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Information on national adaptation actions reported under the Governance Regulation

Reporting updated until: 2023-03-15

Item Status Links
National Adaptation Strategy (NAS)
  • actual adaptation policy (adopted)
Climate Risk Assessment (CRA)
  • being developed
Meteorological observations
  • Established
Climate projections and services
  • Established
Adaptation portals and platforms
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
  • Established
Monitoring, reporting and evaluation (MRE) indicators and methodologies
  • Established
  • Ongoing in research programmes
Key reports and publications
National communication to the UNFCCC
Governance regulation adaptation reporting
The climate of Poland is characterized by great variability of weather and significant changes in the course of the seasons in subsequent years. Average values of the annual air temperature in the period 2001-2021 ranged from 7,5 ° C (2010) to nearly 10,2 ° C (2019). The warmest area is the south-western part of Poland, while the coldest is the north-eastern part of the country and mountain areas in the south. . The increase of the average annual temperature during the period 1951-2020 is characterized by a positive, statistically significant (at level of 1 – a = 0.95) trend of 0.29°C/10 years. It corresponds to an increase of temperature in the given period from 1951 up to 2.0°C. The variation in air temperature affects the length of the growing season and the period of active plant growth. On average, the growing season in Poland lasts 214 days, ranging from 199 to 233 days in accordance with the north-east-south-west temperature gradient. On the basis of the average daily air temperature in Poland, there are six seasons: early spring (0–5 ° C), spring (5–15 ° C), summer (above 15 ° C), autumn (5–15 ° C) early winter (0–5 ° C), winter (below 0 ° C). Precipitation is highly dependent on the shape of the terrain. The average rainfall is nearly 600 mm, but rainfall ranges from less than 500 mm in the central part of Poland to almost 800 mm on the coast and over 1000 mm in the Tatra Mountains. The highest amounts of precipitation fall in the summer months, during this period they are 2-3 times higher than in winter, and in the Carpathians even 4 times higher. Heavy rain (precipitation> 2 mm / min) occurs from April to September, with the highest frequency in July, and is often associated with the occurrence of storms.

The greatest impact on climatic conditions is exerted by extreme phenomena, the current intensification of which noticeably changes the dynamics of climate features in Poland. Among the unfavorable and burdensome thermal phenomena for the population in Poland is the appearance of severe heat waves, especially since the 1990s (series of days with a maximum daily air temperature of =30 ° C for at least 3 days) and hot days (with a maximum temperature of =30 ° C), most often found in the south-western part of Poland. In most of Poland, there is a downward trend in the number of frosty and very frosty days.

There has been a change in the structure of precipitation in most of Poland. Among other things, an increase in the number of days with high intensity rainfall (daily rainfall over 50 mm) was observed, especially in the southern regions. The analysis of the length of the periods without precipitation shows that in the entire eastern Poland (from the Vistula to the east), the rain-free period is extended even by 5 days / decade. It is the region of the country that is most often hit by drought disasters (including hydrological drought). The periodic appearance of droughts is a characteristic feature of the Polish climate. In the 20th century, droughts already occurred 24 times, and since the beginning of the 21st century, between 2001–2011, droughts have occurred 9 times in different periods of the year.

Drought is by far the most important challenge for Poland in terms of climate change. Even at the beginning of 2020, analytical models indicated that if long-term, moderate rainfall did not occur in the coming weeks, Poland would experience the worst drought in 50 years. The assessment of the drought from the 1987-2018 period indicates that as much as 55.6% of our country's area is at a high risk of drought. The areas with the highest, extreme risk level cover nearly 5% of the country.

The data is sourced from various reports from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB)

Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (NAS 2020)
The population structure in Poland is changing quantitatively and qualitatively. At the end of 2021, the population of Poland amounted to 37.908 million with the negative birth rate of –188,0 thousand, which has been noted at the lowest level for last 9 years urban population accounts for 60% of the total. The birth rate in cities was negative in 2021 (-128,3 thousand), moreover, in 2021 49,2 thousand people emigrated from cities within the country. These city rates were the lowest in history. The drop in the number of births noted in recent years confirms that the population processes that have been shaping over the past 30 years have caused Poland to enter the period of another demographic crisis, which may have the character of a longer tendency. The currently observed demographic changes pose two particularly significant challenges. The first is the declining total population - in extreme cases taking the form of depopulation and shrinking cities. According to the forecast of the Statistics Poland published in 2017, by 2030 the population of Poland will decrease by about 4.5 million inhabitants, and the decrease will be almost entirely related to the number of urban residents. The second key challenge is the aging of the population. The change in the age structure of the population is due to three main reasons: increasing life expectancy, falling birth rates and migration processes. Statistics Poland (GUS) forecasts a decline in the working age population of 5.5 million people between 2013-2050. The forecast of the population of communes for the years 2017-2030 indicates, above all, the strong development of the main urban agglomerations and adjacent areas. They will continue to attract people from more peripheral areas. At the same time, a continuation of the suburbanization process should be expected, which will lead to the expansion of the areas of individual agglomerations and a significant increase in the population in the adjacent communes to big cities. Out of 39 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, only 6 are projected to increase their population (Rzeszów, Warsaw, Gdansk, Kraków, Wroclaw and Zielona Góra); however, only in Rzeszów and Warsaw it will be an increase above 5% (by 7.2% and 5.1%, respectively). The forecast also points to a rapid aging of the population that will take place in the near future. In 2030, communes with a share of the elderly exceeding 20% will constitute almost two-thirds of all communes in Poland.

Source: Statistics Poland (GUS)
The most significant effects of climate change in Poland will be an increased frequency of extreme weather events and disasters, which will have a serious impact on vulnerable areas, the country's infrastructure and the economy. Heavy rains with the risk of flooding and inundation or landslides will be of primary importance - mainly in mountain and upland areas, but also on the slopes of river valleys and on cliffs along the seashore. Drought will increasingly affect the agricultural sector and the availability of drinking water and, consequently, the national economy. Increasingly stronger winds, tornadoes and storms will significantly affect, among others, construction, energy and transport infrastructure.

The proposed course of action in the field of adapting infrastructure to climate change is included in many strategic documents, e.g. National Adaptation Strategy 2020, National Environmental Policy 2030, National Urban Policy 2030, Polish Energy Policy until 2040. The actions that are the most significant for infrastructure and economy in the light of adapting to climate change are as follow:
1. Taking into account the possibility of supporting the non-life insurance system from public funds and taking into account measures to minimize the effects of extreme events tailored to the specificity of specific territories (including in the area of infrastructure and construction).
2. Flood risk management, including the provision of critical infrastructure; increasing the retention capacity and restoration of watercourses.
3. Development of water-drainage infrastructure and other infrastructure mitigating natural hazards
4. Water management for protection against floods, drought and water shortage.
5. Strengthening forest fire protection through the development of fire risk monitoring systems and fire protection infrastructure related to forest protection.
6. Development of local adaptation plans, modernization and proper functioning of the sewage and rainwater infrastructure, implementation of innovative solutions in construction and infrastructure as well as model development of green urban space.
7. Adaptation of legal acts and technical regulations regarding documenting changes in geological conditions and natural resources, designing, building and adapting transport infrastructure to climate change, especially in areas exposed to the risk of flooding, flooded and landslides
8. Monitoring of climate change in advance, which is of particular importance in agricultural production. The monitoring results should constitute an element of information activities supporting the development of agricultural production and the use of modern agrotechnical methods. On the other hand, monitoring of emergencies in rural areas is crucial for the population, infrastructure and farms and should be directly linked to the local alert system.
9. Establishing permanent monitoring or adapting current monitoring systems to control elements of construction and transport infrastructure sensitive to climate change, and creating or adapting warning systems for technical services
10. Gradual replacement of overhead lines with cable lines (especially low voltage lines).
11. Preferring the construction of blocks with closed cooling systems, mainly through environmental decisions.

