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Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2022-12-31

Item Status Links
National Adaptation Plan (NAP)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
Latvia is situated on the edge of the Eastern European Plain near the Baltic Sea between 55o40' and 58o05' Northern latitude and between 20o58' and 28o14' Eastern longitude. The total length of the border of Latvia amounts to 1387 km on land (with Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia) and 498 km along long maritime border with Sweden.

The territory covers an area of 64594 km2 in total. Its length in the North – South direction is 210 km, and the width in the West – East direction – 450 km. Latvia is a typical lowland country, and its terrain is characterized by flat, low areas and hilly elevations. The average height above sea level is 87 m and the highest peak is Gaizinkalns (311.6 m above sea level). There are more than 3 000 lakes and 12 000 rivers in Latvia.

Latvia is located in the temperate climate zone; relatively flat terrain, the proximity to the sea and air masses from the Atlantic Ocean influence climate in the country. Climate is mild and humid with four explicit seasons.

2022 in Latvia was the 10th consecutive year warmer than the 1991-2020 normal. Summer was the warmest season, becoming the 3rd warmest on record (since 1924).

For the first time since 2017 annual precipitation amount exceeded the normal. Winter 2021/2022 was particularly wet, trailing only the 2011/2012 winter record.

The first months of 2022 were windier than usual, especially January, when 3 storms with peak gusts over 30 m/s occurred.

Annual mean air temperature in Latvia was +7.3 °C, which is 0.5 °C above the 1991 2020 normal, therefore 2022 was the 12th warmest on record (since 1924) and the 10th consecutive warmer-than-normal year. Annual mean air temperature ranged from +6.1 °C in Aluksne (Northeast Latvia) to +8.6 °C in Liepaja (Southwest Latvia). Mean air temperature anomalies ranged from +0.4 °C in East Latvia to +0.7 °C in South-West of the country.

Total amount of precipitation in 2022 in Latvia was 685.8 mm. It was the first year since 2017 which was wetter than normal, although only by 0.2 mm. The highest annual precipitation amount was observed in Zoseni (Vidzeme Upland) – 899.9 mm, but the lowest precipitation amount was measured in Dobele (central Latvia) – 509.5 mm. Precipitation anomalies ranged from -23% in Sigulda (central Latvia) up to +23% in Zoseni.

During the year there were 31 days when peak wind gusts reached 20 m/s, the lowest threshold for wind speed warnings. The first months of 2022 were exceptionally windy. January and February saw 4 storms with wind peak gusts above 30 m/s, one in February and three in January. Moreover, all three occurred within one week – on January 14th, 17th and 20th.

Total area (km2) - 64 594

Land area - 62 227

Inland waters - 2 367

Protected natural areas - 7519

Structure of country area at 2021 (according to IPCC land-use classes) :

Agricultural land (cropland + grassland) 38.29%

Forest land - 50.64%

Other land ( 0.08%

Settlements – 4,84 %

Wetlands – 6.15%
At the beginning of 2022, resident population in Latvia was 1 million 875.8 thousand people (46.3% men, 53.7% women). In 2021, as the number of deaths exceeded the number of births, population of Latvia decreased by 17 466 people. Since 1991, population growth in Latvia has been negative. 2022, Latvian urban population was 1 million 274.6 thousand (67.9 %) and rural population 601.2 thousand people. Riga residents ( 605.8 thousand) constituted 32.3 % of the total population. Since 2015 emigration level has been decreasing , while the number of emigration has been fluctuating over the years. In 2021 the immigration and emigration was almost equal (net migration rate -286).

In Latvia, as in all other EU countries, there are more women (53.7%) than men (46.3%).

At the beginning of 2022, there were 116 women for every 100 men in Latvia.

At the beginning of 2022, the average age of population of Latvia constituted 42.9 years – 39.6 years among males and 45.7 years among females (in comparison: at the beginning of 2011 those were 41.1, 37.9 and 43.8, respectively). The lowest average population age was recorded in Pieriga region (40.7), while the highest in Latgale (45.1).
As the economy of Latvia is small and open there is significant dependence on the trends of global economy. After a drop by 3.8% in 2020 due to the COVID-19 crisis, in 2021, the economy of Latvia strongly recovered, and the GDP has grown by 4.8% as compared to the previous year. In 2020, the export volumes of goods and services decreased, mainly due to the Covid-19 pandemic. In 2021, thanks to rapid external demand and partly due to the base effect, export growth started to grow again. In both 2020 and 2021, the export of goods increased. In 2021, compared to 2019, it increased by 12.2%. In 2021, the exports of wood and its products, mineral products, and iron and steel products had the largest positive impact on growth. In the first half of 2022, the export of goods continued to grow – by 7.7% on an annual basis.
In Latvia the LEGMC (Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre) is the Latvian National Hydrometeorological and Climate Service and is responsible institution for developing of climate monitoring, modelling, projections and scenarios.

LEGMC performs climate monitoring by continuous climate change data collection, as well as monitoring extreme events, data storage and analyses of long-term observation results.

Environmental Policy Guidelines for 2021-2027 (hereinafter – EPG2027) were developed and approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on the 31 of August 2022. As a part of EPG2027 the Environment Monitoring Programme for 2021-2026 (Annex 1) was developed in the light of the requirements laid down in national and EU legislation for the monitoring of the environment in relation to the network, parameters, frequency of observations and methods to be used, each of the documents of the monitoring programme shall set out the objective of the specific programme in order to fulfil the previously identified tasks for qualitative data collection and processing. The Programme consists of four parts: 1) air and climate change monitoring, 2) water (surface and groundwater) monitoring, 3) land (incl. coastal zone erosion) monitoring, and 4) biodiversity monitoring. LEGMC ensures the implementation of air and climate change monitoring programme (for period 2021 - 2026).

LEGMC observation network is established and connected with interactive map where data from meteorological observations is provided. Regarding flood risks in Latvia, LEGMC has developed flood risk management plans and early flood warning systems for all river basin districts of Latvia. Flood risk information system and maps are published online: http://www.meteo.lv/lapas/v[…]sistema?id=2103&nid=889

LEGMC prepares reports and provides information to the public, to the State and local governments, and to international organizations. It also provides services for customers, including national aviation authorities, Latvian National Armed Forces, civil protection authorities and energy companies. Climate change information is presented in various formats, tailored to the user needs. LEGMC continuously monitor the actual meteorological and hydrological conditions and keep track of these changes to produce weather forecasts for the short term (the next few hours) as well as for the longer term (up to six weeks in advance and seasonally). Long-term monitoring data are used to analyse climate and historical hydrological conditions, which also form the basis for assessing future changes in climate and hydrological conditions. LEGMC also actively publishes information on social networks, regarding climate monitoring, projections and advances in the climate change research. Information regarding specialized climate indices is prepared for various stakeholders, for example standard precipitation index (SPI) for agriculture and insurance companies.

LEGMC experts have also conceptually designed a system for monitoring adaptation to climate change on a national scale. Such monitoring system is essential for further development of national political strategies, since it consists of data and indicators that measure vulnerability of different economic sectors (e.g. health and welfare, agriculture, forestry, civil engineering) due to climate change.

Regarding climate modelling, projections and climate change scenarios, LEGMC has performed a detailed analysis of long-term historical climate data and, in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute, developed future change scenarios (until year 2100) http://www4.meteo.lv/klimatariks/zinojums.pdf. Climate change scenarios correspond to the projected values of either average or high amounts of greenhouse gas emissions based on the IPCC 5th (Fifth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment report. Multiple climate models are adapted to territory of Latvia by bias correction and statistical downscaling methods. Results are extensively analyzed by team of analysts and climatologists, and improved by comparing them to the latest climate change monitoring results.

For wider public the visualization of the climate change scenarios is available online in the Climate Change Analysis Tool http://www4.meteo.lv/klimatariks/. Climate Change Analysis Tool allows to explore current and projected future climate scenarios in Latvia in the form of maps and graphs. Maps display 30-year average values of the selected climate indices. A summary report of these results is available as well as all the data is freely downloadable for further scientific research.

