 2013, FMI has also established one fully automatic measurement station at Utö island located at the outer Archipelago Sea.

The Centres for Economic Development, Transport and Environment perform coastal monitoring of intensive sites in their river basin districts. Vertical samples cover the basic hydrographical variables such as temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen concentrations. The results are reported annually to a HELCOM database.

FMI uses multisensor satellite data in maritime and sea ice services, and for research purposes. Syke is using satellite images to retrieve information about sea surface temperature, turbidity, algal blooms and a-chlorophyll in the Baltic Sea. SYKE also maintains automatic measurement equipments on Ships-of-Opportunity (Algaline). Measurements include temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a and nutrients.

FMI uses satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, supplemented with optical imagery, for operational monitoring of the Baltic Sea ice. The SAR imagery is the main data source for the daily ice chart prepared manually. FMI uses also satellite data for developing new remote sensing methods for monitoring sea ice conditions in the Baltic Sea, Arctic and Antarctic.

The Maritime Service of FMI uses data from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites to provide information about ocean surface temperatures. Other information about the sea state (surface floating algal blooms, water turbidity etc.) is provided with the help of satellite images by the Finnish Environment Institute (Syke). For example MODIS-Aqua data is used for Baltic Sea chlorophyll-a and turbidity research. Data from Sentinel satellites (Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 3A) is planned to be used in future for obtaining a-chlorophyll and turbidity information.

Flood forecasting at the Finnish Environment Institute is based on the Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System (WSFS). Its main component is a hydrological model representing the circulation of water in a catchment. WSFS covers 100% of Finland and is used for forecasting over 85% of the total area of the country. The forecasts are made daily for 800 water level and discharge observation points. The WSFS is used for a number of purposes, including studies on climate change. Syke is also the national centre for monitoring the physical, chemical and biological state of inland waters in Finland.

In 2013, FMI adopted open data policy, which led to a vast amount of forecast and observational data t become freely available to the public; with more being added continuously. The open data policy has emphasized the importance of digitizing past observations as well as further improving the quality control of observations. In addition, it has widened the use of systematic observations both in scientific as well as commercial use. Updated observations have been resubmitted for example for various reanalysis projects.

FMI’s Arctic Space Centre (ARC) operates Sodankylä National Satellite Data Centre (NSDC). NSDC has four satellite receiving systems that are used to receive satellite data for operational and research purposes.

Examples of the activities related to scenarios include the following:
-FMI has also constructed projections for the future climate at various temporal resolutions based on global (CMIP5 and CMIP6) and regional (EURO-CORDEX) climate model simulations.
- SYKE has carried out joint work with other research institutes (LUKE, FMI, THL) on the application of the RCP-SSP framework for Finland and specific sectors. (e.g. Lehtonen et al. 2021).
- THL has participated in joint work carried out by SYKE on the application of the RCP-SSP framework for the health sector.
Between 2021 and 2022, climate scenarios for Finland were updated to correspond the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, considering nearly 30 global climate models (GCMs) that participated in Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Projections are provided for three future 30-year periods and all four SSP scenarios from which enough GCM data were available. (Ruosteenoja & Jylhä, 2022). In 2022, CMIP6 climate models were used to analyse the sum of winter frost and increasing frequency of rain in mid-winter by combining temperature and precipitation scenarios.

The base of the scenario work has recently been the global RCP-SSP framework that has been applied and interpreted through specific research, downscaling of RCPs and in particular co-development of SSP narratives.

One of the main approaches in including uncertainties related to climate change has been use on multiple climate scenarios and sometimes also different methodologies in modelling and producing an ensemble of projected climate change impacts. Challenges associated with this approach include the possibility that the wide range produced with an ensemble of scenarios may make decision making based on the results more difficult. Impact response surfaces as a tool to analyze likelihood of impacts (Pirttioja et al. 2019) and identification of robust changes and win-win solutions (e.g. Ahopelto et al. 2020) have been used to counter this challenge.

National socioeconomic pathways are available for the agriculture and food and social welfare and health sectors based on the global shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Co-creation of regional, system-level SSP-based scenarios and narratives is in its early stages.
Under the Finnish Climate Act, the objectives and measures concerning climate change adaptation must be based on scientific evidence so that the progress of climate change, its probable positive and negative impacts, the risks and hazards associated with it, and the capabilities to prevent disasters and limit their adverse effects are taken into account.

The most recent weather and climate change risk and vulnerability assessment was compiled in 2021-2022 to support the development of the most recent national climate change adaptation plan 2030. It contains a description of the observed and future evolution of various climatological variables and hazards, and a sectorial and cross-sectorial impact and risk assessment. Simultaneously, a separate regional situational and vulnerability assessment was conducted. The reports will be published in 2023.

In 2021, the Finnish Climate Panel published an extensive report, where the panel collected information on the temporal and local impacts of climate change, and compiled extensive tables on changes in weather, climate and marine factors for each of Finland's current regions, the autonomous Åland Islands and five sea areas.

National level, sectorial weather and climate change risk and vulnerability assessments have a long history in Finland. A general assessment of vulnerability across sectors was the basis for the original National Adaptation Strategy 2005. For the first National Adaptation Plan published in 2014, a study of the impact of the climate change and vulnerability of sectors was conducted in 2013. In 2018, a comprehensive national weather and climate risk assessment collated new and recent knowledge of risks and vulnerabilities generated in sectorial assessments (SIETO-project, 2018). This provided the basis for the risk and vulnerability assessment compiled for the weather and climate change risk and vulnerability assessment that will be published in 2023.
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
Snow and ice load
ChronicChange in sea ice cover
Changing precipitation patterns and types
Precipitation hydrological variability
Saline intrusion
Solid massAcuteAvalanche
Landslide
Subsidence
Chronic
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frost
Heat wave
Wildfire
ChronicChanging temperature
Temperature variability
WindAcuteCyclone
Storm
Tornado
ChronicChanging wind patterns
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtevolution uncertain or unknown
Floodevolution uncertain or unknown
Heavy precipitationsignificantly increasing
Snow and ice loadsignificantly decreasing
ChronicChange in sea ice coverevolution uncertain or unknown
Changing precipitation patterns and typessignificantly increasing
Precipitation hydrological variabilityevolution uncertain or unknown
Saline intrusionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sea level riseevolution uncertain or unknown
Water scarcityevolution uncertain or unknown
Solid massAcuteAvalanche Futureevolution uncertain or unknown
Subsidence Futureevolution uncertain or unknown
ChronicSoil erosionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sol degradationevolution uncertain or unknown
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frostsignificantly decreasing
Heat wavesignificantly increasing
Wildfiresignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging temperaturesignificantly increasing
Temperature variabilitywithout significant change
WindAcuteCyclonewithout significant change
Stormwithout significant change
Tornadoevolution uncertain or unknown
ChronicChanging wind patternsevolution uncertain or unknown
In international comparison, the impacts of climate change seen in Finland appear to be rather small, particularly during the decade ahead. In global comparison, Finland is well-prepared for additional challenges brought about by climate change. Finland’s stable society, well-maintained infrastructure, well-functioning government and administration, high level of education, gender equality and societal service system improve the country’s opportunities to prepare for and adapt to a rapidly changing climate.

Climate change does, however, involve major risks for Finland, too. In addition to the changing climate, these are affected by current and future societal and economic developments. The risks vary greatly from one part of the country to another and depend on specific regional characteristics, such as location as well as economic and population structure. Regional livelihoods, nature and other elements of society have adapted to the current climate, but climate change will result in risks growing around Finland, including the Arctic and Baltic Sea Regions.

Climate change is anticipated to accelerate biodiversity loss, and biodiversity loss in turn can intensify climate change. Impacts on biodiversity differ depending on local conditions, species and habitats. The rising mean temperature, fewer periods with considerable sub-zero temperatures and the temporal shift of the seasons have already caused large-scale changes in Finnish natural ecosystems and biodiversity.

The temporal and spatial distribution of species has already changed. As the climate changes, conditions suitable for species shift in space and many species follow this shift, often resulting in a northward or north-eastward shift in species distribution. The situation is particularly challenging for species adapted to the Arctic conditions of Lapland, as they are unable to move any further north. Changes in the distribution range of species have also taken place in protected areas, and climate change may result in species moving outside protected areas, too.

The impact of alien species on native species is currently most significant in southern Finland. It has, however, been anticipated that impacts will be more broadly visible by the end of the century. As the climate changes and, especially as winters become milder, many alien species that so far have shown low reproductive and dispersal rates may increase in abundance and become invasive alien species. Alien species may already today displace indigenous species in various habitats, and the impact is expected to increase in the future.

Climate change adds to the challenges faced in agricultural production, as production risks increase because of increasing weather variability. This might cause fluctuations in crop yields and declines in crop quality. Arable farming will most likely face challenges caused by increasing plant pest and disease pressure, increasing heavy rains and excessively wet fields, southern Finland’s shorter or absent ground frost periods and, in particular, coinciding high temperatures and drought and, consequently, increasing evapotranspiration during the growing season. The negative impacts of climate change on the operating conditions, profitability and competitiveness of agriculture may increase in the future. Particularly over the long term, climate change may affect Finland’s food supply as well as food and nutrition security, both via national and transboundary climate change effects.

Reindeer husbandry is a livelihood that is sensitive to the negative impacts of climate change. Climate change and changing weather conditions have direct effects on the food access, health and wellbeing of reindeer and on practical reindeer husbandry work. In addition, climate change has indirect impacts though changes in the grazing environment. Reindeer husbandry is an inseparable part of the indigenous Sámi culture, which means climate change also has major sociocultural impacts.

The most important health harms caused by climate change in Finland were assessed as harms related to increased heat, slip accidents, water-borne epidemics, zoonotic and vector-borne infections, and moisture damage to buildings. In addition, new species with allergenic potential spread to new areas in Finland, strong winds bring allergenic species to new areas, and the growing season becomes longer, that increase the prevalence and incidence of allergenic symptoms. The darkening of winters can lead to increase in the prevalence of mental health symptoms. Heat waves are currently the biggest health hazard related to climate change in Finland. Prolonged heat waves lasting 3-4 weeks have been estimated to have led to 200-400 extra deaths per year in the 21st century.

In the worst cases, large-scale stormwater floods may cause significant incidents and have adverse effects on the performance of duties such as prehospital emergency medical services. The adverse effects of heatwave periods are also greater in urban environments than in the surrounding areas due to the heat island phenomenon and partly due to the building stock. The mobility of people using assistive devices may be further restricted during extreme weather events.

Climate change poses a threat to cultural heritage and cultural environments through factors including extreme weather events, increasing floods and rising sea level. Climate change has already had significant impacts on, for example, the environment, livelihoods, culture and cultural heritage of the Sámi.
Increasing drought and heatwave periods increase the risk of extensive forest fires. Forest fires are a natural part of the life cycle of forests, but they cause financial losses to forest owners and potential hazards to humans and require significant resources for rescue services. So far, extensive forest fires have been successfully controlled by efficient fire protection and detection systems, dense forest road network and silvicultural measures. The structure of Finland’s forests is effective in reducing the risk of forest fires, as forest compartments are small, especially in southern Finland. Human activity in forests is a significant factor for the emergence of the forest fire risk. It should also be noted that the reduction in forest fires starting from the 1960s has resulted in a decline in many species and ecosystems that are dependent on forest fires.

Increasing land use pressures from e.g. forestry and mining; change of vegetation from lichens towards shrubs; new pests and more harassment by insects.

Compound hazards e.g. for buildings, wind blowing snow and other material on the rails and roads.

For marine transport: the rigid ice conditions that increase ice breaker need.

Compound risk also include rain at zero degrees temperature, as well as melting and thawing processes that lead to road surface erosion. Compound hazards e.g. for buildings, wind blowing snow and other material on the rails and roads, for marine transport: the rigid ice conditions that increase ice breaker need. Compound risk also include rain at zero degrees temperature, as well as melting and thawing processes that road surface erosion.