All mentioned actions are directly related to the most common and important risks that climate change is posing on the polish infrastructure and economy.

Source: "Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030” (NAS 2020); National Urban Policy 2030; National Environmental Policy (PEP 2030), Polish Energy Policy until 2040.
In terms of monitoring, modeling, forecasting and scenarios related to climate metrological phenomena, the most important institutions are Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) and Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOS-PIB).

IMGW-PIB conducts continuous air temperature monitoring, including gathering information on the classification of thermal conditions, variability of thermal conditions and recording of extreme temperatures. These data have been monitored annually since 1951.

Since then, water levels in the Baltic Sea have been monitored as well. In the period 1951-2021 the water level in the southern part of the basin has been systematically increasing. The growth rate is varied, higher in the eastern part of the coast (mean sea level increase by nearly 13,1 cm in Swinoujscie and by almost 15,1 cm in Wladyslawowo during the above-mentioned period).

IMGW-PIB carries out research on classification of pluvial conditions, probability of exceeding maximum daily precipitation, cumulated precipitation and number of days with precipitation as well as storm measurements at selected stations.

IMGW-PIB provides insolation data and has prepared a list of extreme weather phenomena that occurred in Poland in 2021.

The above data were published in a report "Climate of Poland 2021".

In case of monitoring and prediction of flood risk in Poland, the main institutions responsible are the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute and the National Water Management Authority which is National Water Holding “Polish Waters”. As part of measures to minimise the negative effects associated with flood risk, flood hazard and flood risk maps and Flood Risk Management Plans (PZRP) were drawn up for the entire area of Poland. Flood Risk Management Plans were adopted in 2022. The main objective of the PZRP is to reduce the potential negative effects of floods on human life and health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity, through the implementation of measures to minimize the identified threats. These activities will be carried out to reduce flood losses.

The flood risk maps show areas with a specific probability of flooding:
 - areas with a low probability of flooding of once in 500 years (Q 0.2%);
 - areas with a medium probability of flooding of once in 100 years (1%);
 - areas with a high probability of flooding of once in 10 years (Q 10%).

The flood hazard maps are complemented by flood risk maps that identify potential flood losses and show the facilities that could be flooded if floods with a certain probability occurrence.

In terms of drought monitoring in Poland, there is an Agricultural Drought Monitoring System. It is operated by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation. The developed system includes computer applications that integrate meteorological data needed to calculate the climatic water balance (KBW) and data from a digital soil-agricultural map showing the spatial differentiation of water retention of various agronomic soil categories. The task of monitoring agricultural drought is to identify areas where drought losses occur.

Flood risk management plans were adopted in October 2016 for three river basin districts in Poland (i.e. Odra River Basin, Vistula River Basin and Pregola River Basin).

In 2021 the Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought (PPSS) was adopted. The main objectives of the PPSS are:
• effective water resources management to increase available water resources,
• increasing water retention (storage)
• education in field of drought and coordination of drought-related activities,
• creation of mechanisms for implementation and financing of activities aimed at counteracting the effects of drought.

PPSS is developed for a period of 6 years (2021-2027).

In terms of water quality in Poland within the framework of the State Environmental Monitoring, the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (GIOS) performs monitoring of surface and groundwater quality.

The aim of the monitoring is to provide knowledge on the condition of waters, which is necessary to take action to improve their condition and protect them from pollution. These activities should ensure protection against eutrophication caused by household and agricultural sources and protection against industrial pollution, including salinity and substances especially harmful to the aquatic environment.

The aim of groundwater quality monitoring is to provide information on the chemical status of groundwaters, to monitor its changes and to signal threats in the scale of the country, for the purposes of groundwater resources management and the assessment of the effectiveness of undertaken protective measures. Groundwater monitoring in Poland is carried out through the national, regional and local networks.

In terms of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, the National Database on Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Other Substances is maintained. The body responsible for coordinating the work within the database is The National Centre for Emissions Management (KOBiZE), which is part of the Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute. The National Base is an IT system, containing a secure database, which enables entering and processing information on emissions.

Another project coordinating by KOBiZE is LIFE Climate CAKE PL. The main objective of the project is to develop a sustainable and comprehensive system for creating and exchanging information and knowledge in order to support the effective and efficient implementation of the EU climate and energy policies. This is aimed mainly at supporting the process of decision-making and enhancing the potential of knowledge and competences within the public administration dealing with the issues of climate and energy policies.

In terms of monitoring hazards related to mass movements, there is the Anti-Landslide Protection System (SOPO). The system was established in 2006 to effectively prevent damage to the construction and communication infrastructure. The project is implemented by the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute. The effect of the SOPO project is therefore the reduction of the risk of landslides.
The Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute (IOS-PIB) is implementing the Project co-funded by the European Union, entitled: “The knowledge base on climate change and adapting to climate change impacts, together with knowledge dissemination channels, to strengthen economic, environmental and societal resilience as well as to support management of extraordinary risks associated with climate change” (Klimada 2.0). The project comprised i.a. development of climate scenarios in the perspective up to 2100 for parameters: temperature, radiation, precipitation, wind, snow, humidity, nebulosity, renewables.

The reference information for the development of climate scenarios in Poland in the conditions of the future climate up to 2100 are simulations using global models, which are the basis for the development of IPCC Assessment Reports.

The results presented on Klimada 2.0 portal come from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) set. On the basis of these data, regional projections are created under the international CORDEX6 initiative, of which EuroCORDEX7 is a part of the European area. The results of regional climate models available in the EuroCORDEX repository are input data for research on the regional impacts of climate change in various sectors in most European countries.

Using numerous experiences of European countries, the conditions of the future climate for the territory of Poland were determined on the basis of the results of climate simulations carried out as part of the EuroCORDEX project, for the period 2006-2100. The available simulations with regional climate models were used for the area covering the whole of Europe, with a resolution of 0.11 o (approx. 12.5 km).

The analyzes for Poland were carried out for two development scenarios described by the acronyms RCP4.5 and RCP8.59. The moderate RCP4.5 scenario assumes a further increase in CO2 concentrations, respectively to 540 ppm in 2100, and the achievement of the radiative forcing of 4.5 W / m2, while the RCP8.5 extrapolation scenario corresponds to an increase in CO2 concentrations to 940 ppm in 2100 and a continuous increase radiation input to the level of 8.5 W / m2.

The basic meteorological parameters enabling the determination of exposure and sensitivity to climate change are:
• Average daily temperature
• Maximum daily temperature
• Minimum daily temperature
• Daily sum of rainfall
• Daily sum of short-wave radiation
• Average daily wind speed components

All available model results for the above four parameters were downloaded from the EuroCORDEX repository. Several implementations were available for each parameter. A single unique series of calculations is clearly defined by identifying a pair: the regional climate model (RCM) used as a calculation tool for dynamic scaling and the global climate model (GCM), the results of which were used as the so-called boundary conditions for simulation.

To calculate the forecasts of climate change for Poland, statistical scaling based on historical data based on observations and the cluster approach allowing for the assessment of projection uncertainty were additionally used.

Climate of Poland 2021 (developed by IMGW-PIB)

In turn, the methodology of the document prepared by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, containing analyzes of the variability of thermal conditions, was based on the determination of uniform temperature values for the basic physio-geographical units of Poland. They are (from the north): the Coast belt and the Southern-Baltic Coastlands belt, the lake districts belt, the lowlands belt, the uplands belt, the Podkarpacie, the Carpathians and the Sudetes. Additionally, in order to reflect the impact of the Atlantic Ocean and the Asian continent, the lowlands belt and the lake districts were divided into western and eastern parts along the 19 ° E meridian. Such a division allows showing possible differences related to the thermal regionalization of Poland.