At the end of 2022, the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre published climate profiles of municipalities. Local governments' climate profiles consist of information on climate indicators for each of Latvia's municipalities and Latvia's cities, with the climate indicators of individual local governments, based on weather observation data and future climate models.

The information gathered in climate profiles will be used by municipalities in the development of local government adaptation strategies as well as, for example, in updating civil protection plans. The map shows the breakdowns of the four climate index risk classes in each Latvian municipality (heat waves, cold waves, snow blanket thickness and severe rainfall risk classes), dividing the impact of each risk on the municipality. Data from the climate reference (1961-1990) and the climatic norms (1991-2020) period have been used in the calculation of risk classes.

In addition, the profile of each individual municipality contains detailed information on average air temperature, total annual rainfall, abnormalities of last year's air temperature from normal, extreme temperatures of maximum and minimum air temperatures, a description of rainfall levels, both in the years and in the context of the climate norms and reference period, as well as major climate indicators (the number of days of the frost, the number of tropical nights, the average thickness of the snow, etc. https://klimats.meteo.lv/pasvaldibu_apskati/.

As soon as new IPCC scenarios are approved Latvia will start to work on update of climate models and projections under the pre-defined project “Integration of climate change policy in sectoral and regional policies” funded under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2014-2021 Programme “Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Environment” .

Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, in cooperation with BaltConsults, Estonian. Latvian & Lithuanian Environment, Process Analysis and Research Centre, LVMI Silava and the Green Liberty Society have developed studies on risk and vulnerability assessment and identification of adaptation measures in six areas such as landscape planning and tourism, biodiversity and ecosystem services, civil protection and emergency assistance., construction and infrastructure planning, health and wellbeing, agriculture and forestry .

As part of the studies, based on scientific literature, data analysis and expert interviews, the main climate change risks associated with the fields of study were identified and the major impacts on the subjects in Latvia were identified. Using the risk matrix analysis approach, a more detailed analysis of the major climate change risks and benefits for the fields to be considered. In the context of the climate change risks analysed, vulnerability and levels of the areas under consideration were identified, proposals for indicators for adaptation of the subjects were developed, as well as recommended and prioritised measures to mitigate impacts of climate change or to adapt to the topics: https://www.varam.gov.lv/[…]/projekta-ietvaros-veikto-petijumu-nodevumi
As a member of WMO (World Meteorological Organization) LEGMC provides representative observational network with systematic and qualitative meteorological observations in the whole territory of Latvia. Within the framework of climate change monitoring, information is obtained from meteorological observation stations located in Latvia. Permanent weather observations are needed for climate change trends characterization and assessment. Systematic maintenance, development and data collection of observation system reduces uncertainty of climate change adverse effects. Long-term climate monitoring and climate change detection at the national level is ensured by collection of meteorological and climate information with its further systematization and storage in data bases.

Meteorological observations in Latvia are collected in accordance with national meteorological observation program. The methodology of meteorological observations is based on the WMO guidelines.

The national air quality observation network includes 7 city observation stations, where air quality is observed in cities, 2 rural background stations, which are assessed as a result of cross-border air mass transfer, the air quality of the atmosphere entering Latvia and 4 precipitation quality stations in which the quality of precipitation is observed.

Air quality measurements are provided in continuous automatic mode and manual air and precipitation sampling devices are used with further chemical analysis in the LEGMC laboratory.

The Rucava and Zoseni stations are included in the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmospheric Watch as regional background stations.
Regarding climate modelling, projections and climate change scenarios, LEGMC has performed a detailed analysis of long-term historical climate data and, in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute, developed future change scenarios (until year 2100). Climate change scenarios correspond to the projected values of either average or high amounts of GHG emissions based on the Fifth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 5th Assessment Report).

 Summary of observed and prognosed climate change in Latvia:

Between 1960 and 2010 the average air temperature in Latvia increased by 0.7oC on average (mainly in winter). By 2100, the average air temperature could rise by 3.5oC to 5.5oC.

The number of frost days between 1960 and 2010 have decreased by about 4-16 days, when comparing the reference years of 1961-1990 and 1981-2010. By the end of the century, the number of frost days will decrease by 50-80 days.

The number of annual frost days between 1960 and 2010 in Latvia varies between 37-80. When comparing the two reference periods of 1961-1990 and 1981-2010, the number of ice days have decreased by about 5-11 days. The number of ice days will decrease to only 40-50 days in 2011-2040 and about 20-30, or less, by 2100.

Since 1961, precipitation in Latvia has increased by 39 mm. By the end of the century it will increase by 80-100 mm (13-16%). The most significant increase is expected during winter (in a significant climate change scenario – up to 35-51%), while in the summer precipitation will decrease in some parts of Latvia.

The average vegetation period in Latvia has been 170-240 days. As a result of the rise in average air temperature, it will extend by an average of 1 to 2 months by 2100.

Since 1961, the number of days with snow cover in Latvia has decreased by an average of 0.5 days a year (one day every two years). By 2100, average snow cover thickness in Latvia can be expected to shrine by at least 50%.
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
Snow and ice load
ChronicChange in sea ice cover
Changing precipitation patterns and types
Precipitation hydrological variability
Sea level rise
Solid massAcute
ChronicCoastal_erosion
Sol degradation
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frost
Heat wave
Wildfire
ChronicChanging temperature
Permafrost thawing
Temperature variability
WindAcuteCyclone
Storm
ChronicChanging wind patterns
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtsignificantly increasing
Floodsignificantly increasing
Heavy precipitationsignificantly increasing
Snow and ice loadsignificantly decreasing
ChronicChange in sea ice coversignificantly decreasing
Changing precipitation patterns and typessignificantly increasing
Precipitation hydrological variabilitysignificantly increasing
Sea level riseevolution uncertain or unknown
Solid massAcute
ChronicCoastal erosionsignificantly increasing
Soil erosionevolution uncertain or unknown
Sol degradationevolution uncertain or unknown
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frostsignificantly decreasing
Heat wavesignificantly increasing
Wildfiresignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging temperaturesignificantly increasing
Permafrost thawingsignificantly decreasing
Temperature variabilitysignificantly increasing
WindAcuteCyclonewithout significant change
Stormsignificantly increasing
ChronicChanging wind patternswithout significant change
Under the impact of recent climate change a uniform increase in air temperature, expressed in mean, minimum and maximum air temperature values is observed. During the period 1961-2010 annual mean air temperature has increased by 0.7 °C, annual minimum temperature by 0.7 °C as well, but annual maximum temperature by as much as 1.4 °C.

Most of the changes has been observed in winter and spring seasons. The number of frost days (daily minimum temperature < 0 °C) in the period from 1961 to 2010 ranges from 96 days in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea to 155 days in Aluksne and Vidzeme upland areas, and during this period the average number of such days in Latvia has decreased by 9 days per year. Also, the average number of ice days (daily maximum temperature < 0 °C) in Latvia has decreased on average by 9 days per year, in some locations – by an average of 5-11 days per year.

Changes are also observed in the climate index values characterizing extreme hot weather conditions. There has been observed an increase of frequency in tropical nights (daily minimum temperature > +20 °C) in the last couple of decades. The general increase in air temperatures has also affected the length of the growing season – since 1961 by an average of 2 additional days per year and in Ventspils by even up to 10 additional days per year.

In the period from 1961 to 2010 an increase in annual precipitation also has been observed by an average of 6% or 39 mm. Similarly, to changes in the air temperature, the most significant increase in the amount of precipitation has been observed during the winter season; an increase is observed also during the spring and summer seasons, while in the autumn season there has been even a slight reduction in the amount of precipitation. Precipitation intensity has also increased by an average of 0.1-0.6 mm/day, which in turn has increased both the intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events.