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentClimate change impact is difficult to separate from natural variability. Heavy precipitation and floods cause risks to water management. Droughts in 2002-2003 and 2018 caused damage to agriculture and locally to water services.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentOn average, Finland has a well-functioning and maintained water management system with abundant surface and ground water resources. Most of Finland's lakes, rivers, streams and reservoirs have excellent or good ecological status, while eutrophication remains the largest problem to the ecological state of waters. However, vulnerability in water management vary in different locations. Water services provide access to clean water and well-functioning sewage treatment. The Finnish water services sector is, as a rule, well placed to adapt to climate change, but floods, increasing surface runoff, rise in mean temperature, changes in ground frost situation and quality variation in raw water resources may cause problems to water utilities relating to technology and water quality. The maintenance backlog of the water services infrastructure is a vulnerability that has already been identified, and the risks relating to a network that is in poor condition may increase due to climate change. Small water utilities with limited resources in rural areas and old infrastructure may increase vulnerability locally.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentFinland’s flood risk is projected to decrease slightly over the short term but to double or triple by 2100 if the current flood risk management measures are not continued and implemented as planned. The increase in risk is mainly due to the assumed steady economic growth increasing the value of damaged property. Over the short term, the risk is reduced in particular by climate change, as the flood risk may decrease in many river basins due to decrease in spring snowmelt floods caused climate change and the rise in sea level will not yet significantly increase the coastal flood risk over the short term. The projected increases on the long term come mainly from the increase in sea level rise and the increased risk of coastal area. Fluvial flood risk may decrease due to decreased snow amounts, but there is large variation between watersheds and increases are also possible in certain areas, especially where winter floods and summer floods caused by extreme precipitation can cause damages. This estimate does not include stormwater floods (urban floods) which are projected to increase in Finland due to increases in extreme precipitation. Climate change will have impacts on water management due to changes in precipitation and timing of runoff. Besides floods also summer droughts may cause additional problems. Adaptation needs include for example changes in regulation rules on numerous lakes in Finland as well as measures to decrease nutrient loading during warmer and wetter winters. However, adaptive capacity in water management is generally high.
Key affected sector(s)biodiversity (including ecosystembased approaches)
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentImpacts differ depending on local conditions, species and habitats. The rising mean temperature, fewer periods with considerable sub-zero temperatures and the temporal shift of the seasons have already caused changes in Finnish natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Lack of snow cover poses threats to species dependent on snow and ice, e.g. problems for reproduction due to lack of snow for some sealspecies and decline of species that adopt a white coat during winter due to exposure to predators. Climate change also affects the functional capacity of ecological networks, that is, it affects interactions between species. As species live in interaction with each other, changes in the abundance or, overall, the occurrence of one local population inescapably results in effects on other species. Humans have already had and will continue to have direct impacts on ecosystems and cause biodiversity loss in many ways, which in turn reduces nature’s own capacity to adapt to climate change. The temporal and spatial distribution of species has changed. Changes in the occurrence of species have also taken place in protected areas. The impact of alien species on native species is currently most significant in southern Finland. Species native to Finland move further North, new species (incl. invasive alien species) spread to new areas and leave native ones less space, causing competition between species. For example, the red fox outcompetes arctic foxes, and surplus predation e.g. the raccoon dog and the American mink predation on ground nesting birds.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentDifferent components of biodiversity will have different vulnerabilities depending on local conditions, species and habitats. Especially species that are limited to specific habitats (e.g. Saimaa ringed seal and freshwater pearly mussel) are highly vulnerable to climate-induced changes in their habitats. Climate change causes instability to hunting and related livelihoods. The vulnerability of game and hunting is increased by the unpredictability related to climate change. Game management based on monitoring and comprehensive records increases the adaptive capacity. Nature conservation areas can help northern species cope with climate change. The expected changes for wildlife and its habitats are mostly irreversible. Some species will not be able to adapt on a short time scale. Some changes will be "fixed" by natural dynamics. Some changes will occur only regionally, and vulnerability to some changes is difficult or impossible to estimate. More research on game species, hunting and their adaptation to climate change is needed.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
AssessmentSuitable conditions for species shift in space and many species follow this shift, often resulting in a northward or north-eastward shift in species distribution. The situation is particularly challenging for species adapted to the Arctic conditions of Lapland, as they are unable to move any further north. Climate change will have significant impacts on the conditions of the Baltic Sea. The clearest signals are sea level rise, decrease in ice cover, rise in sea water temperature and sediment input from river water, intensifying eutrophication and other changes in water chemistry. Changes can also be anticipated in the salinity and biogeochemical parameters of the sea, such as oxygen concentration, but these are still uncertain. On the west coast of Finland, nature values linked with the land uplift phenomenon that are unique even by international comparison exist. This process is jeopardised with sea level rise as the relative land uplift decreases. When biodiversity declines, the capacity of the ecosystem to provide ecosystem services may decline. Many ecosystem services are also dependent on the preservation of ecosystem, species and genetic diversity. In addition, natural habitats declining in terms of quality and quantity also increase the risk to natural ecosystems and to their diversity posed by climate change. The likely risks for game and hunting include changes in the ranges of game species and pests and diseases, difficulties due to thin or no snow cover or icy layers in it (dens, snow burrows, protective colour of coat), and changing ranges of species. Many northern species will decline. Availability of nutrition for large predators is expected to improve. Besides climate change, also other environmental changes in the nesting and overwintering areas influence game species, particularly migrating waterfowl.
Key affected sector(s)buildings
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentWeather variability has caused rain with wind on the walls, wet land and ground problems, uncomfortable living during heatwaves without cooling, heavy snow loads on the roofs (risk of collapse). Storms and tornados blow off roofs and other material from the buildings.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThere are issues with old infrastructure and an increasing need for renovation and reconstruction. In some areas houses are built too close to watercourses resulting in flood risk (also in the spring from snow and ice melting). More work is needed on vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Currently assessment capacity is scattered and a full understanding of all ongoing changes is not clear. Based on studies, most of the external wall assemblies commonly used in Finnish buildings performs satisfactory in changing climate. Risk for mould growth in external wall assemblies increases in structures, where the outer layer is permeable, i.e., wind-driven rain penetrates the outer layer, the pore structure holds water for long periods (brick, permeable concrete), and ventilation of structure is weak.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThe impacts of changes in moisture load on mould risk in structures is a complex issue and will materialise in different ways in different parts of Finland. The related challenges mainly concern the existing property stock that was not designed or constructed for the climate of the future. The impacts are also very different depending on when the buildings were constructed and which materials were used. An increased moisture load causes an indirect health risk. All risks to the building stock also have spill-over effects on built cultural environments and building heritage. More work is needed to better understand changing risks to different types of buildings and structures under different climate scenarios.
Key affected sector(s)civil protection and emergency management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentHeat waves increase morbidity and mortality (anomalous high tempatures in winter: ice-related drownings); cold-related events include accidents caused by slippery conditions; extreme cold increases morbidity and mortality; wildfires increase need for fire control and protection of assets.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentInsufficient information available at current.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsnot applicable
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentInsufficient information available at current.
Key affected sector(s)coastal areas
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentFinland has a long coastal zone along the Baltic Sea. The water levels on the coast have natural substantial variation, and storm related flooding in communities and on roads in coastal areas is prevalent already in the current climate. Finland is exposed to coastal flooding already in the current climate. The isostatic land uplift counteracts sea level rise on the Finnish coast, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia. Land uplift has been stronger than sea level rise everywhere on the Finnish coast in the 20th century. During heat waves, there are also problems with blue-green algae and other water quality issues.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentMore work for the changes in the vulnerability are needed.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentClimate change will have impacts on the conditions of the Baltic Sea. The clearest signals are that the sea level will rise, ice cover will decrease, sea water temperature will rise and sediment input from river water will increase, intensifying eutrophication and other changes in water chemistry. Changes can also be anticipated in the salinity and biogeochemical parameters of the sea, such as oxygen concentration, but these are still uncertain. On the west coast of Finland, there are nature values linked with the land uplift phenomenon that are unique even by international comparison. This process is jeopardised when the sea level rises due to climate change and relative land uplift decreases. The period of Baltic Sea ice cover will become shorter, but ice conditions may be challenging in the decades ahead, too. Cold and mild periods shifting back and forth create ice conditions that hinder shipping. The role played by changing sea ice conditions is greater in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, especially as regards shipping.
Key affected sector(s)energy
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudenot applicable
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentWeather-related hazards like wind and snowstorms, lightning strikes and floods are the major source of weather and climate risks for the energy sector in Finland. During storms and snow fall episodes there have been problems with electricity distribution network as trees have grown too close to overhead cables. However, attribution to climate change is unclear.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentTo reduce the risk of damage, in recent years overhead lines have been replaced with underground cables, especially in sparsely populated areas. In urban areas, underground cabling has mainly already been introduced earlier. Infrastructure upgrade is, however, a slow process due to the long-term nature of the investments, and this is why electrical power outages caused by weather events will be seen in the future, too. To secure incident-free power transmission in the main grid, trees are regularly cleared from main grid transmission line areas and a sufficient distance of trees and shrubs from power lines is ensured. Society’s electrification and dependence on technology increase society’s exposure to climate change, as these result in increased requirements concerning the security of power production and distribution. The functioning of the power grid is also important for the functioning of information networks.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsnot applicable
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentImpacts will partly depend on the energy transition and how the energy system will change in the future. Impacts are likely to affect both energy production and consumption. Challenges to energy production and distribution are also created by some enduring weather episodes often coinciding with relatively high energy demand and demanding conditions for the maintenance of power systems, such as long periods of extreme cold, long-term snowfall, and snow load. Storms and heavy snow loads on tree crowns have caused power outages for customers. Long periods of very low precipitation causing hydrological drought reduce hydropower production. This matters in Finland, because hydropower plays a central role as a regulating power source, and more widely, because Scandinavian precipitation largely determines the electricity price on the Nordic power exchange.Extreme weather events have caused incidents in the Finnish energy sector and, in particular, damage to the electricity distribution infrastructure. Some nuclear power plants have curbed their power output during hot summers as sea water has been too warm. The cold and the heat waves may last unexpectedly long. In the future, the consequences of climate change to the functioning of the energy system will depend partly on how the system changes following the currently ongoing green energy transition. Impacts are likely to affect energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption alike. The increased share of renewable energy sources, in particular wind and solar power, in the electricity mix also increases weather-related production variation. Long dry spells reduce the production of hydropower. This is of significance, as hydropower plays an important role as a source of balancing power and also more broadly because the price of electricity in the regional power market is largely determined by Nordic precipitation rates. To provide an estimate of the risk of potential future impacts, more work is needed on vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Currently assessment capacity is scattered and a full understanding of all ongoing changes is not clear.
Key affected sector(s)forestry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThere are emerging issues related to seasonal variation that is changing with respect to drought, heat, storm impacts, lack of soil frost, wet autumns, snowpack structure variation (giving shelter or not). The wellbeing-related and economic role of forests is significant in Finland. Forest health in Finland has so far remained mainly good, and issues such as tree deaths caused by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) have so far been localised. Forest damage risk is caused by both biotic factors) such asvarious fungal diseases and bark beetles (Scolytinae) or other mammals (such as the moose, Alces alces) and insects, and by abiotic factors such as wind, snow, drought and forest fires. In recent years, most significant forest damage has been caused by abiotic factors, especially wind and snow, which in turn increase the risk for e.g. cascading bark beetle damage. Economically, the most significant damage to Finland´s forests are caused by Heterobasidion root rot.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe areas most vulnerable to wind damage are the edges of clear-cut forests. The most vulnerable stands are especially old-growth Norway spruces and monocultivated forests. Norway spruce is one of the main tree species particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Its cultivation has increased significantly in Finland because the risk of moose and deer browsing damage to pine and broad-leaved trees has reduced their use in forest regeneration, but also because e.g. Norway spruce is economically better for the forest owner than e.g. Silver birch. The planting and regeneration of mixed forests should be favored and supported as this is known to decrease risks for damage as well as increasing the resilience of the forest. So far, extensive forest fires have been successfully controlled by means including the efficient fire protection and detection system, dense forest road network and silvicultural measures. The structure of Finland’s forests is also effective in reducing the risk of forest fires, as forest compartments are small, especially in southern Finland. Human activity in forests is a significant factor for the emergence of the forest fire risk. It should also be noted that the reduction in forest fires starting from the 1960s has resulted in a decline in many species and ecosystems that are dependent on forest fires.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentChanges in climatic conditions will be observable as changes in forests and forestry. Depending on the magnitude of the change different impacts will be observed. Overall risks are expected to increase as a result of rising temperatures and changing hydrological conditions. There is potential to adapt forestry to changing conditions through diversification of forest regeneration towards mixed forests and alternative tree species (instead of especially spruce monocultures). Also, area-specific risk assessments to e.g. detect sites wih increased drought-risk can help to guide the local decision making on forests and their management.
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThere are various issues for human and for animals (pets, live stock, fish). Heat waves affect especially people with diseases, and there are emerging issues related to vector borne diseases as the surroundings and micro-climate is changing. Additionally slipping accidents due icy conditions in winters cause major public health and economic burden. An increase in the number and intensity of heatwaves has been observed in recent decades. The impacts of weather phenomena, such as prolonged heatwaves lasting for a few weeks can be seen in visits to medical practices in Finland, too. In this context, excess mortality in the 65+ age group can be seen (200–400 excess death per year). Even though such heatwaves do not occur in Finland every year, heatwaves are Finland’s deadliest weather event.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country