In terms of the amount of precipitation, the modeling was based on the classification of pluvial conditions and cumulative rainfall totals and the number of days with precipitation. Expressing the amount of rainfall in a given year as a percentage of the amount of rainfall in a normal period allows for the introduction of a classification that allows for a descriptive presentation of pluvial conditions that prevailed in a given station or in a given area. As regards the method of measuring by means of cumulative precipitation and the number of days with precipitation, it makes it possible to easily identify the periods of deficit or excess of precipitation in relation to multi-year periods and, moreover, it identifies periods with no precipitation or very little precipitation as well as instances of high precipitation values.

In addition, the Climatic Water Balance (KBW) is measured, which is the difference between precipitation recharge, i.e. the amount of precipitation, and field evaporation, which can be determined either by measurements or by empirical formulas. A positive KBW value means that there was an excess of precipitation over evaporation in the period to which it applies. In the case of a negative KBW, the opposite is true, evaporation outweighs precipitation.

As part of monitoring and obtaining data on hydrological and meteorological hazards, IMGW-PIB and National Water Management Authority provide data within the framework of Hydroportal and IMGW's map service. The hydroportal provides data on the preliminary flood risk assessment, flood risk maps, water management plans, flood hazard maps, flood risk management plans. These data sources are publicly available to any portal user in the form of WMS and WFS data (weblink: https://wody.isok.gov.pl/imap_kzgw/).

In the case of IMGW service one can find there information indicating areas of Poland where hydrological and meteorological threats occur (IMGW-PIB warnings). Additionally, there are available data such as:

Map of air pollution due to meteorological conditions,

Map of surface and groundwater intakes in areas at risk of flooding,

Map of disturbances in electrical power networks due to meteorological conditions,

Map of threats to human life and health due to meteorological conditions (weblink: https://imgw.isok.gov.pl/imap_imgw/).

Both described services are part of the System of Protection Against Extreme Hazards (ISOK).
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Observed climate hazards
WaterAcuteDrought
Flood
Heavy precipitation
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and types
Precipitation hydrological variability
Sea level rise
Solid massAcuteLandslide
ChronicCoastal_erosion
Sol degradation
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frost
Heat wave
Wildfire
ChronicChanging temperature
Temperature variability
WindAcuteStorm
Chronic
Hazard type Acute/Chronic Future climate hazards Qualitative trend
WaterAcuteDroughtsignificantly increasing
Floodsignificantly increasing
Heavy precipitationwithout significant change
ChronicChanging precipitation patterns and typeswithout significant change
Precipitation hydrological variabilitywithout significant change
Sea level risewithout significant change
Solid massAcuteLandslide Futurewithout significant change
ChronicCoastal erosionwithout significant change
Sol degradationwithout significant change
TemperatureAcuteCold wave frostsignificantly decreasing
Heat wavesignificantly increasing
Wildfirewithout significant change
ChronicChanging temperaturesignificantly increasing
Temperature variabilitywithout significant change
WindAcuteStormwithout significant change
Chronic
Climate change will significantly determine the state of biodiversity as it affects the range of species, including invasive alien species, their reproductive cycles, growing seasons and interactions with the environment. Biodiversity under the influence of these changes is gradually being transformed.

Mountain ecosystems are likely to be the most vulnerable. It is estimated that in these areas in Poland 60% of species are threatened with extinction due to climate change.

Climate change is associated with unfavourable changes in hydrological conditions. Although the annual sums of precipitation do not change significantly, their character becomes more irregular, which results in longer periods without rainfall, interrupted by heavy rainfall (torrential rain).

Groundwater level will be decreasing, which will adversely affect biodiversity and forms of nature conservation, in particular water reservoirs and wetlands. Changes will also be observed in winter season, when the duration and thickness of snow cover will shorten and the evaporation process will intensify, which will result in a decrease in the country's water resources.

The projected increase in intensity and frequency of storms and an increase in wave height in the Baltic Sea will result in increased coastal erosion phenomena and increased salinity of groundwater in lower-lying areas. Changes in the character of the coastline due to human-induced transformations also affect erosion and accumulation processes. Progressive shore erosion increases the flood hazard from the sea.

Landslides cause degradation of the areas covered by them and damage to buildings and infrastructure (road network, sewage system, telecommunication and electricity lines, gas pipelines). In agricultural areas, crops are destroyed and sometimes the agricultural function of the area needs to be restored. In forest areas, landslides cause damage to tree stands.

Climate change will also result in an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events and disasters, which will have a significant impact on vulnerable areas and the country's economy. Of primary importance will be heavy rains carrying the risk of flooding or landslides - mainly in mountainous and upland areas, but also on the slopes of river valleys and on cliffs along the coast as well as in cities and urban areas.

Strong winds and even incidental tornadoes and lightning will become more frequent and may significantly affect agriculture, forestry, construction and energy and transport infrastructure, among others.

Extreme climatic events cause significant social and economic losses. They hit infrastructure (buildings, transport, energy and water supply), posing a particular threat to land use in densely populated areas. This situation could be exacerbated by rising sea levels.

Source: Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030 (NAS 2020); KLIMADA
A changing climate will have a key impact on production conditions in the agricultural and forestry sectors. Water scarcity is one example of the negative impacts on the agricultural and forestry sectors as a result of climate change. Periodically, flooding due to heavy rainfall as well as frost are also a problem. In addition, as the growing season lengthens due to an increase in average temperature, the threat of crop pests and changes in their range increases. The threat also relates to animal diseases or reduction of their productivity, which may significantly affect the efficiency of agricultural production and, on a larger scale, the level of the country's food security. Extension of the growing season also increases the risk of pests affecting forest production and, in the longer term, changes in the range of occurrence of individual tree species.

The expected warming of the climate will result in the migration of species, including invasive ones, mainly from Southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia, along with the simultaneous withdrawal of those species that are not adapted to high temperatures and drought in summer, but can withstand severe frosts well. The impact of climate change on the species composition of tree stands and their condition will not be negligible. The weakening of tree stands is observed throughout the country. Trees will be more susceptible to wind damage. It is advisable to take further measures for sustainable forest management, ensuring sufficient water in forests and possible reconstruction of the species composition of forests.

Climate change will threaten animal welfare and also affect plant health by creating favourable conditions for new or migrating pests. Trade in animals, plants and their products may be adversely affected.

Direct negative effects of climate change also include increased eutrophication of inland and transitional waters, coastal and marine waters, increased risk to human life and health from heat stress and air pollution, increased demand for electricity in summer, reduced cooling capacity of thermal power plants, resulting for example in a decrease in their production capacity and overloading of the power grid.

Changing weather conditions will have a significant impact on human health. With an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events, there may be an increase in weather-related morbidity and mortality, i.e. excessive heat-related mortality, the occurrence of invasive vectors of infectious diseases, earlier onset and increased seasonal production of allergenic pollen.