Changes in climate parameters and indices over time affects not only natural capital (species, habitats, ecosystems) but also health, well-being, safety and economic activities of the population. The most significant risks identified in Latvia are seasonal changes (including changes in vegetation period); wildfires; increased spreading of pests and pathogens, tree diseases, displacement of local species, invasion of new species; prevalence of respiratory diseases; infectious diseases; heat strokes; floods caused by intensive precipitation; storm surges; power disturbances; runoff increase, hydropower oscillations; decrease of frost occurrence and intensity, frost without consistent snow cover; drought; eutrophication; infrastructure damage, equipment overheating; reduction in water runoff during the summer season.
Upon analyzing climate model projections for future periods, a further temperature increase is clearly seen. According to the scenarios, it is expected that by the end of the century annual maximum air temperature will increase by an average of 3.6ºC in RCP 4.5 scenario and by 5.7ºC in RCP 8.5 scenario (RCP – Representative Concentration Pathways according to Fifth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5)). Under climate change impact the length of growing season and the number of summer days and tropical nights will continue growing, and the number of frost days and ice days will be falling. This means that climate hazards associated with heat, such as heatwaves and wildfires are also more likely in the future.

Up to 2100 a further increase in precipitation amount is expected by 13 to 16% (about 80-100 mm) according to RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. Seasonally, the most significant increase in the amount of precipitation is expected during the winter and spring seasons. According to the moderate climate change scenario, in winter the amount of precipitation will increase by 24-37%, while the significant climate change scenario projects an increase by 35-51%. The scenarios also project an increase of the precipitation intensity – by about 0.1-1 mm/day according to the RCP 4.5 scenario, and by 0.5 to 1.3 mm/day according to the RCP 8.5 scenario.

Projected increases in the precipitation and its intensity might increase the frequency of hazards such as heavy precipitation events and flooding. However, as there still remains seasons of small or no precipitation increase, droughts still remain a possibility in Latvia.

In the long-term period, average wind speed curve is trending slightly downwards and, although climate model projections show uncertainty, they mostly confirm continuation of this type of mean wind speed change tendency up to the end of the 21st century. However, number of stormy days in Latvia (days, when the average wind speed >10.8 m/s) are projected to remain constant. This means, that climate hazards, such as cyclonic storms or convective storms will be observed in the future.

Most significant climate change are related to extreme values of climate variables, indicating that in the future Latvia will more often face weather conditions uncharacteristic and extreme for its territory. Events, such as heavy precipitation and floods, heatwaves or uncharacteristically strong storms will be observed in the future.

Changes in temperature, wind and precipitation patterns can have both – direct and cascading effects. For example, due to the increased air temperature the ice cover in the Baltic Sea in winters have decreased, which affects all species are vulnerable to decreasing ice cover. In addition, as the ice cover area and the length of the ice season decreases, larger coastal areas are exposed to coastal erosion during the intense storm season. This is accompanied by rising water levels as a result of climate change. In future key hazards are expected to affect not only natural capital, but also human health, safety, well-being and economics.

The key future secondary effects to Latvia are:
seasonal changes (including changes in vegetation period);
wildfires;
increased spreading of pests and pathogens, tree diseases, displacement of local species, invasion of new species;
prevalence of respiratory diseases;
infectious diseases, heat strokes;
floods caused by intensive precipitation;
storm surges;
power disturbances;
runoff increase, hydropower oscillations;
decrease of frost occurrence and intensity, frost without consistent snow cover; drought;
eutrophication;
infrastructure damage, equipment overheating;
reduction in water runoff during the summer season.