AssessmentThe effects of climate change on health will be significantly less drastic in countries like Finland with a highly developed economy and technological and institutional infrastructure than in developing countries. However, climate change will also affect health and wellbeing in Finland via multiple assessment, climate change impacts and adaptation measures pathways. Maintaining and strengthening the existing public health and other infrastructure, including housing, transport and energy, and preventing poverty are crucial for successful adaptation. In the light of European data on the 2000s, older persons living alone in areas affected by the urban heat island effect have been a specific risk group. However, even in Finland, socioeconomic health inequalities are already relatively large, so as the possibilities for adaptation and protecting one’s health vary depending on socioeconomic status, these differences may also increase health inequalities. For example, a stable financial position facilitates adaptation to extreme weather phenomena such as making energy-efficient and cost-effective air conditioning decisions in households. In addition, consideration of different population groups in both social welfare and healthcare and public health should be kept in mind, considering especially children and young people and the indigenous Sámi people.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentFinland’s well-functioning health protection and housing standards have increased our climate resilience significantly compared with less developed countries. This means the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on health are lower in Finland than on average in the world. The safeguarding of health protection – the most important pillar for the preservation of climate resilience and, consequently, climate change adaptation – takes place in 62 collaborative areas for environmental healthcare. Environmental health action implements, in particular, legislation of the Ministry of Social Affairs of Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of the Environment that, for example, safeguards the safety and security of water services and food supply as well as housing health. The Housing Health Decree (545/2015) lays down provisions on, for example, factors relating to building temperature conditions that are affected by the changing climate. As regards the assessments of adverse effects of hot weather, the action limits defined by the current Housing Health Decree need to be reviewed, as the current limits for momentary indoor temperatures are +32°C and for older persons +30°C. The functionality of buildings is also related to health risks during heatwaves. As is the case with the increasing mould risk, the health effects of heatwaves mainly relate to the current property stock. The scale of health risks is highly dependent on the construction year and purpose of use of the building. In addition, the management of the risk depends greatly on the type of building. Prolonged heatwaves increase the risk of heat-related morbidity and mortality, particularly in such vulnerable groups of people who live in urban heat islands in dwellings where the indoor temperature cannot be lowered or ventilation cannot be intensified. More work is needed and currently ongoing to better understand future impacts under various climate and socio-economic scenarios.
Key affected sector(s)marine and fisheries
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems are especially strong with extreme weather events such as prolonged hot summer periods. In general, there is variation in how well fish species can tolerate the changing conditions, with some species and life-stages more vulnerable than others. Climate change is expected to influence precipitation patterns. The increasing incidence of winter-time precipitation and runoff are expected to increase nutrient and humic substance leakage from the catchment areas to waters, exacerbating eutrophication. Dry periods, on the other hand, may complicate it for migrating fish to reach their spawning areas. Water temperatures will increase, and heat waves cause stress to fish. These changes influence fish populations. Cold water species will suffer, but warm water species will benefit. There will be changes in the ranges of fish species. Shortening of the ice cover period affects winter time fishing. Aquaculture facilities may be vulnerable to heat waves if they do not have cooling system for intake water. Other risks to fisheries and aquaculture include alien species, spread of diseases and increasing prevalence of storms, consequently increasing costs and work effort.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentFisheries and aquaculture are vulnerable to changes in the aquatic environment, including those caused by climate change. Changes in water temperatures are beneficial for warm water fish species and harmful for cold water fish species. This will change the proportions of fish species and their range, possibly also the decrease of the economic value of the fish stocks. The profitability and attractivity of fishing and aquaculture as livelihoods has declined for some time, even if the adaptive capacity is estimated to be mediocre. More research is needed on vulnerability. Aquaculture facilities with flow-through water intake will suffer from increasing water temperatures, which have already led to widespread fish deaths in the hot summers of 2014, 2018 and 2020, for example. Similarly, increasing eutrophication also has negative effects on aquaculture production, both inland and in coastal waters, through potentially more strict environmental licensing. Commercial fishing is affected directly by what happens to fish stocks, but also by changing environmental conditions such as ice conditions. While prolonged ice-free periods may lengthen the season for marine trawling fishing, other winter fishing will suffer from a shortage of ice. Invasive alien species will remain highly relevant for aquatic ecosystems, as Finland has already seen the establishment of several alien fish species in coastal waters (for example, the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus), as well as in inland waterbodies (for example the pumpkin seed Lepomis gibbosus). While climate change does not itself cause the relocation of these species, it may make the Finnish climate more suitable for certain invasive species that might not otherwise survive.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentSo far, the stocks of the most important target species of fishery are mostly in good shape. The biggest problems are seen in migratory fish stocks. The status of migratory fish suffering from migration obstacles is weak, with several species being threatened and unable to withstand fishing. The reproduction of many fishes that spawn in the spring or summer has benefitted from the temperature rise.
Key affected sector(s)tourism
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThe impacts of key changes have already been observed: snow conditions have weakened, including the number of snow cover days, which is especially seen in the delay of the arrival of snow cover in the early season. This is already affecting winter tourism, especially in southern parts of the country.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatelow
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitynot applicable
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentFinland is an attractive destination for tourists mainly because of its nature. Dependence on nature and seasonal variation makes tourism and recreational activities vulnerable to climate change. Winter tourism is vulnerable to the changing climate, as it is highly dependent on reliable winter conditions. Snow-based activities such as cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, riding snowmobiles, and ice fishing are vulnerable to climate change. The vulnerability of cross-country skiing is strongest in southern and western Finland, particularly in coastal regions. However, at least in the near future, ski resorts in the north may benefit from relatively good snow conditions compared to ski resorts in central Europe or southern Finland. Awareness of climate change and the capacity to adapt to it are improving among tourism enterprises, but many regional differences remain. The type of tourism and its economic importance in the region, the image of tourism, and the region’s social and community characteristics define how vulnerable to climate change the region is as a tourism destination.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentSnow cover days in Finland will decrease by at least 30% by the end of the century, however less than in other winter tourism areas in Europe. Winters will become shorter. Magnitude of change varies according climate scenario and time horizon.
Key affected sector(s)transport
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentKey climate risks in the transport sector include e.g. complications in seafaring and shipping due to ice conditions, difficulties in air traffic due to storms and increased rainfall, challenges in road and railroad network due to erosion, changes in ground frost and poor weather conditions and problems in conveyance dependability. The risks vary depending on the season, section of the transport sector and the region of the country. The transport and communication sector and its infrastructure are highly vulnerable to changeable weather conditions, and disturbances in the transport sector affect other sectors. Due to weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain and snowfall), accidents and/or delays in the transport chain may occur which mean that goods are not delivered on time, commuters cannot rely on timetables and businesses suffer from loss of earnings. Besides rain and snow, roads, railways, ports, airports and communication networks in Finland are occasionally subjected to other weather conditions such as storms, floods, extreme cold, and heatwaves. Road and railway infrastructure and traffic are affected by frost heave, which also occurs during the winter, not only in the spring. The surface structure of roads and bridges is damaged by icing-melting periods occurring more often and weakened by hot and dry periods, which also cause dusting problems. Heat may also cause problems to railway infrastructure and rollingstock. Floods, which may be stronger due to climate change, can cause breakages in roads and railway banks and bridges. However, conditions vary within and tend to affect different parts of the country, as well as transport modes, in different ways, e.g. due to the population distribution and the condition of road network.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentTransport sector and its infrastructure are vulnerable to changing weather conditions, and disturbances in the transport sector affect other sectors. Vulnerability is affected by the characteristics of the means of transport and the people operating them, the characteristics of transport routes (e.g. availability of alternative route) and other interaction in transport and traffic as well as available weather and road condition data. Risk and vulnerability factors also vary from one region to another and need to be studied in more detail. In terms of adaptive capacity, planning and implementation of adaptation measures in short and longer period in the transport sector will require additional funding. The development of the transport system is guided by the National Transport System Plan for 2021–2032. Updated during each government term, the plan contains a central government funding programme that provides the financial framework for the development of the transport system. The realisation of the funding programme depends of decisions made on spending limits and budgets. Long-term transport system planning and related concrete outcomes on the one hand in the form of planning and investment programmes and on the other in the form of the basic plan for route maintenance will contribute to the climate resilience of the transport route network. The topic of vulnerability is challenging and varies depending of which season and functions are of concern.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactslow
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentDue to weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain and snowfall), accidents and/or delays in transport chain may occur which means goods are not delivered on time, commuters cannot rely on timetables and businesses suffer from loss of earnings. Besides rain and snow, roads, railways and airports in Finland are constantly subjected to other weather conditions such as storms, floods, extreme cold and heat waves. However, conditions vary within the country and they tend to affect different parts of the country, as well as the modes of transportation in different ways, e.g. due to distribution of population and condition of road network. Altogether, extreme weather conditions and unpredictable changes in weather lessen safety and traffic flow in the transport sector. Therefore, tackling risks caused by the climate change in the transport sector should be done by considering comprehensive security and reliability performance of the society as a whole. The risks vary depending on the season, the section of the transport sector, and the region of the country. In sea areas, ice cover in the Gulf of Finland and the Sea of Bothnia will continue to form in winters, but it will happen increasingly later. Strong winds can cause packing of ice, which increases the need for icebreaking. Rising sea levels will change the location of sediment layers and shallows. All these will make navigation more demanding and expose safety equipment to a strong weather burden. These in turn will increase transport time and costs. For rail, wind impacts, causing e.g. the falling of trees (during the autumn) are expected to cause harm more often. Fog with increases in humidity and freezing rain are risk factors for aviation. Winter conditions will cause challenges to air traffic and airports and their safety in Finland. De-icing of planes and removing snow from runways will take more time. In telecommunications, the aerial cables network may be especially vulnerable to storms and icy rain. Sea cables may be damaged by packed ice causing problems to electric and communication networks, which in turn causes power outages, leading to delays and cancellations. Power outages affect traffic control and electric traffic. Lightning can cause disturbances and harm hardware and equipment. Heat may cause overheating of data centres and affect information systems.
Key affected sector(s)other
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe changing snow and precipitation patterns, particularly freezing and thawing cycles and poor early winter conditions have already occasionally resulted in poor grazing conditions during some winters. Reindeer body condition decreases during winters with difficult snow conditions or icy snow winters, resulting in reduced calf production in the spring.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentReindeer herding has rather high adaptive capacity to the changes caused by climate change. Some adaptive strategies, including technological ones, may involve abandoning old culturally significant methods, which poses a risk of a transformation of the traditional reindeer herding livelihood closer to agriculture. Pressures from other land-use forms decrease reindeer pastures and hence increase herding costs, while profitability is decreasing. Adaptation measures in reindeer herding include practical planning on reindeer herding cooperative level, the adoption of additional livelihoods e.g. tourism, improving competitiveness by increasing the processing of reindeer meat and marketing, multiple-use land use planning with other livelihoods, development of legislation and subsidies to better accommodate adaptation to the changes, as well as research, education and counseling. 
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
AssessmentAs winters are expected to warm more than summers, many hazards are related to snow conditions. However, in the summer time, pests and diseases may become more frequent as summers become warmer. Also new pests may spread to the reindeer herding area. This causes stress to reindeer and lowers their weight and chances of recovering after difficult winters. Exceptionally thick or layered snow may lead to poor condition in reindeer, which reduces calf production. These influence negatively to the profitability of reindeer herding. Also reindeer herding work may become more difficult due to changes in the environment, including temperatures and insects, freezing of lakes and rivers, and the arrival of snow. Climate change is only one of the factors influencing reindeer herding. Reindeer pastures are strongly influenced also by other land-use forms like mining, forestry, tourism and transportation. Changes in vegetation seem likely, however reindeer herding also helps reduce the spreading of shrubs. Winter conditions, including the structure of snow, are essential to reindeer nutrition, as they influence whether reindeer can dig food from under the snow or whether the food is moldy or covered by heavy ice and snow layers.
Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentAgriculture in Finland is a sector where operators have had to adapt to changing weather conditions, climate and crop yields over time. Crop yield variability is a particular feature of arable farming, due to the northern distribution of crops and northern weather conditions. Horticulture and livestock production are less vulnerable to production variability due to weather and climate change.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentThe main vulnerabilities of farming are the low profitability of production and the share of direct income support in farmers' income. Low profitability does not allow for investment in risk management measures, and the high share of direct income support in farmers' income does not necessarily encourage risk management measures. For example, the low level of crop insurance leaves the risk of crop damage mainly to farmers. At present, there is practically only one insurance company offering crop insurance, but demand is low. In addition, investment in drought systems is largely unprofitable at present. As stated in Finland's CAP plan 2023-2027, "once the basic conditions are in place, it will be possible to achieve other important primary production objectives". This also applies to adapting to the adverse effects of climate change and benefiting from the positive effects of climate change.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentClimate change is projected to improve crop productivity in Finland if the rise in temperature is moderate, and if the adaptation measures are implemented in a timely manner. Due to the longer thermal growing season, higher 300 6 Vulnerability assessment, climate change impacts and adaptation measures accumulated temperature sum and milder overwintering conditions, the current cash crops are cultivated further north, and many novel crops may be introduced in cultivation. However, possible increases in the variability of climatic conditions within and between seasons, more frequent extreme weather events, and increased risks of disease and pest outbreaks may cause uncertainties for agricultural production. Variation in precipitation within a growing season may further increase and cause substantial challenge for the sustainable development of agricultural systems. Early summer droughts may become more frequent and interfere with crop growth and yield formation, while increasing rains outside the growing season may put soils and their functionality at risk. It may also increase the leaching of pesticides and nutrients into the water systems, which are particularly vulnerable, as a third of the field parcels in Finland are next to waterways. The risk of animal diseases may also increase, although it is expected to remain relatively low in the future. Diseases associated with the poor quality of water may become more common. All these potential changes call for early and powerful adaptation measures to reduce risks induced by climate so that society can benefit from the opportunities.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The institutional set up for assessing climate vulnerability and risks is based on work by research institutes and universities that carry out research on climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Vulnerabilities have also been assessed in sector-specific adaptation plans.