Source: National Environmental Policy 2030 (PEP2030); KLIMADA

Key affected sectors

Key affected sector(s)transport
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe transport sector is particularly sensitive to several elements of the climate, especially strong winds, downpours, flooding and landslides, snowfall and ice phenomena, storms, low and high temperatures and lack of visibility (fog, smog). Strong winds cause, among others: road blocking by fallen trees and power poles, road closure, damage to vehicles or damage to noise barriers. One of the most troublesome phenomena are temperature fluctuations, in particular the so-called passing through the temperature of 0 C in combination with rainfall or melting snow: they favor the phenomenon of black ice and intensify the corrosive effect of water (and salt) on the transport infrastructure (road surface). The impact of high temperatures and heat waves, especially long-term ones, is equally unfavorable, as they increase the susceptibility of bituminous surfaces to vehicle impact, which necessitates the introduction of restrictions on the movement of heavy vehicles. Another climatic factor causing road traffic difficulties is fog, especially frequent in autumn and winter conditions at temperatures close to zero. Negative temperature favors cracking of rails, freezing of turnouts, icing and breaking of traction and energy networks. Torrential and torrential rains cause flooding of railway roads, access roads, damage to railway infrastructure, local flooding of land, tunnels and underground passages, landslides of embankments, flooding of drainage ditches, failures and damage to drainage devices
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentRoad transport, due to its spatial nature, is particularly sensitive to changing climatic phenomena. Problems related to the increasing occurrence of high temperatures have a negative impact both on vehicles and on elements of road infrastructure. Rail transport is equally sensitive, especially to incidental climatic events. Strong winds and hurricanes as well as torrential rains that cause flooding and landslides, the frequency of which will increase, may damage elements of the railway infrastructure. Inland water transport, although used to a small extent in Poland, is also exposed to the consequences of climate change, because it is closely dependent on the water levels of rivers. Adaptation measures aimed at limiting the negative effects of climate change on the transport sector should be adapted to the results of the analysis of parameters characterizing contractual climate categories having a significant impact on this sector. Adaptation of the transport sector to the expected climate changes should, first of all, protect the road and rail infrastructure against the threats resulting from the increased frequency of heavy rainfall. The element of the transport sector requiring the earliest adaptation measures is the transport infrastructure, the objects of which are designed for a service life of 50-150 years. For this reason, actions taken today must take into account climate changes that may occur in 20 or 70 years
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentIn the context of air transport, changes in temporary weather conditions will be of great importance, and according to forecasts, such situations will take place much more often than before. Its dependence on the current meteorological situation is of greatest importance primarily at the time of take-off and landing of planes. Strong winds and icing are the main threats. Additionally, the problem of mists will intensify. Higher sea states will result in the need to reconstruct some of the infrastructure that is not adapted to the new sea level ordinates, which will have an impact on the level of transshipments and the possible development of these ports. In rail and road transport, the largest and most important projected climate changes relate to the two categories "rain" and "wind". The correct determination of the light of bridges and culverts, design of the grade line at access points to bridges, the problem of landslides and issues related to drainage of transport surfaces and underground passages, tunnels and metro stations. Adaptation of the transport sector to the expected climate changes should, first of all, protect the road and rail infrastructure against the threats resulting from the increase in the frequency of intense rainfall. Additionally, along with the progressing thermal insulation process, the cases of track deformation may increase. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)land use planning
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentTwo factors related to thermal conditions pose a basic threat to the functioning of the urban organism: the type of land cover and the increased emission of anthropogenic heat. High temperature causes thermal stress, and excessive energy consumption by air-conditioning and cooling devices increases the risk associated with high air temperatures, and in cities it increases the urban heat island effect. Its formation is also favored by a relatively small share of biologically active areas, especially in the downtown development zone. Heat waves, especially in June and July, lead to a significant increase in the number of deaths compared to periods without heat: by 15-19% from all causes and by 18-22% from cardiovascular diseases. High air temperature in the summer of 1994 (over 36°C in Warsaw) caused an increase in mortality in Poland from 50% to 230% in relation to the average. The number of victims of this heat wave in Warsaw itself, after taking into account the natural decrease in mortality after the period of increase in hot weather, was 47. An even greater increase in mortality caused by thermal conditions was recorded in 2006 (Kuchcik, Degórski 2009). The dangers of excess water in cities come down to two issues: floods and inundations. While floods threaten most of the cities located in river valleys and in the coastal zone, flooding can occur anywhere as a result of sudden rains, intense long-lasting rainfall, and also caused by melting waters. This is favored by sealed ground surfaces and limited possibilities of drainage of excess water through sewage and drainage systems, and the failure to take into account water retention in most cities. Climate changes in the spatial context affect the entire complex of spatial development problems which, in extreme cases, may generate social conflicts and limit development opportunities
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentCities are directly threatened by three phenomena in particular: intensification of the urban heat island, heavy downpours causing flooding, and droughts favoring the water deficit in cities. Strong winds, which, due to the high roughness of the ground in cities, lose their strength to a lesser extent (this threat may apply to small towns and scattered suburbs). Floods pose an indirect threat due to the fact that most metropolitan areas are located in the valleys of large rivers. Downpours, like floods, pose a threat to urban infrastructure through flooding, landslides and the destruction of communication routes, buildings and property. Adaptation of land management to the anticipated climate changes requires the exclusion of more and more areas from development due to the risk of flooding and landslides, as well as maintaining in urban areas at least 30% share of green areas (including water), and a similar share of land area in the country forested in the total space of the state. These activities are aimed at mitigating the effects of climate change and its anthropogenic factors, including mitigation of the effects of urban heat island, pollution, water and wind erosion of land. In addition, the increasing intensity of rainfall requires the increase and consistent enforcement of the conservation of biologically active areas, mainly in urban areas, and in areas - open areas with high soil retention. Ecological networks, especially in metropolitan areas with the green rings surrounding large cities, with relatively high forest cover, can be an important element of adaptation to climate change
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThere is a feedback loop between spatial development and climate change and the need to adapt to climate change. Climate change will lead to a reduction in the space available for a given type of conducted or planned activity - incl. due to increased flood risk, increased risk of landslides, intensification of water and wind erosion processes, water deficit, raising and lowering the level of groundwater. Competition for space will increase with rising sea levels and the erosion base of rivers. The increase in flood risk, especially in large cities located in the delta of large rivers or in their valleys, will also result in the loss of safe and attractive investment and residential areas. This may be one of the new migration factors of the population. Another consequence of climate change may be increasing shortages of drinking water resources and the need to transfer water on a large scale. The spatial consequences of these changes have not been identified so far. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)buildings
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentCities located in river valleys are highly vulnerable to floods related to river flow as well as flooding as a result of heavy rainfall and small land slopes preventing rapid runoff of rainwater. Areas that were once considered floodplains are also more and more often developed. This is the main threat to this housing construction. In addition, excessive amounts of water caused by torrential rains are a big problem for the sewage system. Drainage of excess water from roofs or streets can be hampered by insufficient capacity of the existing installations. Among public buildings, hospitals, hospices, nursing homes and kindergartens, which must be equipped with air conditioning during the summer due to high thermal stress, are particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. In rural areas, there are also buildings with a lightweight roof structure with a small number of transverse stiffeners. Such structures are sensitive to strong gusts of wind and heavy snowfall. Greenhouses, overhead power lines and aboveground slurry tanks are also sensitive to wind effects. On the other hand, the tanks sunk into the ground show sensitivity to fluctuations in the groundwater level, which, at high levels, may displace the structure from the ground and cause the tank to fail.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentHousing construction in urbanized (urban) areas and in rural areas (homestead cubature construction) was considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. The other two types, i.e. industrial and public utility construction, show greater resistance to climate change or not different from the first two. A critical element requiring changes throughout the construction process are sewage networks, which must be prepared to receive more rainwater. The impact of rainfall must be taken into account in relation to the efficiency of sewage systems, the location of structures in floodplains, and the occurrence of slope landslides and washing out of bridge supports. Rapid temperature rises during periods of snow cover deposition may also cause significant outflows of meltwater, which may overload rain networks. Adaptation measures aimed at limiting the negative effects of climate change on the construction sector should in particular concern: • adaptation to climate change of standards used in the design of buildings • monitoring the costs of prevention and liquidation of damages caused by climatic factors, • monitoring of real climate change. The sensitivity of the construction sector indicates the need to take into account climate change in national annexes to the Eurocodes in terms of the impact, first of all, of precipitation and wind, at the stage of: design, construction works, including foundation and foundation, and maintenance of facilities. Historic buildings are a group susceptible to many effects of climate change (and especially to the increase in the dynamic impact of wind). It seems that in the face of the projected climate changes, historic buildings, constituting a significant part of the national heritage, require special attention. The elements of the structure that are particularly exposed to the dynamic effects of gusts of wind are the structures of roofs of historic buildings.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentIf the tendency of temperature increase, expressed by a several-degree increase in the average daily temperature and shortening of the heating period, continues in the second half of the century, it will be necessary to analyze the adequacy of the currently used standards in the field of thermal insulation, principles of heating and air conditioning of buildings or principles of snow removal from roofs. For the same reasons, there may be a need to design solutions that take into account the occurrence of heat (e.g. the problem of air conditioning and ventilation of facilities). In the near future (2030, 2050), however, no need to change the regulations regarding the external housing. Extending periods with high temperature and sunlight, with simultaneous increased evaporation, may lead to the appearance of frequent droughts, increasing the risk of fires. The increase in the intensity of wind gusts will be dangerous for high and high-rise buildings and for farm buildings with a light roof structure. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)health