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments, agriculture is exposed to different climate change impacts: changing temperature, heat waves, drought, heavy precipitation, flood, changing participation patterns, extreme weather events. More specifically, according to risk and vulnerability assessments, agriculture is more exposed to: • Increase in average air temperature in winters and decrease in the duration of the meteorological winter, increase in average air temperature in summers and an increase in the duration of meteorological summer, an increase in the probability of more frequent and longer periods of drought in the summers; increase in number of days with very high temperatures in summers. • Increase in total annual precipitation, changes in the amount of precipitation in the summer months, increase in the probability of sudden and severe thunderstorms in summer. • Greater uncertainty of snow cover thickness, decrease in the number of days with frozen soil, formation of air mass contact bands, creating suitable conditions for freezing rain; increase in wind gusts in some regions of Latvia.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe most significant identified risks in agriculture are the risk of freezing of crops and plantations, the risk of crop and animal diseases and pests, the risk of crop and crop loss due to rainfall at harvest, the risk of faster soil drying and prolonged heat waves. The risks are mainly economic. The social impact arises indirectly from the economic risks: as the yield of certain crops decreases, the well-being of farm owners decreases, as does the farm's ability to employ workers, thus leaving a socio-economic impact on the region in which the farm is located. The impact of these risks is particularly significant in cases where several farms in the same region are affected (for example, herds affected by animal diseases).
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall, the evaluation shows that agriculture is and will be affected by a set of risks that may not be evaluated as ‘very high’ separately, but can cause serious damage to the yields if a certain combination of risks occur. In future the exposure of agriculture and food production to key hazards is likely to increase. Among the most significant identified and predicted climate change risks are freezing of crops and plantations, the spread of crop and animal diseases and pests, crop and crop quality losses due to precipitation, droughts, faster soil drying and the effects of prolonged heat waves.
Key affected sector(s)biodiversity (including ecosystembased approaches)
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments, biodiversity and ecosystem services in Latvia are exposed to different climate change impacts, especially related to changing temperature, water and solid mass related. The most significant impacts of climate change that may affect biodiversity and ecosystem services in Latvia are the following: • increase in air temperature, increase in the minimum air temperature in winter; • earlier onset of the spring, extension of the summer season; • increase in water temperature and water level, increase in the frequency of surface water level fluctuations; • changes in precipitation (increase in certain seasons), greater probability of more frequent and longer periods of drought, decrease of snow cover; • increased frequency of extreme weather events and weather contrast.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe impact of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services in Latvia is currently difficult to assess due to insufficient data. It is necessary to intensify research on new species in Latvia, to monitor invasive and aggressive alien species, as well as those species that are on the border of the distribution area in Latvia. It is also important to intensify the monitoring of plant pests, which are characteristic of warmer climate regions, as they can have a direct impact on biodiversity. The decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services as a result of climate change and anthropogenic interactions poses a threat to the preservation and sustainable development of Latvia's natural capital. In order to obtain detailed and scientifically substantiated information on Latvia's natural values, their quantity, types, distribution and quality, the project "Nature Census" identified the distribution and quality of specially protected habitats of EU importance, analysed the basic information and prepared preconditions for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem protection. Biodiversity is also affected by landscape simplification. Ecosystems become less stable, contributing to the spread of invasive or alien species and pests. The more diverse the ecosystem, the more stable it is and the ability to adapt more quickly to climate change and can provide a wider range of ecosystem services.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall, the evaluation shows that biodiversity and ecosystem services are and will be affected by a set of risks that may not be evaluated as ‘very high’ separately, but can cause serious damage to the biodiversity and eco systems if a certain combination of risks occur. In future the exposure of biodiversity to key hazards is likely to increase.
Key affected sector(s)forestry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments forestry is exposed to: changing temperature, heat waves, drought, heavy precipitation, flood, changing participation patterns, extreme weather events. More specifically, according to risk and vulnerability assessments, forestry is more exposed to: • Increase in average temperature in winters and decrease in the duration of the meteorological winter, increase in the average summer temperature and an increase in the duration of the meteorological summer, an increase in the probability of more frequent and longer periods of drought in the summer; increase in the number of days with very high temperatures in summer. • Increase in total annual precipitation, changes in the amount of precipitation in the summer months, increase in the probability of sudden and severe thunderstorms in summer. • Greater uncertainty of snow cover thickness, decrease in the number of days with frozen soil, formation of air mass contact bands, creating suitable conditions for freezing rain; increase in wind gusts in some territories of Latvia. The main impacts in forestry are the risk of the spread of tree diseases and pests, the risk of fires, the risk of storms and the lack of winter frost, which makes logging difficult. The possible increase in forest and peat bog fires due to heat waves must be taken into account. The risk of forest and peat fires has medium consequences that will increase in the future with a very high probability.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentForestry is vulnerable to key hazards and the vulnerability is likely to increase. Forestry is exposed to risk of the spread of tree diseases and pests, the risk of fires, the risk of storms and the lack of winter frost, which makes logging difficult and can lead to economic losses. During heat waves forestry will likely experience the increase of forest and peat fires.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall, the evaluation shows that forestry is and will be affected by a set of risks that may not be evaluated as ‘very high’ separately, but can cause serious damage to the forests if a certain combination of risks occur. In future the exposure of forestry to key hazards is likely to increase.
Key affected sector(s)buildings
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentThere are several effects of climate change (including extremes) in the field of building and infrastructure planning (including transport infrastructure) in Latvia: • increase in the annual mean air temperature, increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves, extension of meteorological summer, increase in the maximum value of day-to-day temperature; • decrease in the number of frost days and ice days; • increase in the amount of precipitation and the maximum amount of overnight precipitation, increase in the number of days with very heavy precipitation, increase in the maximum amount of precipitation of a five-day period, increase in abundant snowfalls; • rise in the average sea water levels in the long-term and coastal erosion, and also groundwater level fluctuations affected by changes in precipitation and sea water level, and changes in the river run-off.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentRisks caused by climate change in the field of building and infrastructure planning with a rather high or high probability of occurrence in Latvia and with the most negative consequences are as follows: • increase in damages caused to buildings by flood along the seaside and river estuaries in cities; • energy demand decreases in winter and indoor overheating in summer; • increase in damage on roads due to floods caused by heavy rainfall (along with road freezing period decrease and increase in precipitation during that period).
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentClimate change affects all building and infrastructure objects – buildings, water supply and sewerage infrastructure, land amelioration, transport, communications and energy networks and the functioning thereof, where the largest impact is attributed to extreme weather caused by climate change (storms, flood, large amount of precipitation, heat waves).
Key affected sector(s)energy
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments, energy infrastructure in Latvia is exposed to different climate change impacts, especially related to snow level, wind, water, heat waves, temperature, draughts. In Latvia, several impacts of climate change (including extreme climate events) are important for energy: • Increase in average annual air temperature, increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves that can impact energy demand and impact grid infrastructure. • Decrease of snow level in winters, increase of maximum value of the daily maximum temperature that can cause draughts and impact hydro energy infrastructure. • Increase of extreme snowing, snow storms that can impact grid infrastructure. • Increase of extreme wind and storm says that can impact grid infrastructure and can impact wind energy infrastructure. • Increase in precipitation and increase in the maximum amount of precipitation per day etc that can cause the damage to above ground and underground grid infrastructure (electricity and heating). • Groundwater level fluctuations and changes in river run-off patterns that can impact grid infrastructure and hydro energy infrastructure. • Increase of sunshine days can positively impact solar energy production.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentIn the context of climate change, the following risks are expected to be associated with the highest probability of occurrence and the most significant consequences: • increase in damage caused by strong winds (storms, snowstorms), floods and draughts. • increase in electricity demand in summer. • damage to electrical grids due to the increase in wind gusts in certain regions of Latvia.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall, the evaluation shows that energy infrastructure is and will be affected by a set of risks that may not be evaluated as ‘very high’ separately but can cause serious damage to the energy infrastructure if a certain combination of risks occur. In future the exposure of energy infrastructure to key hazards is likely to increase.
Key affected sector(s)transport
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments, transport infrastructure in Latvia is exposed to different climate change impacts, especially related to temperature, wind and water. In Latvia, several impacts of climate change (including extreme climate events) are important for transport infrastructure: • Increase in average annual air temperature, increase in the frequency and duration of heat waves, extension of the meteorological summer, increase in the maximum value of the daily maximum temperature. • Decrease of the frost days and the number of days without thaw. • Increase in precipitation and increase in the maximum amount of precipitation per day, increase in the number of days with very heavy precipitation, increase in the maximum amount of precipitation per five days, increase in snowfall above normal. • Long-term average sea level rise and development of coastal erosion, as well as groundwater level fluctuations affected by changes in precipitation and sea level, and changes in river run-off patterns.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentIn the context of climate change, the risk that is expected to be associated with the highest probability of occurrence and the most significant consequences is increase in damage caused by floods to infrastructure and roads along river estuaries. According to risk and vulnerability assessments climate change risks to infrastructure in Latvia have the following consequences: damage to infrastructure on the sea coast (due to coastal erosion and flooding); the need for repair of infrastructure or irreparable damage; declining value of infrastructure and increase of insurance prices; damage to infrastructure in cities with insufficient sewerage capacity, damage to infrastructure in floodplains of waterways; damage to infrastructure structures (increased microcracking due to load, moisture damage) etc.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall, the evaluation shows that infrastructure is and will be affected by a set of risks that may not be evaluated as ‘very high’ separately but can cause serious damage to the infrastructure if a certain combination of risks occur. In future the exposure of buildings to key hazards is likely to increase. Specifically, railway infrastructure is and will be affected by such risks as track bending, deterioration of materials, and embankment instability due to heat. These risks may cause such consequences as: damage to railway infrastructure; economic losses due to speed limitation; engine overheating; restrictions on the carriage of goods and passengers by rail. Track bending has a significant socio-economic impact. Therefore, railway tracks should be regularly maintained (by reconstructing or by building new tracks) and the permitted train speed should be observed. Assessing the days of delays caused by track degradation, the annual delays in the period 2040 - 2070 is approximately 0.2 mln. euro with an increase of 0.1 mln. euro, and in the period 2070-2100 - 0.4 mln. euros with an increase of 0.3 mln. euro Due to climate change, to avoid the possibility of passengers overheating there will be necessity to provide adequate ventilation in public transport as well as at bus stations. The availability of drinking water at bus and train stations will have to be provided.
Key affected sector(s)civil protection and emergency management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments, civil protection and emergency management is exposed to different climate change impacts: changing temperature, heat waves, drought, heavy precipitation, flood, changing participation patterns, and especially extreme weather events. In Latvia, the following effects and extremes of climate change are crucial for civil protection and disaster management planning: • increase in the number of summer days, tropical nights, duration and frequency of heat waves, continuous increase in the frequency and duration of drought periods; • maximum wind gust increase; • increase in the number of days with very heavy precipitation, the maximum amount of overnight precipitation and decrease in the amount of annual precipitation in the form of snow; • changes (increase) of the sea water level and changes in the amount of precipitation, the consequent change of the run-off of rivers from the current peak in spring to intense run-off in autumn and drought in summer without intense spring flood maximum.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentRisks caused by climate change in the field of civil protection and disaster management with a rather high or high probability of occurrence in Latvia and with the most negative consequences are as follows: • forest and peat fire – a risk with moderate consequences that will increase in the future and with a very high probability; • storms and wind surges at the sea – a risk with severe consequences that might increase in the future and with a moderate probability. The analysis of the trends of long-term changes shows considerable to very significant trends in reduction of the number of storm days which have been particularly evident in the greater part of the country; however, increase in the frequency of recurrence of projected extreme events in different periods (IPCC, 2014) must be taken into account; • heavy rainfall and flood caused by such rainfall – a risk with rather minor consequences that will increase in the future and with a high probability of occurrence; • spring flood and flood caused by a buildup of the ice – a risk with rather minor consequences and a moderate probability of occurrence; however, it is forecast that both the probability of occurrence and consequences of this risk will decrease in the future.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall, the evaluation shows that civil protection is and will be affected by a set of risks that may not be evaluated as ‘very high’ separately but can cause serious damage to civil protection if a certain combination of risks occur. In future the exposure of civil protection to key hazards is likely to increase, especially due to weather extremes.
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentIn case of extreme weather conditions, significant losses to health (a severe illness or death case) may also affect the social and economic stability of households which do not belong to the group subject to poverty and social exclusion. The productivity of the economically active household members, possibilities to get involved in the labour market and, hence, to earn income in order to ensure household needs could be affected both by the significant health problems of the working household members and the need to take care of unemployed family members (children, elderly family members) with significant health problems caused by the negative effects of climate change. The effects of climate change (including extremes) which are relevant in the field of health and welfare in Latvia are as follows: • increased mean air temperature that could result in longer spring / summer / autumn periods and shorter winter periods; • increased total amount of annual precipitation, increased frequency of heavy rainfalls, increased water temperature in rivers, lakes and other water bodies; • increased frequency and duration of heat waves.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe most significant risk factors with the comparatively highest level of risk and the highest probability of occurrence are “increased risk of heat stroke” and “risk of exacerbation of chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.) and possible increase in number of deaths”. Regarding risks to human health, the most negative impacts in the context of climate change are expected from the cardiovascular diseases. In Latvia, impacts of climate change will potentially be felt most by vulnerable groups in society (families with young children, the elderly, people with chronic diseases (including physical and mental health problems), people with disabilities, poor and low-income people, people living in remote areas far from economically active regional centers, etc.). Extreme weather events can also affect the health of people and households that are not at risk of poverty or social exclusivity. Impacts on health caused by the negative effects of climate change can affect the productivity of economically active household members, their ability to participate in the labor market.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentOverall the evaluation shows that health sector is and will be affected by a set of risks. In future the exposure of health sector to key hazards is likely to increase. Economic losses from cardiovascular diseases are projected to cost the most. Other health risks will pose less of a threat to personal health. An increase in heat strokes is expected to have an impact on life years lost. Concerning other risks evaluated, the highest costs are expected for respiratory diseases.
Key affected sector(s)rural development; tourism
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to risk and vulnerability assessments, climate change could impact tourism development in Latvia both as a negative factor and a positive factor. Climate change may change the visual quality, aesthetic, ecological, economic, scientific, historical and recreational value of landscapes which, in turn, may change tourist behaviour and habits and affect the economy of the particular place, region or country. The effects of climate change that might affect tourism and landscape planning in Latvia are as follows: • increased annual mean air temperature, increased mean air temperature during winter, increased minimum value of maximum day-to-day temperature, increased mean air temperature in summer months; • decreased number of frost days, number of ice days, decreased average number of days with a snow cover, decreased average thickness of snow cover in winter months, shorter duration of ice freeze-up period, increased number of summer days, increased number of tropical nights; • increased growing season length; • increased amount of annual precipitation, constant increase in the duration of precipitation period, increased number of days with heavy and very heavy precipitation, increased maximum amount precipitation over a period of 24 hours; • maximum wind gust increase along the coastline, increased number of days with the maximum wind speed at the western wind directions along the coastline.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentRisk and vulnerability assessments have shown that the risks posed by climate change for tourism and landscape in Latvia are: the risk of changing the length and characteristics of the winter tourism season; flood risk (rising water levels in rivers and lakes); risk of flooding and coastal erosion of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, risk of changes of the length of the summer tourist season. The identified risks for the tourism industry have the following consequences: shortening of the visibility period of winter landscapes; reduction of winter tourism (activities, events); increase in the cost for providing artificial snow; decrease in the number of winter tourists; losses for Latvian tourism entrepreneurs; degradation or destruction of forestry, agricultural, natural objects and urban landscape elements; degradation or destruction of natural and cultural-historical values; changes in the visual quality and value of the landscape; degradation or destruction of tourism infrastructure; a decrease or increase in the flow of tourists in the affected areas.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to climate change scenarios assessment, in future climate change impacts to tourism will increase.
Key affected sector(s)coastal areas; transport
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe impact of climate change is observed in the Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. Changes in temperature, wind, and precipitation patterns as well as changes in extreme climatic events affect not only the sea, but the coastal erosion processes as well. Due to the increase in air temperature, the maximum ice cover area, and the duration of the ice season in the Baltic Sea have decreased. With the ice cover area and the length of the ice season reducing, larger coastal areas are exposed to coastal erosion during the intense storm season (autumn-winter). Coastal areas in Latvia are exposed to different climate change impacts, the most significantly: •Rising sea level, costal erosion. •Increase in maximum wind gusts on the seacoast, increase in the number of days with the maximum wind speed. •Increase in the annual precipitation, continuous increase in the duration of the precipitation period, increase in the number of days with heavy and very heavy precipitation, increase in the maximum daily precipitation. •Increase in the annual average air temperature, increase in the average air temperature in the winter season, increase in the minimum value of the daily maximum temperature, increase in the average air temperature in the summer months. •Decrease in the number of frost days, increase in the number of days without thaws, decrease in the average number of days with snow cover, decrease in the average snow cover thickness in the winter months, shortening of the ice period.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentThe most significant climate change risk impacting coastal areas in Latvia is coastal erosion that is increasing due to rising sea level, weather extremes and decreasing ice cover. As the ice cover area and the length of the ice season decreases, larger coastal areas are exposed to coastal erosion during the intense storm season. Damages caused by floods and storms to coastal buildings and towns along river estuaries is likely to increase.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentAccording to climate change scenarios assessment, in future climate change impacts to coastal areas will increase.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The aim of the Civil Protection and Disaster Management Law (latest amendments on 27.01.2023.) is to establish the competence of civil protection systems and disaster management entities. According to Civil Protection and Disaster Management Law municipalities have to develop their own civil protection plans that includes indicated risks, scenarios, matrices, mapping, prevention, preparedness, response and recovery measures for each risk.