The national climate panel has been established based on the Climate Act. It is an expert panel that brings together high level researchers on climate change and it also has some resources to carry out synthesis work.

The Government’s analysis, assessment and research activities is a funding instrument supporting policy relevant analyses that has funded focused projects exploring aspect of climate change and assessments of vulnerability and risks. In addition, the Strategic Research Council and the Academy of Finland have funded several projects exploring adaptation to climate change.

The monitoring of climate change risks and impacts is integrated into the monitoring activities of the research institutes. Cuts in the resources available for monitoring of e.g. natural resources and biodiversity have created challenges (Peltonen-Sainio et. al 2018).
The National Monitoring Group of the National Adaptation Plan was appointed in 2015, and in 2019 and 2020 the group was reappointed with an updated mandate and broadening membership. The mandate of the group expired at the end of 2022. The group was responsible for implementation, monitoring and communication relating to the NAP. The group was chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and its members represent relevant ministries, national agencies, research institutes and regional and local actors. In total more than 20 key stakeholders are represented in the group that meets 4-5 times each year.

The new NAP, adopted in 2022, sets a target of systematic adaptation monitoring that supports the development of activities The NAP includes various measures which aim at improving adaptation monitoring.
In 2021, a report study devoted to improving in particular the regional authorities‘ capability of monitoring and guiding environmental impact assessment procedures was published. The report explores the current practices and challenges of environmental impact assessment procedures and, as appropriate, environmental assessment of plans and programmes (strategic environmental assessments) in the assessment of climate impacts.

The report presents checklists for different types of projects that will help the authorities in the guidance and supervision of climate impact assessments. The lists address climate impacts from the perspective of both the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. They identify direct and indirect impacts of the projects on emissions and carbon sinks, and the heat, flood, storm, drought and biological risks that climate change may cause to different types of projects.

The report concludes that the consistency of the assessments could be improved by drawing attention to matters such as the time span of climate impacts, emission trends set as the target and adaptation objectives, uncertainties, and possibilities to lessen impacts that are contrary to the mitigation and adaptation objectives. (Hildén et al. 2021)
There is no single national disaster risk management framework in Finland, but there are legislative government resolutions, various strategies and programmes that together form the necessary preparedness of society to various disasters. National and regional risk assessments create the basis for preparedness for different administrative branches and various actors, as well as helping to identify development needs and supporting prioritisation. Each actor assesses risks more specifically in the context of their tasks and activities and in compliance with the legislation applicable to their activities.

Climate change impacts, preparedness and adaptation are integrated in the DRM legislation and strategies, incl. the Emergency Powers Act, Rescue Act, the Act on Security of Supply; the Security Strategy for Society 2017 (updated in 2023) and the Government Report on Internal Security. In 2023, climate change impacts were included in the National Risk Assessment.
Many research institutes monitor and collect climate change risks and impacts data. Challenges have been encountered due to more limited access to data or cuts in the resources available for monitoring of e.g. natural resources and biodiversity.

FMI has a weather and climate impact database which contains eight different impact data sources (air traffic, maritime and land area rescue missions, traffic accidents etc.).

Syke collects flood damage information annually from the largest insurance companies. Damages are reported as total annual damage without location, date or flood type.

Natural Resources institute Finland is responsible for large repertoire of monitoring and inventories including those targeted to either utilised habitats or utilised species.
The objective of the Finnish Climate Act and the climate policy planning system based on the Act is to contribute to ensuring that national measures are taken to adapt to climate change by promoting climate change resilience and the management of climate risks.

The starting point of Finland’s adaptation policy is that adaptation is integrated into the normal planning and activities of administrative branches and sectors.

The three current priorities of the Finnish national adaptation activities are

    1) Society’s actors have a strong will to adapt to climate change.
    2) Society’s actors have access to efficient means to assess, prevent and manage the climate change-related risks to nature as well as society.
    3) Society’s actors have the capacity and capability to prevent, prepare for and manage the climate change-related risks to nature as well as society.
Finland is likely to experience greater than average warming due to its northern location. Until now, climate extremes and weather have not, however, been disastrous, and some areas have also benefitted. As a consequence, climate change induced risks and adaptation needs have not been recognized in all sectors.

Based on a recent adaptation policy evaluation, some of the main challenges related to adaptation are:
   - Coordinated and comprehensive preparation of and decision-making on adaptation action based on continuous monitoring and impact assessment are still in the process of taking shape.
   - Statutory obligations and concrete adaptation targets are absent from many sectors: therefore, authorities are only able to encourage actors to adapt.
   - Labour shortage in the healthcare and social welfare sector and rescue services as well as the maintenance backlog of infrastructure, such as the road network and water services.
   - The shortage of human and budget resources allocated to implementation makes it difficult in many sectors to develop and implement new adaptation measures.
   - The development of actual adaptation action has been largely based on individual projects and low resources. The lack of permanent staff knowledgeable about climate change adaptation is reflected in short-termism in activities.
   - Many sectors have targets and measures that are not recognised as adaptation. This causes difficulties in monitoring adaptation activity and measuring performance. The fragmentation of adaptation action hampers learning, which results in inefficiency.
   - Responsibilities and chains of actions relating to adaptation are in part complex, which is something that municipalities and regional authorities in particular have regarded as a challenge.
   - General climate change data is abundantly available, but local, sector-specific and solution-oriented applied knowledge or expertise is not available in all respects.
   - The lack of systematic monitoring data on adaptation activities makes it difficult to assess the impacts and effectiveness of adaptation measures.
The objective of the Finnish Climate Act and the climate policy planning system based on the Act is to contribute to ensuring that national measures are taken to adapt to climate change by promoting climate change resilience and the management of climate risks.

The starting point of Finland’s adaptation policy has for long been that adaptation is integrated into the normal planning and activities of administrative branches and sectors. Consequently, in addition to the national adaptation plan, adaptation is strengthened and implemented under several administrative branch-specific plans and sector-specific regulation. Plans include

- The Action Plan for the Adaptation to Climate Change of the Environmental Administration 2022 was adopted in 2016.
- Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry adaptation plan (2011, revision ongoing)
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2021
- Ministry of Defence 2023

Furthermore, adaptation has been integrated into broader climate/environmental policy programmes in other sectors, including transport and communications.

The vision of the Finnish national adaptation activities is formulated in the NAP2030: wellbeing, prosperity, safety and security in a changing climate.

The three revised priorities of the Finnish national adaptation activities have been derived from the vision adopted for NAP2030. The goals specify in more detail the adaptation objective included in the Climate Act with regard to strengthening climate change resilience and the management of climate risks. The goals are
     1) Society’s actors have a strong will to adapt to climate change.
     2) Society’s actors have access to efficient means to assess, prevent and manage the climate change-related risks to nature as well as society.
     3) Society’s actors have the capacity and capability to prevent, prepare for and manage the climate change-related risks to nature as well as society.

To meet these goals, actions are prescribed in ten main themes:

Theme 1 National-level strategic planning and foresight

Theme 2 Comprehensive security and general security of supply

Theme 3 Food and nutrition security

Theme 4 Infrastructure and the built environment

Theme 5 Use and management of renewable natural resources, biodiversity, nature-based solutions and drought risk management

Theme 6 Health protection and promotion

Theme 7 Cultural heritage and the cultural environment

Theme 8 Climate risk management at the regional and municipal levels

Theme 9 International cooperation

Theme 10 Knowledge base, communication and monitoring

Furthermore, 24 goals

Furthermore, the NAP2030 includes actions for the coordination, follow-up and evaluation of its implementation. The Plan describes the actors responsible for the actions and their implementation, along with timeframes resources when they are known, or if additional resources are needed.

Budget: 1) according to public finance plans and state budgets, 2) by using existing resources and funding as much as possible, e.g. CAP funding and national subsidy schemes (e.g forestry, transport), 3) EU funding (strategic EU LIFE project, approx. 20 million, under preparation, regional EU funds), 4) climate actions of developing countries are supported with development cooperation funds and as part of foreign and development policy. Implementation of measures varies. Earliest start in 2023, finishes latest by 2030.
In water resources sector climate change has been integrated to the implementation of EUs water framework and flood directives, national dam safety legislation, water supply site risk assessment and review process of water course regulation permits. The selection and prioritisation of measures proposed in the 2nd flood risk management plans and 3rd river basin management plans include estimation of climate resilience of different strategies and measures. The Finnish Environment Institute has produced preliminary storm water flood maps for municipalities’ storm water risk assessments and together with regional ELY-centres prepared flood maps to enhance preparedness and take into account in land use planning. Methodology for assessment of drought impacts on water resources and water sufficiency has been developed and pilot for regional drought management plan was carried out in 2020. Lake and reservoir regulations require reassessment due to seasonal changes in water levels and discharges and regulation permits may need to be changed to adapt to these changes. Dam safety legislation requires the estimation of the design floods for classified dams. The climate change affects the magnitudes of the design floods and it should be taken into account in the estimation of the design floods in the watersheds, where the floods are expected to increase.