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentClimate change, especially the change in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, indisputably increases the incidence and number of deaths, as well as the spread of diseases that have not yet occurred in moderate latitudes, although so far there are no tools to analyze and estimate the scale of the problem. In addition, climate change may also indirectly affect health by creating atmospheric conditions that contribute to an increase in air pollutants including tropospheric ozone and water, the growth of food bacteria, and the number and frequency of insect-borne infectious diseases. In Poland, for several decades there has been an increase in the incidence of pollen allergy, the main cause of which is the presence of allergens in the air, mainly grasses. Among tree allergens, birch is the most allergic in our climate zone, followed by hazel and alder. It has been estimated that as a result of the more frequent heat stress conditions in May-September (UTCI heat load index> 32 ° C), the risk of death increases by over 25% as a result of cardiovascular dysfunction. On the other hand, under cold stress conditions in November-March (UTCI heat load index <-13 ° C), the risk of death increases by over 25% as a result of cardiovascular or respiratory dysfunction.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacitydifferent key hazards
AssessmentClimate change affects society as a whole, however, vulnerable groups such as the elderly, the sick, the disabled, the homeless and the poor, and children are particularly vulnerable to climate-related diseases. Climate changes may, in the future, directly affect the functioning and activity of those institutions of the health care system in which various types of therapeutic or preventive activities are conducted. In many of these places, the working conditions of medical personnel and the stay of patients are not adapted to the increasingly frequent and prolonged periods of heatwave. This is especially important in cities where, due to the urban heat island effect, cooling of the air at night may not be sufficient. The expected increase in health problems related to the circulatory system should be a guideline for the preparation of properly trained medical and auxiliary personnel (social workers). Efforts should be made to prevent a significant proportion of cardiological problems from leading to fatal circulatory failure. In addition, the possible increase in the number of tick-borne diseases, food poisoning with salmonella and deaths from melanoma should be a reason both for intensifying research on the development and treatment of these diseases, as well as for their diagnosis. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanisms related to climate change and the health response of the organism, training of health care system personnel should cover the broadly understood impact of the environment on health.
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent climate change scenarios; different key hazards
AssessmentIn the area of ??health protection, climate change may manifest itself most strongly in the form of increased incidence of skin cancer and deaths from melanoma, as well as deaths related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Melanoma cases currently account for about 22% of the total number of cancer cases. A positive effect of the progressive warming of the winter periods is a marked reduction in the number of deaths from hypothermia. The number of days with the UTCl indicator <-13oC will drop from approx. 3% to over 8%. The projected increase in temperature in the summer season and an increase in the number of hot days will result in a gradual increase in salmonella poisoning, assuming that the hygienic condition of the society and gastronomy will remain at the current level. At the same time, the group of diseases with which the number of cases will increase are tick-borne diseases of distinct seasonality, mainly Lyme disease, which is particularly dangerous in forest areas of northern Poland. As pollen seasons extend, allergic symptoms will worsen. Problems with the increase in the incidence of infectious diseases may appear earlier in the coastal zone, as the temperature of the Baltic Sea waters is rising faster than in other waters and cases of cholera have already been registered in some Baltic states. In the future, one degree of warming of the water in the Baltic Sea will mean almost doubling the disease cases. If the warming of the Baltic Sea continues, then until 2050 a significant increase in infections with Vibrio bacteria should be expected, mainly on the densely populated coasts of the central and southern Baltic. Climate change will therefore have an impact on the functioning and activity of health care system institutions as well as on the quality of life and health of citizens. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)agriculture and food
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentIn terms of the needs of plant production, the most important changes are the characteristics of temperature and precipitation. The direct impact is expressed by changing the weather conditions for the productivity of crops, including changes in thermal conditions, the sum of precipitation, the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Factors indirectly determining the yield of plants, such as plant cultivation and fertilization requirements, also change with climate change. The change in crop productivity is also influenced by the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ozone in the lower atmosphere. The analyzes showed that, starting from the end of the 1970s, the yield variability in Poland was increasing due to climatic reasons. Spring crops show a particularly large increase in yield variability in the recent period, which may be the result of a greater frequency of late spring droughts. The analysis of the sum of effective temperatures on the example of maize for the period 2001-2010 showed that the observed increase in the average temperature in Poland by about 0.8C is of great importance for the maturation conditions of thermophilic plants. The increase in the average temperature in Poland also accelerates the development of pests, creating a greater threat to crops. The observations and analyzes for the period 1970-2010 show that in Poland there was a statistically significant increase in the sum of index evapotranspiration in the growing season (April-September). A change in the temporal structure of precipitation is noticeable - the amount of precipitation increases in winter and early spring, and decreases in spring and summer. This causes a reduction in the climatic water balance.
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent geographical regions within the country
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe conducted analysis of the state and organization of water management in agriculture showed that the water management systems in Poland for the purposes of agriculture are not efficient. The unfavorable state of water management is due to the poor organization of water management entities. Their activity is underfunded and is based on low-technical water-drainage devices. As part of adaptation measures, financing of all measures related to the management of agricultural water resources (increasing retention, including small water retention, active and passive flood protection, sustainable irrigation) should be increased. It is very important to identify unfavorable phenomena and forecast them. It is important to raise awareness, both of decision-makers and farmers, of climate change that is already a fact and of future changes forecasted by climate scenarios. The conducted analysis indicates the need to take preventive actions consisting in ensuring mechanisms securing the shortages of agricultural products on the market and supporting farmers in restoring production after more frequent years with losses due to unfavorable climatic events (financial aid, ensuring access to seeds)
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe forecasted higher temperature in the growing season of plant vegetation will accelerate the development of plants, e.g. the maturity date of winter wheat in Poland in 2021-2050 will be 7 days earlier, and in 2071-2100 by - 20 days. In the case of maize (FAO210 - early maize), in the years 2021-2050 the acceleration of the maturation period will be 17 days, and in the years 2071-2100 even 39 days. The observed changes in thermal conditions and the impact of the changes on the phenology of crops will require, first of all, the terms of field works, and then, in the longer term, also the cultivation cubes in Poland. The analysis of the impact of changes in agrometeorological conditions on the yielding of arable crops in Poland showed a tendency to increase yield losses resulting from the threats of agricultural drought. There will be an increase in the number of years with large yield losses of relatively small changes in average yields. In connection with the development of drainage melioration, a change may occur due to a change in the temporal structure. On the other hand, an increase in air temperature in the summer period, an increase in evapotranspiration, which occurs along with a decrease in this period and an extension of the growing season, may be to supplement the water shortage for plants and indicate the search for the development of irrigation. Decrease of the atmospheric sum with a simultaneous increase in the share of short-term torrential rainfall and the amount of field evaporation in the winter half-year decrease in soil retention and groundwater level. Both of these expenditures influencing debating in small lowland catchments. Decreasing ground retention causes changes in the surface areas on which the runoff and subsurface surfaces are affected, resulting in the effects of a decrease in flood peak even with increasing rainfall efficiency. In the field of livestock production, climatic changes, and hence the splendor of volatility in the yield of crops and pastures, may trigger shortages of feed on farms and increase prices. An increase in heat stress days will increase the heat stress tension in animals, which may be heated to stress. Change in thermal conditions during the growing season and in winter conditions. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)energy