Risk and vulnerability assessments were carried out by research institutions under NFI pre-defined project. Climate change risk and vulnerability assessments of specific sectors (biodiversity and ecosystem services; forestry and agriculture; tourism and landscape planning; health and welfare; building and infrastructure planning; civil protection and emergency planning) were made in 2016-2017. Currently new assessments are not available as it is resources intensive process. Latvia is planning to carry out new assessment by 2026.
Reporting on the implementation of the NAP2030 by the Ministry of Climate and Energy to the Cabinet of Ministers is planned as an informative mid-term report by 31 December 2026 on the progress of the implementation of the NAP2030 and by 31 December 2031 an informative final report on the implementation of the NAP2030.

For the preparation of informative reports on the implementation of the NAP2030, all responsible authorities and authorities with a shared responsibility that are involved in the implementation of the Plan will have to provide information respectively by 1 June 2026 and by 1 June 2031.

EPG2027 were developed and approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on the 31 of August 2022 where also is envisaged adaptation goal implementation evaluation.

The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, in cooperation with the responsible and co-responsible authorities, shall prepare an informative report regarding the implementation of the directions of actions and measures referred to in the guidelines:
- for the years 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024, by 1 October 2025;
- for 2025, 2026 and 2027 until 1 July 2028.

National legislation “Cabinet of Ministers Regulation No. 675 “GHG inventory, projections and adaptation to climate change reporting systems” establishing procedures for the preparation and reporting of national adaptation measures and information on monitoring of climate change indicators and climate change impact indicators was adopted on 25 October 2022.

Latvia is currently developing Climate Law, the will also strengthen the institutional framework for climate change monitoring.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is one of the environmental policy instruments that covers whole spectrum of environmental field.

In 2018, Latvia amended its legislation on EIA to require evaluation of the impact of climate change on development projects.
The civil protection system, which includes risk assessment and prevention, disaster management of all natural extremes in all sectors and governmental levels is included in the Civil Protection and Disaster Management Law and in National Civil Protection Plan. National Civil Protection Plan is based on risk assessments and includes references to NAP2030. Disaster risk management and civil protection is one of the five strategic goals of NAP2030. In 2022 was approved a civil protection plan for the Jelgava State city and Jelgava municipality, Rezekne State city and Rezekne municipality, Tukums municipality assessing the risks, establishing preventive, preparedness, response and mitigation measures for each risk and their implementer.
In Latvia LEGMC maintains and manages the hydrometeorological warning system at the national level, providing operational warnings for the society and public and private entities in line with the Civil protection plan. Warning information is available at http://warnings.meteo.lv or meteorological warnings and http://hidro.meteo.lv for hydrological warnings.
NAP2030 has more than 80 adaptation measures and 5 Strategic goals to address climate change risks:
• Human life, health and wellbeing are protected from the adverse effects of climate change
• The economy is capable to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and is able to use the opportunities offered by climate change
• Infrastructure and construction are climate-resilient and planned according to potential climate risks
• Latvia's nature, cultural and historical values have been preserved and the negative impact of climate change has been minimized
• Providing information based on scientific reasoning, to facilitate the integration of climate change adaptation aspects into sectoral policies and spatial development planning.
Decision-making process on climate change adaptation requires comparatively larger administrative capacity and coordination of action among various different stakeholders (governmental, scientific institutions, local authorities, different enterprises among others). . Another challenge is to involve private sector – not only public, but also private actors should implement adaptation measures, because individuals are often confronted with climate change risks.