Climate change impacts have not previously been systematically included in the selection and prioritisation of flood risk management measures in Finland. For the 2nd planning cycle, a framework was developed to evaluate adaptability of the planned and proposed measures to the expected changes in climate and land use. This nationally consistent approach helps to identify robust measures that are applicable in a variety of conditions and include regional data for flood risk managers. Similar approach has been adopted for river basin management. Regionally tailored data on hydrological impacts was found useful in planning and communicating with stakeholders.

The National Forest Strategy extending to 2035 was completed at the end of 2022. The renewed strategy includes, in a more up-to-date manner, a comprehensive approach to sustainable development and the role of forests in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Climate resilient forestry is an integral part of the National Forest Strategy 2035. The main goal is to maintain and improve forests‘ resilience by integrating climate change considerations in forest management. This is achieved by improving knowledge on and practical tools for the enhancement of carbon storage and sequestration in forests as well as on the impacts of forests and forest management on climate change adaptation. Increased financing for research as well as updated legislation and guidelines on forests and climate change also contribute to improved risk management carried out by forest owners, operators and authorities.

Several projects funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on forest damage management, prevention and preparedness have been ongoing in 2021-2022. Work has also continued on updating the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry's forest damage contingency plan. An updated Forest Damage Act entered into force at the beginning of 2022. Shortly afterwards, new updates to the Act were prepared and will enter into force as soon as possible during 2023.

Adaptation is part of standard sectoral policies, plans and programmes in the transport sector. The Ministry of Transport and Communications will incorporate climate change adaptation into its strategic guidance documents, such as the national 12-year transport system plan, which will be updated each government term. The Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, which operates under the Ministry of Transport and Communications, is responsible for road, railway and waterway construction and maintenance. One of the Agency's challenges for infrastructure management is to plan required adaptation measures for the transport network due to the impacts of climate change. This involves examining the functional limits, resilience and vulnerability of existing structures and technical systems.

The Finnish parliament approved the new Construction Act on 01/03/2023. The new Construction Act will improve the effectiveness of regulation, particularly in order to mitigate and adapt to climate change and to promote the circular economy. The Construction Act will enter into force on 1 January 2025. Preparations for the reform of the Land use and Building Act continue, and one of the key objectives of the reform has been to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

Another important method for steering land use in regard to adaptation has been the national land use guidelines (Government Decision 2008), one of the main focus areas of which is adaptation. According to the Land Use and Building Act, the national land use guidelines must be taken into account in regional level planning, municipal land use planning and in the operations of the authorities. In 2014, the Land Use and Building Act was amended with provisions on stormwater management. Increasing rain levels have been taken into consideration through the issuing of a decree on the preparation of moisture control plans in construction in 2014. Urban flood management is also covered by the Flood Risk Management Act (620/2010).

In 2023, climate change impacts and risks were included in the National Risk Assessment, made in accordance with the EU Civil protection mechanism, by describing the diversity of weather and climate risks and the related challenges society, and by including weather and climate risks in the sectorial threat models. There is no single national disaster risk reduction strategy in Finland but there is legislation, government resolutions, different strategies and programmes that form together the necessary preparedness of the society to the different kind of disasters. Relevant policy documents: Security Strategy for Society, National Risk Assessment, Internal Security Strategy, The national targets for the rescue services for 2025.

The National Risk Assessment 2023 examines climate change as a driver of change in the security environment. Climate change is examined in various threat scenarios and disruptions linked to other drivers. Risks and conditions vary in different parts of country. Management of weather and climate risks is of high relevance in regional risk assessments, where impacts of climate change have been identified clearly. The risks assessments create the framework for the types of risks that different administrative branches and other actors must prepare for, and helps to identify development needs and support prioritisation. Furthermore, each actor assesses its risks more specifically.

The new national climate and energy strategy takes into account and coordinates the Government Programme’s energy and climate policies, the long and medium term climate change policy plans referred to in the Climate Change Act (2015) and the EU’s energy and climate targets for 2030 as well as the Energy Union Strategy. It takes into account also security aspects as appropriate. The strategy includes reviews in line with five dimensions of the EU Energy Union: low-carbon economy, including renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy markets, energy security, and research, innovation and competitiveness.
One of the objectives of the Climate Act (432/2022) and the climate policy planning system under the Act is to ensure justice and fairness in the context of climate measures. The justice-related objective can be regarded as including procedural and substantive aspects under the Climate Act. The procedural aspect would mean that the process to prepare a plan is just and transparent. The substantive aspect is based on the fundamental and human rights obligations that are binding on Finland. The new European Climate Law also underlines that the transition to a more sustainable society should be just.

According to the Finnish Climate Change Panel, the social justice dimension of climate measures covers five main elements. In the adaptation context, distributive justice focuses on issues including how risks related to climate change are distributed and how the benefits and disadvantages of adaptation measures are distributed between groups of people and livelihoods and between regions.

Recognitional justice considers the sociocultural differences between people, groups of people and regions, their different positions in society, and specific needs and vulnerabilities born through these differences. The aim is to avoid the dominance of certain sociocultural groups and to advance the realisation of the rights of those who are in vulnerable positions.

Procedural justice is about how the needs of different groups are taken into account in the decision-making process. The two final elements are global (or cosmopolitan) justice and the human rights perspective, which mean possibilities for a good life for all, the acknowledgment of different needs and participation by all. Justice issues have not been assessed as extensively in the adaptation policy context as in the mitigation policy context.

The Finnish Climate Change Panel has pointed out that climate policy cannot mend all existing inequalities. Many of the factors increasing the vulnerability of groups of people to climate change mentioned in the assessment of risks and vulnerabilities found in section 2.2 below, such as socioeconomic status, cannot be solved by adaptation policy or, consequently, by NCCAP 2030. However, when planning measures and allocating resources for climate change adaptation, it is essential to strive to prevent current inequalities from worsening or new ones being created without adequate compensation.

During the preparation of NAP2030, consultations with a broad range of stakeholder representatives, including vulnerable groups such as the youth, the elderly, disabled and the indigenous Sami people were held:
• Digital Panel for young people in June 2022
• Meeting with councils for people with disabilities
• Meeting with councils for older people
• Meeting with the Sámi Parliament

NAP2030 includes a measure which aims to develop the assessment of fairness and justness of adaptation measures. Issues relating to fairness and justness of adaptation measures were examined during the process to prepare NAP2030, with methodological challenges discovered in relation to them. Development needs (including methods development and assessment development) and opportunities to solve them must be assessed more specifically on the basis of the results of ongoing projects.

The Finnish Climate Panel has had a project on justice in climate change policy. The results will be used in guiding the implementation of the NAP2030.

The Finnish Environment Institute is involved in a project ‘Solidarity in climate change adaptation policies: towards more socio-spatial justice in the face of multiple risks’ (SOLARIS) which evaluates the design of (policy) instruments, local governance and implementation of on-going projects in terms of fairness in flood risk management in Finland. The project has organized engagement events with the local population facing significant flood risks to gain a better understanding of social vulnerabilities to floods and how to better address them. The results of the project will provide guidance on how to improve the engagement of vulnerable groups in flood risk management.

Natural Resources Institute Finland coordinates a project: Youth and indigenous peoples' involvement in climate change adaptation in the Arctic and Barents region (ACAF). The project aims to promote adaptation to climate change through networking and research in the food, tourism, and forestry sectors in the Arctic region, with a particular focus on the Barents region. Specific attention will be paid to 1) indigenous peoples' and indigenous youth participation and involvement in the design and practical implementation of climate change adaptation measures and the use of traditional knowledge to support adaptation actions; 2) involving and engaging young people living in the Barents region in the design and practical implementation of climate change adaptation actions.
The private sector plays a significant role in developing climate change preparedness and adaptation solutions in Finland. Also the identification of opportunities relating to new technologies in particular must be developed in cooperation with private-sector actors. In addition, operating models will be required to strengthen the adaptation action of private-sector actors in the various sectors.

In accordance with NAP2030, dialogue with the private sector will be strengthened and well-functioning means of cooperation will be explored, and the incorporation and strengthening of the climate change adaptation perspective will be strengthened as part of tried and tested cooperation forms. Furthermore, in accordance with the Programme of Prime Minister Sanna Marin’s Government, sector-specific low-carbon roadmaps have been drawn up. In conjunction with updating current or drawing up new roadmaps, in addition to climate change mitigation, assessments will be made of the needs and opportunities of businesses as regards both managing the adverse consequences of climate change to businesses and working life and benefitting from opportunities provided by climate change.

The NAP2030 also aims to improve funding possibilities for innovative adaptation solutions by assessing the existing funding opportunities for developing and introducing adaptation innovations for businesses. Examples include the Finnish Climate Fund, which focuses on combatting climate change, boosting low-carbon industry and promoting digitalisation.

Private sector is included also in various sectorial strategies and work which address climate resilience an adaptation. For instance in the preparation of the National Forest Strategy 2035, various stakeholders, including the private sector, have been widely involved. The aim in the strategic work was to coordinate the regional interests and the needs of different stakeholders in a way that the strategic objects extensively benefit the forestry sector, e.g. by strengthening knowledge-based management and competence in the forest sector. In addition, several private sector forestry operators have been financed through different projects of various national programs and funding calls (e.g. Catch the Carbon Programme).

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported
The government research institutes deliver the basic monitoring and evaluation of climate impacts, vulnerabilities, risks and adaptive capacity through their general weather/climate monitoring (FMI), hydrological monitoring and flood risk management (Syke), monitoring of natural resources and biodiversity (Luke, Syke) and monitoring of health (THL). These monitoring activities are based on standard approaches in their respective areas.

Several projects funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on forest damage management, prevention and preparedness have been carried out in 2021-2022. Through simulation and piloting, the projects have produced forest management, game management and land use solutions that better take into account forest damage and forest fire risks, and the multifunctionality of forests. In addition, project activities have developed a collaborative model for the control of scab and root-knot weevil threats, explored the potential of using data from harvesting machines to identify and control root-knot weevil, and created the conditions for risk management methods for scab threats and predictive models for changes in distribution using remote sensing. To disseminate this knowledge, the projects have produced guides on pest information and organised training and events on the subject. Work on updating the forest damage contingency plan has also been launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Project activities have also contributed to the development of the capacity of wildfire and forest firefighting by scaling up static fire maps to a national level.

A FINSCAPES –project aims to develop new integrated scenarios of socioeconomic and climate change. In close collaboration with stakeholders of key societally relevant systems, it co-produces national and regional socioeconomic narratives as extensions of global shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). A set of national and regional future climate projections will be prepared, with new analysis on extreme weather and compound events and preparation of climate and impact storylines.

Projects related to monitoring of health have for example improved the treatment of key uncertainties in climate change impact, adaptation and vulnerability analysis, with a focus on Finland and two sectors, agriculture and human health (PLUMES). The impacts of climate change on the frequency and intensity of heat waves in Finland as well as the the predictability of prolonged warm periods are examined in HEATCLIM –project. The relationship between weather variables and health are the studied in CHAMPS through data on hospital admissions, sickness absences and mortality. The risks arising from vector-borne diseases in relation to climate change are currently also being examined (VECCLIM). Cost-efficient intervention strategies in the Finnish building stock are studied in BALANCE –project by modelling the effects of climate change and energy efficiency interventions on the carbon footprint, on moisture damage risk and other effects on indoor air quality, on building occupants’ health, and on associated costs. The impact of the changes on children’s nutrition, the climate impact of the diet, and the cost of food services will be assessed in an ongoing project, which aims to develop a sustainable model for food system that reduces climate impacts of the food system in early childhood education and care (FOODStep). The model can later be applied to Finland’s climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy.

In 2023, the Finnish Environment Institute (Syke) will conduct a project that will evaluate the current use of indicators and identify development needs of indicator use in Finland to strengthen monitoring of climate impacts, vulnerabilities and risks.
Flood risk management is the most advanced in terms of monitoring outcomes and effectiveness of adaptation plans and measures. A central guiding document is the EU Floods Directive as part of which Finland reports on indicators and other related information biennially. The regional measures proposed in the management plans have an estimated implementation schedule and their implementation is monitored annually through the Flood Information System. The indicator assesses the proportion of completed measures out of the total number of proposed measures that can be completed.