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudelow
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe impact of climatic conditions on the energy sector is varied and depends on the type of activity, i.e. energy production, electricity and heat demand, electricity distribution and energy generation sources. The phenomena affecting the risk of damage to transmission and distribution networks are the occurrence of storms, including snowstorms, catastrophic rime and strong winds. Due to the frequent abrasion of various air masses over Poland, breakdowns occur as a result of gusty winds and days with a temperature of about 0°C, due to icing of the pipes. Reducing the water level in rivers consequently leads to a reduction, limitation or even preventing the use of hydropower. Rains after periods of drought have a positive effect, but rains causing floods prevent the use of hydropower. Long-term frosts can have a negative effect on wind turbines, especially in offshore wind parks, especially if icing conditions arise. In relation to photovoltaic installations, the influence of climatic conditions is different. The efficiency will be the lower the higher the ambient temperature. In the case of large-scale PV installations, even strong and long-lasting winds will have a positive effect, increasing convection cooling. Short-term rain plays the role of cleaning photovoltaic panels, while long-term rain (high cloudiness) limits the efficiency of these installations, a similar effect will be caused by short-term and long-term snow
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatemedium
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe Polish power system is dominated by overhead networks, which, unlike cable networks, are highly exposed to failures caused by strong winds and excessive icing. The occurrence of extreme weather phenomena such as hurricanes, intense storms, etc. may lead to an increased risk of damage to transmission and distribution lines, thus limiting the supply of electricity to consumers. The availability of water for cooling is crucial for energy production. Water abstraction for these purposes accounts for 70% of total water abstraction in Poland. In conditions of high variability of precipitation, extreme situations (floods and droughts) and the increase in non-stationarity of flows may disrupt the availability of the necessary amounts of water, which is used for cooling purposes. In gas and steam systems, the level of efficiency and power additionally depend on the temperature of the air used to burn the fuel. The growing importance of distributed, renewable energy sources should take into account the deterioration of wind conditions (long periods of windless weather, or short periods with hurricane-force winds). Biomass production will also be subject to the same limitations as the entire agricultural production due, in particular, to reduced water availability and reduced production efficiency. Only in the case of solar energy improvement in summer conditions can be expected due to extended periods of sunny weather and a decrease in winter due to longer periods of cloud cover. In the field of energy crops, the key will be the development of new plant species, more resistant to changing weather conditions, and innovative cultivation techniques
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentWith increased air temperature, evaporation of surface waters will increase, there will be disturbances in water management, which will consequently affect the cultivation of plants, including energy crops. With long and heavy rains, biomass plantations may be destroyed or excess moisture will negatively affect their energy efficiency. There may be a reduction in interest or abandonment of the development of biomass energy technologies. In the case of hydropower installations, water scarcity can significantly reduce their efficiency. In the case of wind energy, the energy conditions will worsen. Climate change will significantly increase the unpredictability of very strong winds, hurricanes and long periods of windlessness. The use of this energy source may therefore be associated with an increased risk both due to the predictability of energy production and due to the destruction of the installation. The climate projection shows that by 2070 the number of heating days, depending on the region of Poland, will decrease by approx. 17% due to the increase in temperature. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)forestry
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentOne of the factors that strongly differentiate the occurrence of forests in Poland, apart from geological conditions, are the climatic conditions associated with the ecological optimum of individual species. The increase in evaporation associated with the increase in temperature, as well as the decrease in the thickness and duration of snow cover, contributes to a decrease in humidity in forests, increasing the risk of fires and accelerating the process of soil mineralization. The extended growing season helps to increase the survival rate of insects and accelerate their reproduction: more frequent, more dangerous and unpredictable outbreaks of pest outbreaks may result in the emergence of several new generations per year. In Poland, the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) has already appeared on a large scale - realizing up to 5 complete development cycles in one year, i.e. accelerating its development more than twice (two years of life in one calendar year)
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacityhigh
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentMountain ecosystems are the most vulnerable to climate change. Mountain forests today may lose up to 60% of their species, and the productivity of stands and their durability may collapse rapidly. Some subalpine forest types with the participation of pine trees and larch are highly endangered. Models of the dynamics of forest ecosystems on the northern slopes of the Alps indicate the possibility of expansion of fir, oak and hornbeam, which is also probable in the conditions of the Carpathians. Forests in Poland, with the predominantly weak coniferous habitats, found themselves in a special situation in the face of climate change. The ecological optimum of the tree species present is related to the climatic conditions. The borders of natural ranges of many main forest-forming species of trees, also for Europe, run through the territory of Poland. It should be expected that, as a result of climate change, species composition and forest types will change significantly in the distant time horizon, due to the shift of ecological woody species to the north-east and the elevation of the forest boundary in the mountains. However, the soil requirements of trees in new areas may constitute a barrier to adjusting species composition to changes in average temperature and rainfall. This creates problems with forest management that are difficult to predict
Rating for the risk of potential future impactsmedium
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe increase in evapotranspiration associated with the increase in temperature, as well as the decrease in the thickness and duration of snow cover, will cause a decrease in humidity in forests, accelerating the processes of soil mineralization and increasing the risk of drought, the development of diseases (except fungal diseases) and pests, including invasive species. An extended vegetation period will increase the survival rate of insects and accelerate their reproduction: more frequent, more dangerous and unpredictable outbreaks of pest outbreaks may result in the emergence of several new generations per year. In autumn, an extended period with positive temperatures and intense rains softening the soil, combined with the weakening of trees by pests and diseases, may increase the sensitivity of forests to strong winds and increase windfalls. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)water management
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentThe conducted analyzes did not show significant trends in the maximum flows of rivers, but their frequency doubled in the years 1981-2000 compared to the years 1961-1980 also with anthropogenic factors. The dangers of excess water in cities come down to two issues: floods and inundations. While floods threaten most of the cities located in river valleys and in the coastal zone, flooding can occur anywhere as a result of sudden rains, intense long-lasting rainfall, and also caused by melting waters. This is favored by sealed ground surfaces and limited possibilities of drainage of excess water through sewage and drainage systems, as well as the failure to take into account water retention in most cities
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitylow
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentPoland is a country with relatively small water resources, and the efficiency of their use is low. Moreover, in some parts of Poland there are periodic water supply difficulties. The sector most sensitive to water shortages is agriculture, where water needs are forecasted to increase by 25-30%. Meanwhile, the analysis of the state and organization of water management in agriculture showed that water management systems in Poland for the purposes of agriculture are not efficient. The unfavorable state of water management is due to the poor organization of water management entities. Their activity is underfunded and is based on low-technical water-drainage devices. As part of adaptation measures, financing of all measures related to the management of agricultural water resources (increasing retention, including small water retention, active and passive flood protection, sustainable irrigation) should be increased. On the other hand, in urban areas, floods pose an indirect threat, due to the fact that most metropolitan areas are located in the valleys of large rivers. Downpours, like floods, pose a threat to urban infrastructure through flooding, landslides and the destruction of communication routes, buildings and property. In addition, improper spatial management, in particular investing in endangered areas, including river floodplains, and too low natural retention capacity and artificial reservoirs, not only in river valleys, limits effective actions in situations of excess or deficit of surface waters. In addition, the increasing intensity of rainfall requires the increase and consistent enforcement of the conservation of biologically active areas, mainly in urbanized areas, and in open areas, areas with high soil retention
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent geographical regions within the country; different key hazards