The incentives are often not sufficient to reach the desired level of adaptation. One of the most significant barriers is the available financing to adaptation measures.
Latvia is actively integrating climate change adaptation policy and measures into decision making process and territorial development planning and spatial planning procedures. The importance of preventive measures is underlined. Further development of current legislation, e.g., construction standards, land-use guidelines etc., shall take into consideration climate change related impacts. Apart from that, Latvia integrates climate change adaptation goals into sectoral policies, plans and programs, for example, references to NAP2030 are included in “Strategy of Latvia for the Achievement of Climate Neutrality by 2050”, “Latvia’s National Energy and Climate Plan 2021–2030”, “National Development plan 2021–2027”, “Latvian National Plan of Civil Protection” etc. Climate change adaptation aspects are also included in the EPG2027 approved by Cabinet of Ministers on 31 August 2022.
Latvia actively works on integrating climate change adaptation into sectoral policies, plans and programs, for example, references to NAP2030 are included in ‘Strategy of Latvia for the Achievement of Climate Neutrality by 2050’, ‘Latvia’s National Energy and Climate Plan 2021–2030’, ‘National Development plan 2021 – 2027’, ‘Latvian National Plan of Civil Protection’ etc.

The Cultural Policy Guidelines 2022-2027 “Culture State” aim at a sustainable and accessible culture for human growth and the development of a national state.

The formulation of the objectives of the Guidelines considers the climate change aspect, stating that every sub-sector of culture can contribute to the country's progress towards climate neutrality and climate resilience by implementing activities that raise public awareness and adaptation of climate change.

Latvian Architecture Strategy 2022-2027, developed by the National Architectural Council in cooperation with the Latvian Architects Union and industry professionals.

National Library of Latvia (NLL) Emergency rescue plan preparing the NLL for disaster risks that may arise from climate change, ensuring the preservation of the stock in a preventive manner, adapting to the changes in roaming areas, and creating a culture of preparedness for crisis situations (in the development phase).

Adaptation and contribution to climate change are included in the draft Archives Strategy and in the draft Culture Monuments Protection Strategy 2023-2027.

A draft operational strategy for the State Revenue Service for the period 2023-2026 has now been developed. One of the priorities is “SUSTAINABILITY”: Investing in the future of society to adapt to global change under the objective of “Optimised resource management and mitigation of adverse environmental and climate impacts”. A number of climate change adaptation measures are scheduled to be implemented by 2026.

A National Regional and Local Road Construction Strategy has been developed by 2027: the Road Maintenance Programme and the Road Construction Strategy include measures to reduce the proportion of roads in poor condition, which is one of the key factors for climate impacts in relation to road infrastructure.

The EPG2027 is a medium-term policy planning document for the environmental protection sector. It is developed in accordance with the Latvian National Development Plan 2021-2027 and the strategic objectives of the European Green Deal.
 EPG2027 have two directions of action related to Climate change adaptation and promotion of resilience:
· 4th Course of action: Reduce the vulnerability of Latvia's people, economy, infrastructure, buildings and nature to the effects of climate change;
 · 22nd Course of action: Adaptation to climate change and flood risk management.
 Several measures related to Climate change adaptation and promotion of resilience are included in EPG2027:
 · Improve the stormwater management system in cities and towns by developing local governments' climate change adaptation strategies;
 · Develop and implement risk assessment-based local government adaptation strategies to climate change;
 · Develop strategies, plans or guidelines for adaptation of economic sectors to climate change based on risk assessments;
 · Assess the impact of state budget planning on mitigating and adapting to climate change;
 · Conduct an assessment of current practices and develop proposals to integrate aspects of climate change mitigation and adaptation into economic sectors.
 

Regional Policy Guidelines for 2021-2027 (approved by Cabinet Order No 587 of 26 November 2019).

MEPRD has established an expert group on adaptation and inter-institutional working group on adaptation. Both groups actively contributed to the development of the NAP. Experts from agencies, scientific institutions, ministries, municipalities, business and NGOs participated in workshops and conferences regarding climate change scenarios, risk and vulnerability assessment, discussions on indicators and adaptation monitoring system, flood risk warning system, spatial and coastal zone planning. Publications and information with explanation of results and outcomes from projects and documents were published and promoted in media.

In the education system of primary and secondary schools in Latvia, environmental science is mainly run as an interdisciplinary theme and is integrated within the content of various courses as biology, geography, chemistry, physics, natural science and physics. New disciplines’ standard projects foreseen that environmental science and sustainable development issues are included in school studies.
The most vulnerable stakeholders are elderly people, children, people with special needs, people employed in agriculture, forestry, tourism, people living on the coastal areas and flood risk areas.

Measures addressing vulnerable stakeholders:

Almost all 80 adaptation measures in NAP2030 addresses vulnerable stakeholders, for example, one of NAP2030’s strategic goals is ‘Human life, health and well-being, regardless of gender, age and social background, are protected from the adverse effects of climate change’. This goal includes measures like improvement of early warning system (especially on weather extremes), access to free drinking water in public places, awareness rising among educational and social care institutions, development of recommendations for social care institutions and social workers on health prevention measures during heat waves etc.

During developing NAP2030 the engaging and cooperation with relevant stakeholders, including sectoral authorities, interest groups, NGOs or representatives from the private sector, was active. Since NAP2030 is adopted by Cabinet of Ministers, the cooperation with stakeholders is more in form of informing, consulting, exchanging information, integrating climate change adaptation issues in policy planning documents. The relevant departments of MEPRD and responsible authorities of vulnerable sectors are informed about adaptation measures defined in NAP. MEPRD is working on enhancing the available information on climate change and climate change adaptation for stakeholders.
Private sector was involved during developing risk assessments, but adaptation measures of climate change adaptation plan are not directly addressed to private sector (the ministries are responsible authorities for implementation of adaptation measures). There are no legal requirements for private sector to implement measures to adapt to climate change, but private sector will benefit from implementing adaptation measures, because of avoided costs.

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Not reported
LEGMC carried out the analysis of previous and future climate change observations and developed climate change scenarios in Latvia. The theoretical fundamentals of the monitoring system were based on the analysis approach that provides for examining measures of changing vulnerability, i.e. aggregation and monitoring of vulnerability indicators with a focus on particular indicators which cover the general factors of vulnerability. In turn, experts of national economy sectors, based on the obtained climate data, carried out the analysis of climate change impacts, risk and vulnerability assessment, cost-benefit analysis, and also selected the most important indicators of climate change impact for the relevant field. The indicators of climate change impacts identified by experts, vulnerability assessment of the field and data necessary for its calculation were summarized in a single database that is maintained and supplemented with new data and the monitoring of climate change and sectoral vulnerability is carried out.

According to NAP2030, the monitoring of climate change and climate change adaptation system consists of two parts. The first is based on an climate change analysis, while the second is based on a sectoral vulnerability assessment:
1. Climate change monitoring (provided by the LEGMC) is carried out by summarizing and analysing selected meteorological parameters and climate indexes, their changes over time and trends.
2. The climate change impact monitoring database maintains the selected climate change impact indicators, in order to monitor sector's vulnerability to observed climate change.