For other hazards and sectors, systematic monitoring of adaptation action is still evolving. So far, the monitoring and assessment of adaptation action have focused on monitoring progress made in policy measures. Monitoring of adaptation measures is an important part of the latest national climate change adaptation plan. In 2023, the Finnish Environment Institute (Syke) will undertake a project which will assess the indicators available for monitoring of the implementation of climate change adaptation actions.

The project is the first step in the implementation of the measure ‘Updating the indicator collection supporting adaptation monitoring and expanding the utilisation of indicator data in adaptation monitoring’ outlined in the recent NAP. The NAP outlines that by 2026, Finland has set up a monitoring system for climate change adaptation and ensured the conditions for its implementation. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry will be responsible for the overall operation of the national monitoring system.

National adaptation reporting is done through the Annual Climate Report, which is part of the Finnish climate policy planning system under the Climate Act. The Act requires that the report includes “to the extent necessary, an estimate of the adequacy and effectiveness of the adaptation measures contained in the adaptation plan [referred to in section 10 of the Act] and, if necessary, a report on the implementation of the planned adaptation measures in individual administrative branches and regionally”. The process is led by the Ministry of the Environment.

In 2022, a comprehensive evaluation of the national adaptation policy with particular emphasis on the National Adaptation Plan 2022 was published. The results of the evaluation were used in the preparation of the NAP2030. The Climate Act requires during the parliamentary terms when there is no obligation to prepare a national adaptation plan, the up-to-dateness of the plan in force and the need for new measures must be assessed. Accordingly, the up-to-dateness of the NAP2030 and the need for any additional measures will be assessed in a mid-term review in 2026.
In 2018-2019, a mid-term review was conducted to assess the status of implementation of the NAP and to identify needs for development in order to achieve the stated objectives (Mäkinen et al. 2020). In 2022, a comprehensive evaluation of Finnish adaptation policy was published.

Since the mid-term evaluation, several legislative reforms and plans have formulated the objectives of adaptation activities for different sectors. Most of the objectives are general in that they state the need to adapt or prepare for climate change, but do not set quantitative goals, such as limiting the amount of flood damage or the extent of forest fires or reducing the number of cases of illness caused by heatwaves

Adaptation to climate change has been included as an objective in the government’s proposal for the new Nature Conservation Act (HE 76/2022). In the ongoing legislation reform of the Rescue Act (379/2011), the aim is to make the law more reflective of its operating environment, where climate change has been identified as a central megatrend. The impacts of climate change on comprehensive security have also been taken into account in the Government’s decision on the Objectives of the Security of Supply 1048/2018, which supplements Act on the Measures Necessary to Secure Security of Supply (1390/1992).

The water management sector is undergoing a National Water Supply and Sewage reform (2020–2022), which focuses on securing a reliable operation of water supply services and better future risk management, for example, as regards to climate change (MAF 2021a). In addition, the Water protection programme (2019–2023) includes several cross-sectoral goals that serve climate change adaptation and preparedness. In contrast, in the Programme of Measures of Finland’s Marine Strategy (2022–2027) there are no specific objectives related to climate change, even though climate change is considered a precondition for achieving other necessary developments.

Specific adaptation needs have not yet been recognised in all areas of legislation that could be affected by climate change. For example, in the ongoing reform of the Mining Act (621/2011) the goal is to improve the level of environmental protection, but thus far adaptation to climate change has not been addressed explicitly. Instead, a general reference has been made to the Environmental Protection Act, Section15, (1166/2018) that specifies an obligation to be prepared, requiring operators to draw up preparedness plans based on risk assessment (Vääriskoski-Kaukanen 2016, Vihervuori 2019).

One of the goals of the previous National Adaptation Plan was to increase and improve citizens’ awareness of climate change and adaptation activities. To improve the availability of reliable climate information, the update of Climateguide.fi-portal was initiated. In addition, in accordance with the Climate Act, Government submits an Annual Climate Report to the Parliament, which also evaluates the implementation of the Adaptation Plan. Wider awareness and dialogue about the key issues of climate policy, including adaptation, have been maintained by the expert reports and statements prepared by the Climate Panel.

The evaluation also aimed at assessing financial resources for adaptation and climate resilience. When evaluating financial resources, the difficulty to evaluate the funds directly aimed at adaptation becomes again evident. They are not necessarily earmarked at the budget level.

Financial resources are both permanent (state budget framework) and temporary (projects, separate funding mechanisms). The amount of money allocated to adaptation depends, among other things, on the research projects ordered by the Government’s analysis, assessment and research activities. During 2020–2022, an average of four projects were implemented each year with funding between 100 and 300 k€ per project. Funding is further allocated to adaptation related research, surveys and innovations through other funding mechanisms. In some ministries, budget funds are directed to advisory work. Funding is also directed to salary costs, training, and communication. For example, four ministries jointly contribute to the funding of the Climate Guide –portal. The climate roadmap work of ELY centres is also supported, and money is allocated to, for example, the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and ELY centres.

The Action Plan for the Adaptation to Climate Change of the Environmental Administration 2022 was adopted in 2016. The Action Plan contributed to the implementation of the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2022 (Government Resolution of 20 November 2014). In 2020, a final review of the action plan was published. The results show that the implementation of almost all measures described in the Action Plan for which a timetable had been set has progressed as planned and they have been completed. In terms of the steering instruments, progress has been made in taking the needs for adaptation into account, but the consistency of the guidance should be further improved. There is more information on the possible impacts of climate change, but work needs to be done in terms of the planning and knowledge base of adaptation measures. We still do not know enough about the consequences of changes in ecosystem services to livelihoods and ways of life that depend on them.
A guiding principle for implementing adaptation policies since in 2005 has been mainstreaming of adaptation into regular planning processes and activities in different sectors. As a result, specific funding earmarked for adaptation is not routinely identifiable and is difficult to track in state budgets, since actions regarding adaptation are mostly done with basic funding as a part of official duties both in national and subnational level. Funding that contributes towards adaptation can be identified in certain sectors.

For instance, the Ministry of the Interior reported that in their administrative branch there is no earmarked funding to increase climate resilience and adaptation but e.g spending on rescue operations linked to forest fires and other extreme weather events can be linked to adaptation. National spending on wild fire and forest fire surveillance by aerial patrolling and satellite monitoring were in 2021 approx. 1 172 000 €, and in 2022 approx. 563 000 €. The importance of adaptation and the need to prepare for catastrophic events has been recognized and measures to improve resilience and climate adaptation are part of basic funding in the sector. The same applies to the Ministry of Defence.

An example of mainstreaming of funding is through allocation of state budget to national agencies operating under steering from ministries. For example, the Ministry of Transportation and Communications steers authorities and actors to implement adaptation as a part of their official duties. The authorities include Finnish Transport and Communications Agency, Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency, Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment and Finnish Meteorological Institute. The Ministry requires agencies under its steering to provide information and research data on climate change impacts and to increase levels of preparedness and adaptation.
A substantial amount of funding related to climate adaptation is not earmarked, since measures and actions regarding climate change adaptation are mostly done with basic funding as a part of official duties both in national and subnational level, and some funds are only allocated when needed. The share of spending used to support climate adaptation in the sectors cannot be reported in exact terms, as the ‘adaptation component’ of resources generally cannot be identified in monetary terms. The following examples are not exhaustive and do not represent all of the funds directed to support climate change adaptation in the mentioned sectors, but rather provide some examples of recent adaptation spending.

In the transport sector, funding for climate change adaptation has not been earmarked in the general government budget allocation. Instead, adaptation is part of normal operations, and in particular in the maintenance and improvements of the transport network (incl. roads, railroads and waterways) to endure changing weather conditions e.g. heavy snowfall and rain, icing and floods.

In civil protection and emergency management sector, funding has been allocated towards different projects in which emergency systems have been developed. For instance, a MARISKA-project to enable the introduction of a mapping service in the emergency services that indicates the risks of wildfires and supports firefighting work was funded. The project cost was approx. 330 000 euro. The project experimented with scaling up the static fire maps developed in an earlier project to the whole country.

In the water resources sector, examples of funding that contribute significantly to adaptation include spending on flood risk management and prevention, automation of groundwater monitoring systems, water management in agriculture and forestry, and renovation of water supply infrastructure. Spending on improvements to water supply infrastructure is typically not allocated from national budgets but covered by municipal and water supply operator funds. For instance, a 145 000 euro project to improve adaptation in water services was funded. Also projects to strengthen adaptation in agriculture were funded, worth approx. 300 000 euros.

In municipalities, amounts of spending on adaptation cannot currently be assessed. State funds are allocated to municipalities but they are free to decide on how they spent their state funds, which are routinely supplemented by their own budgets. At the municipal level, funds are directed towards land use planning, mapping flood areas and development of storm water systems.
Adaptation to climate change is included in the objectives of the new Nature Conservation Act (9/2023). Climate change relates, for example, to the proposed regulations on nature conservation planning and the nature conservation information system. To account for climate change, a nature reserve referred to in Section 43 of the Act could be established in the future also if the area is of particular importance to the adaptation of habitat types and species to the impacts of climate change. In addition, a new national Biodiversity strategy is currently being developed, in which reducing climate change impacts and vulnerabilities to climate change is emphasized.

After the mid-term evaluation of the previous National Adaptation Plan, the social and health services sector has compiled the sector’s first adaptation plan, which creates a basis for developing policies and regulation. The plan discusses the risks related to the protection and maintenance of the population’s health and cross-border impacts, which concern especially the security of supply. Actual sector-specific legislation has not been enacted in recent years. In the sector, activities promoting adaptation are presented especially in the separate legislation on environmental health and in the Emergency Powers Act (1080/1991).

In addition, the Water Protection Programme (2019– 2023) has set several cross-sectoral goals: reduction of agricultural nutrient leaching, development of water resources management in agriculture and forestry, restoration of water bodies, stormwater management, and funding of research and development. Many of the goals serve climate change adaptation and related contingency planning.

In addition, the Flood Risk Management Plans (MAF 2021b) for 2022–2027 were updated during 2021. During 2022, new regional water management action programs and plans was also compiled.

The new Adaptation Action Programme for the natural resources sector will be completed during 2023. In the Climate Change Plan for the Land Use Sector (MISU), climate change is taken into account. The Plan’s measures must promote mitigation, adaptation and safeguarding biodiversity. With the research funding for the measures, an extensive ”Catch the carbon” framework programme has been launched.

Adaptation is also included in the goals of the national CAP plan for agriculture.

In the forestry sector, the revision of the Forest Damages Prevention Act (1168/2021) is a key means to promote sector’s adaptation goals. A recent example of a renewal of legislation is setting an earlier dead line, because of the warming climate, for the removal of timber from the forest to prevent insect damage to the growing trees. With the latest revision of the Forest Damages Prevention Act (198/2023) coming into force in 2023, compensation mechanism of costs and damages arising from preventing extensive forest damages will be prolonged.

The progress in these areas contribute to a general reduction of vulnerabilities and risks, but it is not possible to quantify the extent of the reductions. There have been no disastrous climate/weather based impacts. However, weather extremes cause, for example, economic impacts in the current climate in several sectors (agriculture, forestry, electricity distribution), but an exact quantification has not yet been possible (Tuomenvirta et al. 2018)
Adaptive capacity has generally increased through the increased awareness of possible climate change impacts. Concrete actions have been taken for example in the built environment both at the level of regulation and in the practical implementation of, for example, storm water management in built areas (Mäkinen and Hildén 2020).

In water resources and flood management, the capacity to adjust water flow and to react to flood risks has been increased by setting up a dedicated flood centre run jointly by SYKE and FMI.

Flood risk maps are also being produced for areas subject to potential fluvial or sea surge floods. The flood maps of coastal flooding are currently being updated. Water levels are now defined according to three different SSP-scenarios for year 2020 (present situation), 2050 and 2100 for floods of various size.