AssessmentIn the case of periods with a shortage of rainfall, individual voivodeships may be at risk of a deficit of water available to the economy, in particular the Mazowieckie Voivodeship. The observed and predicted changes in the hydrological regime throughout the country have a direct impact on biodiversity. There is a change in the structure of precipitation during the growing season, i.e. more frequent summer and spring droughts and an increase in the number of torrential precipitation, including hail. Due to the increased frequency of these phenomena, one should take into account the increasing number of extreme situations, such as floods, droughts, landslides and water erosion in the channels of watercourses. The period of snow cover and its thickness will also shorten. The problem of changes in the hydrological regime also applies to freshwater habitats, flowing or standing. This group is exposed to changes as a result of increased torrential rainfall, dry periods, eutrophication processes and disturbances in water flow in reservoirs. Moreover, as a result of the predicted climate changes, the disappearance of small surface water reservoirs (swamps, ponds, ponds, small shallow lakes as well as streams and small rivers) will continue. The results of the analyzed scenarios also indicate an increased probability of flash floods caused by heavy rainfall that may cause flooding of areas where the land management is not properly managed. In conditions of high variability of precipitation, extreme situations (floods and droughts) and the increased non-stationarity of flows may disrupt the availability of the necessary amounts of water, which is used for cooling purposes in conventional power plants. (Water abstraction for these purposes accounts for 70% of total water abstraction in Poland.) In coastal areas, a particularly difficult problem may be the periodic increasing shortages of drinking water caused by contamination or salinity of groundwater, which are the main sources of drinking water for many towns, eg Gdansk. Another problem may be flooding of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, which will lead to uncontrolled emission of pollutants into the marine environment. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)biodiversity (including ecosystembased approaches)
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudemedium
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazardsdifferent key hazards
AssessmentClimate change affects the range of species, reproductive cycles, growing seasons and interactions with the environment. However, different species and habitats respond differently to climate change - some will be positively affected by this impact, others not. Most of the forecasted changes are based on changes in the values of average climatic parameters: precipitation, temperature, wind directions, but it also often happens as a result of extreme situations such as floods, strong winds and downpours. Due to these changes, biodiversity is gradually transformed. Under the conditions of the temperate climate zone in which Poland is located, the most important changes will take place among thermophilic species (expansion towards the north) and cold-loving species (withdrawal from refugia areas throughout the country). Extreme phenomena (in Poland these are mainly floods) affecting the biological parameters of the population and, consequently, biodiversity, may have a much greater impact than predicted by most modern models (such impact on local populations of amphibians and birds has been documented in Poland so far)
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climatedifferent key hazards
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentDue to the close relationship between the occurrence of habitat types and geographical zones, the most endangered natural habitats in Poland include: coastal and brackish habitats, freshwater and stagnant water habitats, peat bogs, quaking bogs and inland springs, habitats of swamp forests, thermophilic oak forests, slope forests (on the southern and western slopes). Therefore, from the point of view of the protection of habitats, and thus biodiversity, the most important activities are related to the maintenance of wetlands and their restoration wherever possible. The disappearance of swamps, small water reservoirs, ponds, ponds, small shallow lakes, as well as streams and small rivers, documented in many areas of the Polish lowlands, is the greatest threat to numerous species that either live in these areas directly or use them as drinking water reservoirs. Habitats on coastal and inland dunes are among the less threatened. On the other hand, alluvial and riverside forests will probably increase their range as a result of the increased strength and frequency of floods, although changes in structure and function parameters will occur in these habitats, which are currently difficult to predict. The degree of threat to some habitats (e.g. xerothermic thickets) is still poorly known in Poland. Migrations of species, which are a form of their adaptation to climate change, may, however, be prevented by "ecological obstruction" of landscapes transformed by man: lack of ecological continuity of plant formations, obstruction of ecological corridors (both river and forest), low saturation of the landscape with natural elements that may constitute "environmental islands” for individual species (eg small peat bogs, wetlands, ponds). Invasive species are another major problem. The process of migration of aggressive species threatening native species should be monitored, as well as the processes of adaptation of these species to climate change
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impactsdifferent geographical regions within the country
AssessmentThe observed and predicted changes in the hydrological regime throughout the country have a direct impact on biodiversity. There is a change in the structure of precipitation during the growing season, i.e. more frequent summer and spring droughts and an increase in the number of torrential precipitation, including hail. Due to the increased frequency of these phenomena, one should take into account the increasing number of extreme situations, such as floods, droughts, landslides and water erosion in the channels of watercourses. The effects of these changes will be particularly visible in the areas of the Polish Upland, where biodiversity can easily be impoverished and damaged directly. The period of snow cover and its thickness will also shorten. The problem of changes in the hydrological regime also concerns freshwater habitats, flowing or standing. This group is exposed to changes as a result of increased torrential rainfall, dry periods, eutrophication processes and disturbances in water flow in reservoirs. Moreover, as a result of the predicted climate changes, the disappearance of small surface water reservoirs (swamps, ponds, ponds, small shallow lakes as well as streams and small rivers) will continue. This poses a threat to numerous species that either indirectly live in these areas or use them as drinking water reservoirs and may result in extinction or migration of species. Another major consequence of global warming is the projected rise in sea levels, which will result in changes to coastal ecosystems such as increased erosion and increased salinity in coastal zones. As a result of these changes, also habitats in coastal and inland dunes, where indirect changes such as increased wind speed or soil salinity, will take place. Lakeland areas, natural and semi-natural meadow formations and grasslands as well as peatlands are also exposed to the effects of climate warming due to the lowering of groundwater levels and progressive eutrophication. The Polish lowlands are also exposed to limitation of wetlands, including gradual drying up and disappearance of peat bogs, wet forests and coniferous forests. Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment
Key affected sector(s)coastal areas
Rating of the observed impacts of key hazards, including changes in frequency and magnitudehigh
Different rating of the observed impacts of key hazards
AssessmentApart from the obvious impact of the sea level rise, the negative phenomena mainly include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. In the case of the Baltic Sea, this refers to the possible increase in the number, intensity and duration of storms. Additionally, there may be an increase in the irregularity of these events, i.e. after long periods of relative calm, a series of rapidly successive storms may occur preventing the shore from recovering. An additional element accelerating the process of coastal erosion is the warming of winters, as a result of which a reduction of the ice cover should be expected, which protects beaches against storm waves and thus against coastal erosion. The accelerated rate of coastal erosion is already observed and is even up to 1.5 m / year in the most vulnerable places
Rating of the key hazards' likelihood of occurrence and exposure to them under future climatehigh
Different rating of the likelihood of the occurrence of key hazards and exposure to them under future climate
Rating of the vulnerability, including adaptive capacitymedium
Different rating of the vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity
AssessmentThe parts of the Polish coast most exposed to sea erosion are the Hel Peninsula and the Central Coast, especially the spits of coastal lakes. Also, the Vistula Spit may become abrasive in the event of inappropriate hydrotechnical treatments. In addition, increased waves and improperly planned and carried out shore strengthening works may cause local disappearance of beaches and blurring of coastal dunes, which perform a protective function. In case of insufficient counteraction, it will lead to difficult to reverse fragmentation of the base part of the Hel Peninsula. A particularly difficult problem may be the periodic increasing shortages of drinking water caused by contamination or salinity of groundwater, which are the main sources of drinking water for many towns, eg Gdansk. Another problem may be flooding of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, which will lead to uncontrolled emission of pollutants into the marine environment. Irreversible losses resulting from climate change, in the event of abandoning any adaptation measures, may be caused by sea floods, flooding of low-lying areas with a total area of approx. 2,200 km2, over 20% of which are areas with unique natural values on a European or national scale, and more than 7% is highly urbanized and industrialized. Other estimated losses are: • increasing the level of groundwater in low-lying areas to +1.25 m above sea level which will limit the use of many areas for residential and industrial purposes, • loss of at least 120 km2 due to sea erosion, • large cliffs landslides as a result of fractures during long periods of drought and deep water penetration, • about 300 thousand people in the area of immediate risk, i.e. directly exposed to the effects of climate change (loss of housing), • around 1.7 million people indirectly affected (job losses)
Rating for the risk of potential future impactshigh
Different rating of the risk of potential future impacts
AssessmentThe predicted climate changes may have a very negative impact on the coastal zone in Poland, and even cause difficulties in the functioning of the maritime economy. As a result of the sea level rise, negative changes in the coastal zone should be expected: • narrowing of beaches and shifting the shoreline to the area of the present land • erosion of dunes and cliffs • increasing the coastal transport of sediments from the beach and dunes to the coast • erosion of the base of permanent structures and destruction of bands and breakwaters • increasing the number of shore disasters in areas subject to strong anthropogenic impact • raising the water level in lagoons, coastal lakes and increasing the range of backwaters in rivers • rising groundwater levels and their salinity • alteration of flora and fauna in flooded and flooded areas. The most serious changes related to the warming of sea waters, sea level rise and changes in the geochemistry of waters, in the case of implementation of the considered scenarios, will relate to: • decline in the productivity of marine areas, which will lead to disturbances in the trophic structure up to the highest level and will have a direct and indirect impact on all components of marine ecosystems; • diminishing the range of coastal habitats as a result of the gradual transgression of the Baltic Sea and increased erosion. In this case, all dune and psammophilous habitats, cliffs, coastal forests on the dunes and on the tops of cliffs, as well as lagoons and estuaries - with fauna and flora typical of brackish waters, will be at risk in this case; • increase in the salinity of the coastal zone as a result of stronger winds and more frequent storm events Sources: Development and implementation of a strategic adaptation plan for climate-sensitive sectors and areas, Ministry of the Environment