Flood risk management plans and early warning systems have been elaborated for all territories under significant flood risk. The Flood Risk Information System (PRIS) is a real-time civil protection and spatial planning instrument, maintained in real-time mode, providing national and local authorities with relevant digital cartographic materials, enabling the timely and qualitative integration of flood risks into different level spatial planning documents, and providing high-quality information to the authorities responsible for coordinating action in the event of floods. THE PRIS combines extensive and versatile information related to forecasts for hydrometeorological parameters, including warnings, flood maps, and the predicted display of parameters in the form of maps. PRIS provides operational and prognostic information on hydrometeorological parameters (water level, water flow rate, air and water temperature) and maps of flooding areas for the river basin areas of Daugava, Lielupe, Gauja and Venta.

Evaluation of the implementation of NAP2030 is planned in the midterm (2026) and at the end (2031). MEPRD is coordinating with responsible authorities and developing system to collect and publish information about implemented adaptation measures (implemented by local governments, institutions, ministries, private sector etc).
MEPRD has the overall responsibility of the development of NAP2030 and coordination of implementation of NAP2030. Responsible authorities for implementation also include Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Welfare, Ministry of Economics, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education and Science and other ministries. The task of each responsible ministry is to coordinate the activities of the NAP2030 which belong to their area of responsibility.

Evaluation of implementation of adaptation measures of NAP2030 is planned in the midterm and at the end: the midterm evaluation report of implementation is to be prepared and submitted to Cabinet of Ministers by 31 December 2026 (information about period 2020-2025). The final report – by 31 December 2031 (information about period 2026-2030).

National legislation “Cabinet of Ministers Regulation No. 675 “GHG inventory, projections and adaptation to climate change reporting systems” establishing procedures for the preparation and reporting of national adaptation measures and information on monitoring of climate change indicators and climate change impact indicators was adopted on 25 October 2022.
NAP2030 is a long-term planning document and does not include cost evaluation of adaptation measures. Evaluation of implementation of adaptation measures of NAP2030 is planned in the midterm (2026) and at the end (2031).

To implement adaptation measures, Latvia uses a broad range of financial possibilities: state and municipality funding, EU funding (ERDF, ESF, CF, EAFRD, EMFF, Life, Horizon 2020 programme), the European Economic Area (EEA) and the Norway Financial mechanism (also for the period 2014-2021), State budget financing through certain funds, e.g. Latvian Environmental Protection Fund (LEPF), Latvian Environmental Investment Fund (LEIF) and Rural Support Service.

We are currently planning measures with regards to the EU funds for 2021-2027, Recovery and Resilience Facility and they will include also measures for climate change adaptation. Within the framework of the European Union structural and investment funds (ESI funds) 2021-2027, activities aimed at adaptation to climate changes are planned. The activities planned are in accordance with the National Development Plan for 2021-2027. Investments will be targeted at the reducing of the risks of floods, coastal erosion, as well as other measures envisaged in local climate adaptation strategies (part of municipal development programs). The use of "green and blue” solutions will be encouraged in the implementation of the activities, as they can help to reduce the "heat island" effect, reduce flood, coastal erosion and other risks and impacts of the climate change. These ERDF investments will sum up to 93.53 mln. euro.

Taking into account current and future disasters, their frequency and consequences, improving disaster management (prevention, preparedness, responsiveness) activities are also planned. This would include the support for the development of the capacity and responsiveness of rescue services. For the purchase of State Fire and Rescue Service special vehicles, it is planned to mobilise ERDF funding for the European Union Cohesion Policy Programme 2021-2027 for the objective of 2.1.3 “Promote adaptation to climate change, prevention of risks and disaster resilience”. The measure is intended to redirect EUR 31.737 mln. euro and the extension of environmental monitoring network (total ERDF investments in monitoring up to 10 mln. euro).

In addition, it is planned that the European Recovery and Resilience fund (RRF) would include activities for the climate changes adaptation, risk prevention and disaster resilience. RRF investments are planned to strengthen the capacity of rescue services (especially modernization of the infrastructure and fleet of the rescue services), improvement of flood risk mitigation infrastructure (incl. the renovation of polder pumping stations, restoration of protective dams, restoration of regulated sections of potomal rivers) Investments in adaptation of the disaster management system to climate change, coordination of rescue and rapid response services are planned in amount of 36.630 mln euro and investments in Environmental adaptation measures (mitigation of flood risks) are planned in amount of 32.967 mln euro.

In general, within the framework of both investment mechanisms, all activities are planned to be implemented in accordance with the DNSH (do no significant harm) principle, where one of the assessment criteria is also adaptation to climate change.
This information is integrated in item above.
The measures for adaptation to climate change to a large extent should be implemented within the scope of the functions and obligations of the responsible and involved authorities laid down in laws and regulations (for example, civil protection, flood protection measures, compliance with building climatology and other building standards, etc.) and the Plan ensures the necessary vision on the adjustment of customary measures to the new climatic conditions and also, where necessary, introduces effective planning, coordination, monitoring, etc.

To the extent possible, it is planned to implement the measures and tasks outlined in the Plan within the limits of the allocated State budget funds and by attracting financial means of the EU and other sources and private capital, depending on the nature of the measure. The issue concerning the allocation of additional State budget funds (if any) to responsible authorities involved in the implementation of the Plan shall be assessed during the implementation of the Plan and shall be examined by the Cabinet together with the applications of priority measures submitted by all ministries and central State institutions in the process of preparing and examining the draft annual State budget law and the draft framework of the medium-term budget in accordance with the financial capacities of the State budget.

The required amount of funding for the implementation of the objectives laid down in the Plan and the actions included therein cannot be calculated since this is a long-term (for the period until 2030) development planning document and climate change forecasts show uncertainty; moreover, the policies of many involved sectors are not planned for the period after 2020. The European Commission has published proposals for the EU Multiannual Financial Framework 2021–2027 where it is planned to allocate 25% of the total available funding for climate change activities in different funds. Although the EU Multiannual Financial Framework has not been approved and planned accurately, it is already expected that the financing will be available for climate-related measures, including adaptation to climate change activities.
To reduce climate change impacts and risks, MEPRD as the responsible authority for the climate change adaptation policy in Latvia, has developed NAP2030 with more than 80 adaptation measures.

Evaluation of implementation of adaptation measures of NAP2030 is planned in the midterm and at the end: the midterm evaluation report of implementation is to be prepared and submitted to Cabinet of Ministers by 31 December 2026 (information about period 2020-2025). The final report – by 31 December 2031 (information about period 2026-2030).

To reduce climate change impacts, Latvia integrates climate objectives in various policy planning documents and guidelines. For example, guidelines of long-term development programs for local governments, National Plan for Civil Protection, Operational Programme of Latvia for 2021 to 2027. References to NAP are included in ‘Strategy of Latvia for the Achievement of Climate Neutrality by 2050’, ‘Latvia’s National Energy and Climate Plan 2021–2030’, ‘National Development plan 2021 – 2027’ , EPG2027. Evaluation of progress also is applicable to plans and strategies mentioned above.

Flood risk management plans and early warning systems have been elaborated for all territories under significant flood risk. PRIS provides operational and prognostic information on hydrometeorological parameters (water level, water flow rate, air and water temperature) and maps of flooding areas for the river basin areas of Daugava, Lielupe, Gauja and Venta.

Norwegian Financial Mechanism programme “Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Environment”,on April 23 2019, an agreement has been signed between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Norway and the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Latvia on the implementation of the Norway Grants programme "Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation and Environment" (Programme) in Latvia. Objective: Climate change mitigated and vulnerability to climate change reduced.https://www.varam.gov.lv/en[…]-adaptation-and-environment

INTERREG Baltic Sea region project Land-Sea-Act, The project will guide national, regional and local authorities, as well as stakeholders of various sectors to:
improve transnational cooperation and facilitate knowledge exchange to foster Blue Growth;
raise awareness, knowledge and skills to enhance Blue Growth initiatives and integrated development in coastal areas;
balance development of new sea uses with coastal community interests by improving coastal governance.https://www.varam.gov.lv/en[…]region-project-land-sea-act
Latvia is actively integrating climate change adaptation policy and measures into decision making process and territorial development planning and spatial planning procedures. The importance of preventive measures is underlined. Further development of current legislation, e.g., construction standards, land-use guidelines etc., shall take into consideration climate change related impacts. Apart from that, Latvia integrates climate change adaptation goals into sectoral policies, plans and programs, for example, references to NAP are included in “Strategy of Latvia for the Achievement of Climate Neutrality by 2050”, “National Development plan 2021–2027”, “Latvian National Plan of Civil Protection” etc. Climate change adaptation aspects are also included in the EPG2027 approved by Cabinet of Ministers on 31 August 2022.