The Emergency Powers Act requires all administrative sectors to prepare for emergencies and recognises climate change as one relevant threat. In the water management sector, a National Water Supply and Sewage reform (2020–2022) is underway, and attention has been paid to securing operation of water supply services and managing risks better than at present, for example, when the impacts of climate change intensify (MAF 2021a). In energy distribution the Act on Electricity Markets (588/2013) requires the network operators to prepare for extremes and also to compensate users for failures to maintain distribution of electricity. This has made network operators invest in ways to reduce the risk of distribution failures due to for example storms.

In the agricultural sector farmers have diversified crop rotations by introducing novel crops for cultivation, shifting cultivation of crops northwards and even substantially expanding field areas under minor crops like pea, faba bean, caraway, oilseed rape. These measures not only improve long term sustainability and diversify agricultural land use, but also support improvements in adaptive capacity and resiliency of agricultural systems.

In late 2020 the Ministry of Agriculture in cooperation with stakeholder groups participating in the National Monitoring Group on climate change adaptation started publishing a newsletter dedicated to climate change adaptation. The thematic newsletter was published 4-5 times in 2021-2022, and each letter contained articles and recent reseach results related to adaptation. Anyone can subscribe to the letter, and each letter was be promoted in social media in order to gain a broad audience. Furthermore, the Finnish Meteorological Institute publishes a monthly e-magazine (Ilmastokatsaus) on weather and climate.

Finland has received funding from the European Commission for two projects related to responding to climate-related events, mainly flooding and forest fires: High-Capacity Pumping module and Ground Forest Fire-Fighting using Vehicles. The projects received in total EUR 1.8 Million.
The long term aim of the previous NAP was to ensure that Finnish society has the capacity to manage the risks associated with climate change and adapt to changes in the climate.

The following objectives set the priorities:

A. Adaptation has been integrated into the planning and activities of both the societal sectors and their actors.

B. The actors have access to the necessary climate change assessment and management methods.

C. Research and development work, communication and education and training have enhanced the adaptive capacity of society, developed innovative solutions and improved citizens’ awareness on climate change adaptation.

The comprehensive evaluation of Finnish Adaptation policy concluded that
• The general awareness of the impacts and risks of climate change and the need to adapt has strengthened and is at a comparatively good level in Finland. Climate change has been widely recognised as an issue in legislation and other guidance.
• Regional analyses of adaptation across sectors have become more common due to the activities of Regional Councils and Centers for Economic Development, Transport and Environment (ELY). Regional analyses can support the implementation of adaptation measures also in those municipalities that do not have sufficient resources of their own to plan adaptation activities.
   - The need to plan adaptation measures has been identified, especially in cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. Cities also use their networks to share good practices and develop ideas.
   - The adaptive capacity has strengthened in many administrative sectors with actions that generally improve preparedness for risks and various extreme conditions, although they are not always recognised as adaptation to climate change.
   - R&D activities have supported the development of adaptation activities, increased understanding of the challenges ahead and enabled the provision of climate services. For example, the Climateguide.fi portal and operation of the flood center (vesi.fi) offer versatile information for adaptation and preparedness. In addition, guidelines and guides have been prepared, for example, to assess the climate impacts of projects and legislation.

Furthermore, several legislative reforms and plans have formulated the objectives of adaptation activities for different sectors. Most of the objectives are general in that they state the need to adapt or prepare for climate change, but do not set quantitative goals, such as limiting the amount of flood damage or the extent of forest fires or reducing the number of cases of illness caused by heatwaves

Adaptation to climate change has been included as an objective in the government’s proposal for the new Nature Conservation Act (HE 76/2022). In the ongoing legislation reform of the Rescue Act (379/2011), the aim is to make the law more reflective of its operating environment, where climate change has been identified as a central megatrend. The impacts of climate change on comprehensive security have also been taken into account in the Government’s decision on the Objectives of the Security of Supply 1048/2018, which supplements Act on the Measures Necessary to Secure Security of Supply (1390/1992).
The identification of barriers was one of the evaluation criteria in the mid-term evaluation of the NAP (Mäkinen et al. 2020). It concluded that the most common barriers to implementing the NAP were inadequate identification of climate risks, low priority given to climate work and adaptation, a lack of financial resources, a lack of information and expertise, as well as the available information not being sufficiently applicable to practical work.

With the recent Climate Act (2022), particularly the financial barriers have been addressed to some extent. The government allocated new personnel resources both at the national level to the coordinating ministry, the ministry of agriculture and forestry, and to the regional level. A new Climate unit was also founded at the regional Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment, where also adaptation specialists will be hired during 2023. The aim of the unit is to support and strengthen regional adaptation work. Resources to strengthen the link between different levels in adaptation work and to make information on climate change impacts and possible adaptation measures available on sub-national levels have been allocated.

Insufficient awareness of the potential impacts of climate change is a barrier in particular to the integration of climate change adaptation in the sector planning of those sectors in which weather has so far had little effect on planning the activities, the health sector being a case in point. This barrier is being addressed by national sector specific planning. Progress in this respect is expected to improve also coordination and integration of adaptation, which by its nature is challenging (Russel et al. 2020).

Awareness of the importance of climate change adaptation has increased in recent years. This can be seen in the number of comments that were received for the national adaptation plan 2030 during its public consultation round, the new resources allocated at national and regional level, in increasing funding for adaptation for instance in the Innovative Finland (ERDF) EU programme, and the development of new sectorial adaptation plans, most notably the national defence sector.

However, there is still more work to be done. The national adaptation plan 2030 will aim at solving some of the barriers.
The Finnish Climate Act 2022 requires that the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan is accepted at least every second parliamentary term. The plan shall include, among others, an up-to-date assessment of risks and vulnerabilities.

Therefore, during the preparation of the recent adaptation plan, and up-to-date risk sectorial and cross-sectorial risk and vulnerability assessment; and an assessment of regional climate-related regional characteristics and vulnerabilities in Finland were undertaken. The assessment was used in the preparation and development of the adaptation measures in the NAP. Both of these will be published as reports in 2023.

Work in currently undergoing to develop a model for risk and vulnerability assessments that allows for continuous development and updates to the assessment. The model has not yet been put into practice, but forms a framework for ongoing development work within and across sectors.

The operational model also provides input for other reports and assessments that are required by, for example, the Climate Act, the Energy Union Governance Regulation of the EU, reporting on the planned implementation mechanism of the Sendai Framework, the EU Civil Protection Mechanism, the National Rescue Service Reform and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The revised Climate Change Act (423/2022) strengthens the general framework of adaptation with the obligation to promote climate resilience and sustainable development. In addition, according to the Act, the assessment of climate risks should include both sector and administrative sector-specific and cross-cutting evaluations, because harmful impacts of climate change appear across sectoral boundaries.

Moreover, a new content requirement for the development of National Adaptation Plans is that a regional risk assessment is to be carried out when necessary. The assessment should cover especially vulnerable sectors, ecosystems, groups and communities and identify adaptation measures that take place in different time spans. Efforts have been made to strengthen the strategic crosscutting nature of the Plan and the need to examine cross-border impacts has been emphasized. The obligation to produce climate plans at the municipal, subregional and regional level will be considered in a separate government proposal amending the Act (HE 27/2022 vp). The extension of the Climate Act’s planning system to include the land use sector also emphasises that the possible impacts on biodiversity must be taken into account when preparing climate policy plans (MoE 2021a). Strengthening biodiversity is a key action in terms of adaptation, and it creates opportunities for strengthening beneficial synergies.

Finland’s previous Climate Act from 2015 specified that a national adaptation plan should be drafted at least once in a decade. The revised Climate Act 2022 Section 10 specifies that the Government shall adopt a National Climate Change Adaptation Plan at least every second parliamentary term. The revised Act specifies that the following matters shall be presented in the adaptation plan:
1) up-to-date assessment of risks and vulnerabilities;
2) assessment of the adaptation in individual administrative branches, across the boundaries of administrative branches and on a regional basis as considered necessary;
3) measures to achieve the adaptation targets and estimate of their effectiveness.

The key adaptation priorities, formulated as objectives in the previous NAP 2022 were the following:

A. Adaptation has been integrated into the planning and activities of both the various sectors and their actors.

B. Actors have access to the necessary tools and methods for the assessment and management of climate risks.

C. Research and development work, communication, and education and training have enhanced adaptive capacity of the society, developed innovative solutions and improved citizens’ awareness on climate change adaptation.

The new climate change adaptation plan 2030, adopted by the government in December 2022, sets out reformulated goals for adaptation:
1) Society’s actors have a strong will to adapt to climate change.
2) Society’s actors have access to efficient means to assess, prevent and manage the climate change-related risks to nature as well as society.
3) Society’s actors have the capacity and capability to prevent, prepare for and manage the climate change-related risks to nature as well as society.

The Climate Act requires during the parliamentary terms when there is no obligation to prepare a plan, the up-to-dateness of the plan in force and the need for new measures must be assessed. Accordingly, the up-to-dateness of the NAP2030 and the need for any additional measures will be assessed in a mid-term review in 2026. The development of a new NAP will begin latest in 2029.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Not reported

Cooperation and experience

Finnish international development policy is grounded in the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. The main goals are to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities. Climate resilience is one of the cross-cutting objectives, mainstreamed in all activities. Finland supports adaptation to climate change through development cooperation at all levels: from international policy making to individual projects at grassroot level.

Finland is committed to the objectives of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, coordinated by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR). Finland reports on the indicators agreed upon in the strategy. Rather than having a one general separate strategy for disaster risk reduction based on the Sendai Framework, several national strategies and programmes add up to the necessary strategic preparedness for disasters of Finnish society.

To promote the implementation of the Sendai Framework, the Ministry of the Interior in 2021 re-activated a large-scale and cross-administrative cooperation network where different stakeholders are represented, among them non-governmental organisations, national agencies, representatives of the private sector. The related working group is tasked with promoting the exchange of general information concerning disaster risk management and to ensure the collection of sufficiently extensive and specific information on disaster risk management.

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Famework, including Target 8 on adaptation, will be implemented nationally through a national biodiversity strategy and action plan, to be developed in 2023.
The Finnish Environment Institute (Syke) is a member of the European Topic Centre on Climate Change and Adaptation (ETC CCA) of the European Environment Agency, and a member of the European Environment Agencies‘ interest group on climate change adaptation. Syke has contributed to reports and analyses in these capacities. Syke has also been involved in the strategic planning supporting JPI Climate and in several EU funded research projects focusing on climate change impact modelling and adaptation,

The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) participates actively in international co-operation, both in research and in consultancy. FMI supports hydro-meteorological institutes in various countries, especially in the global south, in capacity enhancement and the development of their meteorological services. FMI participates also in several international organisations and projects. Finland is a member in several meteorological and oceanographic organizations as well as in networks formed between institutes in Europe. The Nordic co-operation in meteorology has a long history and an important role in the development of weather services.

Finland is contributing to the Global Atmospheric Watch (http://www.wmo.int). Finland takes part in WMO climate activities mainly through the Commission for Climatology (CCl) and its Open Panel of CCl Experts (OPACE), especially climate data and data management.

Natural Resources Institute Finland participates to the European Environment Agency EIONET network with an expert in the adaptation group.

Finland is actively supporting and participating in adaptation science and knowledge development in the Arctic, Barents and the Baltic Sea region. The key mechanisms of cooperation are the regional councils (the Arctic Council, the Barents Euro-Arctic Council and the Council of the Baltic Sea States) and the Northern Dimension partnerships. Finland's participation in the multilateral regional cooperation is guided by the goals set in Finland’s strategy on Arctic policy, the EU policy for the Arctic, Finland’s Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, and the objectives of the Northern Dimension policy.

The appropriations allocated for cooperation in the Baltic Sea, Barents and Arctic Regions are administered by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The general principles guiding the use of this funding are set out in the policy on funding for cooperation in the Baltic Sea, Barents and Arctic regions in 2020–2023. In 2022, several projects related to climate change impacts and adaptation were funded using funding for cooperation in the Baltic Sea, Barents and Arctic regions: 1) a project to raise awareness of invasive alien species and the threat they pose to the fragile and unique Arctic wildlife in the Barents region of Finland, Sweden and Norway; 2) two projects on improved forest fire management; 3) a project on Youth and indigenous peoples’ involvement in climate change adaptation in the Arctic and Barents region with the objective to promote adaptation to climate change through networking and research in the food, tourism, and forestry sectors in the Arctic region, with a particular focus on the Barents region; 4) Arctic indigenous peoples' participation and knowledge co-creation and 5) The water cycle, sea ice melt, and their effects on the Arctic climate system.