Detailed evaluation of progress towards meeting the adaptation priorities is planned to be included in midterm evaluation report of NAP2030. Detailed information on this item is not available in 2022, however see attached information on progress of implementing some of the NAP2030 measures Progress towards addressing barriers to adaptation.
Detailed evaluation of progress towards meeting the adaptation priorities is planned to be included in midterm evaluation report of NAP2030. Detailed information on progress of implementation of measures is attached as an additional document.
To address barriers to adaptation, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development of Latvia (MEPRD) supports and is involved in projects and programs.
Risk and vulnerability assessments on primary and secondary impacts of climate change have been carried out in 2016 - 2017. Currently new assessments are not available as it is resources intensive process. Latvia is planning to carry out new assessment by 2026.
Evaluation of implementation of adaptation measures of NAP2030 is planned in the midterm and at the end:

The midterm evaluation report of implementation is to be prepared and submitted to Cabinet of Ministers by 31 December 2026 (information about period 2020-2025). The final report – by 31 December 2031 (information about period 2026-2030). Review of NAP2030 is not planned jet.

Good practices and lessons learnt

Not reported

Cooperation and experience

The strategic goals and adaptation measures of Latvian National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change until 2030 are in line with the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Sustainable Development Goals and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
Latvia is a member of IPCC, WMO, EUMETSAT, NORDMET, ECMWF, HELCOM. Latvia cooperates with Union Member States, international cooperation, and with regional and international organisations to share information and to strengthen science, institutions and adaptive knowledgethough participation in scientific organizations and projects. In addition, Representatives from Latvia participate as project partners in EU Horizon 2020 projects, LIFE 2014-2020 programme sub-programme Action Climate and Interreg programmes projects where both environmental quality and climate change are tackled from aspects of environmental and urban environmental quality as well as climate change adaptation.
To enhance adaptation action an international cooperation is mostly related to international initiatives, programmes and projects, such as “Integration of climate change adaptation into the work of local authorities”/ LIFE LOCAL ADAPT (LIFE15 CCA/DE/000133), “Common methodology for the development of Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans”/LIFE Adaptate (LIFE16 CCA/ES/000049). Norwegian Financial Instrument (NFI) pre-defined project (PDP) “Integration of climate change policy into sectoral and regional policies” is under implementation, where climate change adaption related activities are included.

Currently, Latvian municipalities are being active taking part in the initiative “Covenant of Mayors Europe” activities. Twenty-five Latvian municipalities as members should be talking on a forefront action and develop their Sustainable energy and climate change strategies (SECAP), which would be preconditional action to fulfil requirements in order to develop their climate change action plans in 2021. At the moment, several municipalities have developed the adaption plans by 2030. http://www.ekodoma.lv/en/projects/own-your-secap
“Developing and demonstrating portfolio of nature based and smart solutions for improving urban climate resilience in Latvia and Estonia” LIFE21-CCA-EE-LIFE LATESTadapt.Overall objective of the project:

Increase the adaptability of cities of Latvia and Estonia to extreme weather conditions by promoting the use of nature-based solutions, the introduction of digital solutions and capacity building in local governments, promoting the capacity of local governments to function in extreme weather conditions (heat waves, rainstorms, wind floods, etc.) through green infrastructure solutions.https://www.varam.gov.lv/lv[…]n-igaunija-life-latestadapt

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

MEPRD actively collaborates with national authorities within different working groups. For example, MEPRD has established an expert group on adaptation and inter-institutional working group on adaptation. Both groups actively contributed to the development of the NAP2030. Experts from agencies, scientific institutions, planning regions, ministries, municipalities, business and NGOs participated in workshops and conferences regarding climate change scenarios, risk and vulnerability assessment, discussions on indicators and adaptation monitoring system, flood risk warning system, spatial and coastal zone planning.
Planning regions and municipalities implement different projects, including projects regarding climate issues which promote the creation of networks that are used as platform for regular information exchange and sharing best practices. Regular experience and good practice exchange workshops take place between planning regions and municipalities.

Publications and information with explanation of results and outcomes from projects and documents were published and promoted in media. Furthermore, a consistent exchange of information and experience is being practiced between planning regions and municipalities.
In Latvia several municipalities/cities have developed their climate change adaptation strategies on a voluntary basis. Within Covenant of Mayors, 25municipalities/cities have committed to develop Sustainable Energy (and Climate) Action Plan (SECAP). Action plan describes the steps towards its 2020 or 2030 targets. Part of municipalities have developed their climate change adaptation strategies or included climate change adaptation parts in SECAPs or sustainable development programs. The main task for local governments is to assess which climate change risks are already causing and in the future will cause the greatest threat to the residents of the region, entrepreneurs and infrastructure.
Planning regions and municipalities actively engage in international initiatives and projects. Latvian municipalities are being active taking part in the initiative “Covenant of Mayors Europe” activities. Recently two planning regions joined to EU Mission "Adaptation to climate change”.
Local authorities seek to involve entrepreneurs in the implementation of adaptation measures. Municipalities are also taking educational measures for entrepreneurs on integrated aspects of climate change mitigation and adaptation to climate change in sectoral and regional policies and activities.
Monitoring and evaluation of adaptation actions and processes are planned –within the midterm NAP2030 evaluation report of implementation to be prepared and submitted to Cabinet of Ministers by 31 December 2026 (information about period 2020-2025). The final report – by 31 December 2031 (information about period 2026-2030).
Reporting on the implementation of the NAP2030 by the Ministry of Climate and Energy to the Cabinet of Ministers is planned as an informative mid-term report by 31 December 2026 on the progress of the implementation of the NAP2030 and by 31 December 2031 an informative final report on the implementation of the NAP2030.

In the end of 2022 LEGMC published climate profiles for municipalities. Local governments' climate profiles are information on climate indicators for each of Latvia's municipalities and Latvia's cities, with the climate indicators of individual local governments, based on weather observation data and future climate models.

The information gathered in climate profiles will be used by municipalities in the development of local government adaptation strategies as well as, for example, in updating civil protection plans. Information on climate indicators is available on the website of the LEGMC. The map shows the breakdowns of the four climate index risk classes in each Latvian municipality (heat waves, cold waves, snow thickness and severe rainfall risk classes), dividing the impact of each risk on the municipality.

It is possible to see not only the indicators of the chosen municipality, but also a comparison with other municipalities.
To enhance adaptation action, an international cooperation is mostly related to international initiatives, programmes and projects, such as “Integration of climate change adaptation into the work of local authorities”/ LIFE LOCAL ADAPT (LIFE15 CCA/DE/000133), “Common methodology for the development of Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans”/LIFE Adaptate (LIFE16 CCA/ES/000049). Norwegian Financial Instrument (NFI) pre-defined project (PDP) “Integration of climate change policy into sectoral and regional policies” is under implementation, where climate change adaption related activities are included.

Currently, Latvian municipalities are being active taking part in the initiative “Covenant of Mayors Europe” activities. Twenty-five Latvian municipalities as members should be talking on a forefront action and develop their Sustainable energy and climate change strategies (SECAP), which would be preconditional action to fulfill requirements in order to develop their climate change action plans.

Ministry of Climate and Energy of Latvia

Climate Change Department
Climate Change adaptation policy
Kristine Zommere-Rotcenkova
Expert

Relevant websites and social media source

[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'