Water expertise and development of internationally climate action relevant technical solutions are promoted that e.g. improve water efficiency and resilience of systems, including through synergies with research and innovation.

Finland has contributed to the European Climate and Health Observatory by sharing the Climate Change Adaptation Plan for the healthcare and social welfare sector. The Observatory is a joint initiative of the European Commission, the European Environment Agency and many other organisations that aims to support Europe in preparing for and adapting to the impacts of climate change on human health by providing access to relevant information and tools and fostering information exchange and cooperation between relevant actors. THL also actively participates in the International Association of Public Health Institutes (IANPHI) work on climate change and health.
Finland participates in the adaptation working groups under the Nordic Council of Ministers, and promotes adaptation in the Arctic and Barents Regions. The benefits of regional cooperation for Finland and its neighbouring areas include improved security and wellbeing, better state of the environment, lower level of harmful atmospheric emissions, as well as better health and improved business opportunities for people. Emphasis in the regional cooperation is on environmental and climate matters.

As part of regional transboundary cooperation, adaptation questions have been discussed particularly within the framework of cooperation concerning transboundary waters with Sweden, Norway and Russia with special focus on water protection and the management and use of transboundary waters, including water regulation, flood risk management, dam safety, combating invasive alien species. With Russia, since 2022, due to the political situation, only the bare operational minimum was done, notably the necessary in management of discharges.

Finland supports climate change adaptation internationally through official development assistance (ODA) and its different instruments including but not limited to:
• Multilateral funds, such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), the Nordic Development Fund (NDF) and the Climate Risks and Early Warning Systems Initiative (CREWS)
• Bilateral development cooperation projects in long-term partner countries.
• Finland-IFC Blended Finance for Climate Program.
• The Public Sector Investment Facility (PIF)
• The Inter-Institutional Cooperation Instrument (ICI)
• Through civil society project and programme funding.

2021 was so far a peak year for Finnish international climate finance for developing countries (EUR 175 million), of which 47 % was for adaptation. The current government program puts emphasis on scaling up climate finance, and having equal distribution of funding between adaptation and mitigation.
 

Additionally, Finland contributes to the following international partnerships:
• the Risk-informed Early Action Partnership (REAP)
• the Least Developed Countries Group on Climate Change LDC Initiative for Effective Adaptation and Resilience (LIFE-AR)
• the Champions Group on Adaptation Finance
• the Water and Climate Coalition

International cooperation and related targets and measures are also a part of the new climate change adaptation plan 2030. The targets are : 1) Adaptation, particularly means for the adaptation of the most vulnerable countries to climate change impacts, will be promoted increasingly in international cooperation; 2) The capacities and capabilities of developing countries to plan and implement concrete adaptation measures and to develop in a climate-resilient way will be promoted as part of international cooperation; and 3) Promoting climate change adaptation appropriately as part of international cooperation, strengthening Finland’s adaptive capacity and the broadening of the knowledge base.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

Coordination across national authorities is currently at a cross road due to the new NAP, and will be developed in 2023. However, there are various networks where climate change impacts and adaptation are addressed.

The Ministry of Transport and Communications coordinates national adaptation work in the Ministry's administrative sector.

The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment chairs the network of climate change officials.

The Ministry of the Environment coordinates an adaptation group consisting of the environmental administration.

The network for flood and drought risk management is coordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute. Under the Finnish Flood Risk Management Act, there are also Flood Management Groups for significant flood risk areas.

To promote the implementation of the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction in Finland, the Ministry of the Interior re-activated a large-scale and cross-administrative cooperation network in 2021.
At the regional level, the ELY Centres' climate expert network develops communication and cooperation around adaptation issues relating to the environment, economic development (incl. rural development), and transport. Finland's Regional Councils have recently formed a collaboration network on climate issues.

In Tampere region, a number of measures of regional collaboration have been defined in the Climate Strategy of the Tampere City Region 2030.

In Savonia University of Applied Sciences coordinates the business network of the climate security in Pohjois-Savo. The network provides information on extreme weather events, and adaptation to climate change, especially in agriculture and forestry.

In 2022, the Helsinki Metropolitan Area monitoring group evolved into a network of adaptation experts and practitioners in the metropolitan cities.
Climate change adaptation has been addressed in at strategic level in certain municipalities, either in a separate strategy or included in a combined climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy.

According to a 2015 survey made to Finnish municipalities (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities), 60 % of municipalities have a climate policy strategy, mainly local, in some cases regional. 63 % of those strategies cover both mitigation and adaptation, others only mitigation. In 2023, there are 17 Finnish municipalities that have signed the Covenant of Mayors initiative with 2030 targets including climate adaptation as part of Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan. According to the 2020 survey made to Finnish municipalities (Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities) on climate change adaptation, the emergency plans are most common on water management, other plans include emergency plans on storms and flood risk mappings.

The importance of preparedness regarding various climate risks is noted in the National Security Strategy for Society and triennally updated National Risk Assessment (most recent update 2023).

Helsinki Metropolitan Area was a national forerunner in regional adaptation planning with its Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for 2012-2020. The strategy comprised strategic guidelines and short-term policy measures in the area. Towards the end of the strategy period, all four cities in the metropolitan area joined the Covenant of Mayors for Energy and Climate initiative, carried out vulnerability assessments, and formulated respective Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAPs), including adaptation measures. New regional adaptation measures intended to implement in broader collaboration with cities and other actors, such as research institutes, are presented in the Sustainable Urban Living programme adopted in spring 2021.
Reindeer herding is vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change, such as changes in snow patterns that make it difficult for reindeer to find food from under the snow. The CLIMINI project studies adaptation to climate change in reindeer husbandry and management. Special attention is paid to sustainability and climate-friendly adaptation measures, and participation of reindeer herders. The project will consider the role of legislation and governmental subsidy policies regarding adaptation measures, under the governance and guidance of the livelihood (for example Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Reindeer Herders’ Association, Sámi Parliament). The project responds to the needs risen in the first interim evaluation for increasing awareness and developing means of steering mechanisms and adaptation tools for reindeer husbandry.

In 2021, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry set up a working group to prepare a model for community-specific reindeer pasture management and use plans that ensure the sustainable use of reindeer pastures in accordance with the reindeer numbers stipulated in Government Decree 414/2020.
Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority hosts a biannually updated dataset on land cover in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. In the detailed dataset, the land area is classified into impermeable surfaces, such as streets and buildings, and permeable surfaces, such as vegetation of different heights. It is used, for example, in stormwater management planning. The newly published version of the dataset was done in collaboration with a company providing solutions powered by artificial intelligence. AI was used to enhance the classification of sand and asphalt, which had been recognised as an essential target for the development of the dataset.
Regional adaptation needs and goals were recently examined in the “SUOMI” report by the Finnish Climate Change Panel (Gregow et al., 2021). The analysis of adaptation action and strategic plans of the regional councils shows that regions are at different stages in their adaptation activities. In some regions, adaptation or preparedness were already addressed in climate strategies or programs or regional development plans completed in the beginning of the 2010s, although usually on a very general level. Adaptation needs were therefore unstructured and actual plans and systematic goals were missing. Only a few regions had considered how climate change affects the development of the region and how the region could adapt to the changes or benefit from the emerging opportunities. Moreover, the main focus in the regions’ climate action has thus far been on mitigation. However, the situation is rapidly improving, and several regions have formulated adaptation goals in the recent (regional) climate roadmaps, reflecting regional contexts. Adaptation themes are also reflected in the regional strategic programmes 2022–2025. According to the Regional Development Act (756/2021), climate change mitigation and promotion of adaptation are part of regional development and the duties of regional councils.

Adaptation can also be promoted in regional land use planning, which under the Land Use and Building Act (132/1999) belongs to the statutory tasks of the regional councils besides regional development work. There are regulations in the sectoral legislation that enable the setting of regional climate goals, for example the Land Use and Building Act (there will be separate laws for construction and planning in the future). However so far, few concrete goals have been set. ELY centres are regional expert authorities of the state and regional implementers of numerous laws. Separate regional adaptation goals can be set based on some laws, and ELY centres participate in goal discussions with both regional councils and municipalities.

About half of Finland’s municipalities have set climate goals, and about 80 percent of Finns live in a municipality with some kind of climate goal (Puurula et al., 2022). Almost all municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants have climate goals, while only about a quarter of municipalities with less than 5,000 inhabitants have them (Table 4). Based on the survey, almost half of the municipalities have set goals for both mitigation and adaptation. Climate goals are currently being prepared in 19 municipalities. Most of 22 Publications of the Government ´s analysis, assessment and research activities 2022:61 the goals concern both mitigation and adaptation. For large municipalities, the goals of climate action have been tightened and specified in recent years, and several large municipalities strive for carbon neutrality (Sitra 2021). Detailed information about the goals and concrete measures of municipalities’ climate action is, however, still limited.

In early 2033, the Tampere City Region published a list of various tools that help identify climate risks and their impacts and support preparedness and adaptation planning in different sectors and organisations, produced and compiled by the the Tampere City Region.

Savonia University of Applied Sciences has developed the method to examine the interdependencies between mitigation and adaptation. This ensures that Do No Significant Harm and Leaving No One Behind are taken into account. The results will be utilized in the implementation of a regional climate road map.
For the Helsinki metropolitan area, adaptation indicators have been developed to understand the need for adaptation and the effectiveness of adaptation measures. These indicators are classified into hazard/weather, exposure, adaptive capacity, and composite vulnerability indicators (following EEA indicator classes). The adaptation indicators are developed and supplemented according to monitoring needs. The implementation and effectiveness of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (2012-2020) were evaluated in 2021. The evaluation report concluded that the role of the strategy in bringing up and integrating adaptation questions in the cities' action planning is not overly clear. However, the strategy helped advance the adaptation work, especially at the beginning of the strategy term when its perspectives were new. The strategy was also regarded as particularly important in strengthening cooperation between cities. The implementation of new adaptation measures in the Sustainable Urban Living programme for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area can be followed on a frequently updated web page.
Adaptation activities of large cities have been supported by their otherwise active climate policy and membership in various cooperation networks. For example, voluntary Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAP) and related reporting obligations have promoted adaptation activities in cities. Adaptation measures are, however, typically based on a city’s own specific premises, and coordination or information exchange, for example regionally or nationally, has been minimal (cf. international cooperation networks) or is only just developing.

Six regional councils and four cities have joined the the EU Mission on Adaptation to Climate Change.

The Helsinki-Uusimaa region is involved with METREX - The Network of European Metropolitan Regions and Areas, which gathers urban planners and land use officers working in a metropolitan context. In 2021, Helsinki, Stockholm, and Gothenburg regions initiated a new expert group Metropolitan Climate Challenge for METREX members to strengthen cooperation and understanding of effective climate change mitigation and adaptation solutions.

City of Tampere is part of many international networks and actively works with other cities. Examples of such networks include Covenant of Mayors, ICLEI, Green City Accord, Eurocities, EU Mission 100 climate neutral cities, and Nordic Transistion Partnership. In collaboration with Tampere University, the city of Tampere has an international ReCreate project (H2020) that aims to discover how used concrete elements can be deconstructed without damaging them and reused in new buildings – and turn the process into a profitable business. In collaboration with the Tampere University of Applied Sciences, another H2020 project, the sustainable foodsystem project FUSILLI follows a multi-objective approach of implementing feasible and replicable innovative urban policies, which will lead to the improvement of actions in all stages of the food value chain, in line with the four priorities of the EU’s FOOD2030 policy.

Savonia University of Applied Sciences coordinates the Innovation Laboratories for Climate Actions project in five European countries. Project Strengthen Human Capital in Climate Innovation and Entrepreneurship by Training and Mentoring Students, Academic and Non-Academic Staff in Systemic Problem Solving. The financier is the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT).

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

Coordination of national adaptation policy
Ms. Karoliina Pilli-Sihvola
National Focal Point for Climate Change Adaptation
[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'
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