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the national level

The main relevant document is the "National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030" (NAS) - part of the broader research project "KLIMADA" which covers the period until 2070 and is the basis for the conclusions presented in the NAS and includes climate risk and vulnerability assessment of the whole country.

This document includes a description of the general characteristics of the climate, climate change from 2007-2011, scenarios and impact on sensitive sectors until 2030. Furthermore, the document consists of an analysis of climate change trends and impacts on biodiversity, water management, forestry, power engineering, coastal zones, mountain areas, agriculture, transport, spatial economy and urbanised areas, construction and health. The assessment of the climate change-related risk was carried out for territorial self-government units (municipalities) as part of the project “The knowledge base on climate change and adapting to climate change effects, together with knowledge dissemination channels, to strengthen economic, environmental and societal resilience as well as to support management of extraordinary risks associated with climate change ( Klimada 2.0)”. Its purpose was to present in a spatial approach changes in the risk level for the projected climate change
NAS 2020 and National Environmental Policy were prepared by the Ministry of Climate and Environment (MKIS) and are the main national and coordinating documents in the field of adaptation planning. Morover, climate adaptation planning was also conducted in the Project "Development of Urban Adaptation Plans for cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Poland" (MPA) in result of which adaptation plans for 44 major Polish cities were developed. MKIS coordinated and carried out the project.

Climate adaptation planning in the field of water sector is also a substantial part of the following documents: Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought (PPSS), which was developed by the State Water Company Polish Waters and adopted in 2021, River Basin Management Plans (RBMP) and River Basin Risk Management Plans (RMP).

The PEP2030 and SPA 2020 include performance indicators that are measured and reported every year. In turn, the Strategy for Responsible Development and PEP indicate strategic projects that include various smaller projects and initiatives. Their implementation is monitored and reported on a quarterly basis by the Prime Minister's Office and MKiS. These programs are implemented both by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, other public institutions, including those subordinate to the Ministry, but also by external entities selected in the form of collective procurement, including commercial ones. Implementation of the MPA project - individual adaptation plans are monitored by the Ministry of Environment and Climate, among others as part of the project sustainability check. The cities adopted the adaptation plans in the form of resolutions of municipal councils. Adaptation plans are reviewed and updated. A report on the implementation of the plan is also being prepared. It should be noted that cities do not have to submit these reports to the Ministry of Climate and Environment. To date, reports on the implementation of urban adaptation plans have been sent to the Ministry of Climate and Environment by 18 cities. Currently, plans have been adopted by 85 cities over 20,000 inhabitants (including 42 from MPA project). The adopted plans have the status of communal strategic documents, which will be implemented and for which financial resources are guaranteed. The Ministry of Climate and Environment supports cities in the implementation of adaptation plans, including through appropriate programming of the EU financial perspective 2021-2027
According to the law on Environmental Impact Assessments, it is necessary to take into account climate risk analysis. This applies mainly to projects of type I (in the EIA Report), but it is not obligatory for type II projects. Other projects are not covered by this legal requirement. Guide to Investment Preparation Respecting Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation as well as Resilience to Natural Disasters covers methodologies for integrating climate change adaptation and mitigations into the development of infrastructure projects. This methodologies mostly rely on the rules of risk assessment.

In Poland, projects which are co-financed from EU funds are obliged to use the methodologies indicated in the Guide. The Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute has published a manual: “Climate change and adaptation to climate change in environmental impact assessments”. This manual is addressed to authors of EIA reports, investors and designers. It is also addressed to representatives of environmental authorities, in particular the local level. The manual describes the relationship between project and climate and explains the concepts related to climate change relevant in the EIA. The Manual presents the analyses and assessments necessary for the preparation of the EIA report, but in particular it focuses on the relationship between the project and the local climate, including aspects related to adaptation to climate change. lt contains information on the correct implementation of the climate characteristics in the EIA. The annexes contain analytical matrices and details on minimising the negative impact of the project on the local climate and the adaptation of the project to climate change
- Joint projects, joint working groups, informal cooperation, various forums for the exchange of opinions and information, including conferences, meetings, etc. are carried out
- The scientific sector is involved (incl. IMGW-PIB, IOS-PIB, ETU)
- MKiS coordinates and monitors the implementation of strategic projects carried out also by other ministries,
- MKiS will be coordinating “Environment for Development Partnership” national network in 2021-2027 EU funds perspective and adaptation to climate change will be one of the thematic area of this network
- MKiS strictly cooperates with the Ministry of Funds and Regional Policy (managing authority for EU funds).
- Air temperature - Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) https://www.imgw.pl/sites/d[…]1-2020-poster-pion-min.pdf.
- Water level in the Baltic Sea - IMGW-PIB https://baltyk.imgw.pl/
- Precipitation -IMGW-PIB https://meteo.imgw.pl/?mode[…]a_warszawa&mode=details
- Flood risk - IMGW-PIB and National Water Management Authority https://www.powodz.gov.pl/pl/o_mapach
- Impact of climate change on agriculture and adaptation methods for agriculture - Instytut Uprawy Nawozenia i Gleboznawstwa http://www.iung.pl/)
- Water quality - Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (GIOS) https://www.gov.pl/web/gios/stan-srodowiska-monitoring-wod
- Greenhouse gas emissions - National Centre for Balancing and Emission Management (KOBiZE). (https://krajowabaza.kobize.pl/ )
- Climate scenarios and climate-related risks – IOS-PIB https://klimada2.ios.gov.pl/
The main goal of the Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change is to ensure sustainable development and effective functioning of the economy and society in the conditions of climate change. The main goal will be achieved through the implementation of specific goals and the directions of activities indicated within these goals:
1. Ensuring the energy security and good environmental status
2. Effective adaptation to climate change in rural areas
3. Development of transport in the conditions of climate change
4. Ensuring sustainable regional and local development, taking into account climate change
5. Stimulating innovations conducive to adaptation to climate change
6. Development of social behaviour conducive to adaptation to climate change

Source: Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030. Ministry of the Environment 2013
1. Intensification of activities in the field of counteracting and adapting to climate change in cities

The key challenges in the climate policy are the efforts to limit the impact of cities on the climate and build resilient social and spatial structures. In the national policy, the roles of individual levels of administration should be clarified, including, in particular, the place of local government in counteracting climate change.
2. Providing up-to-date and reliable information on the state of the environment

There are observed deficiencies in the collection of data and the use of IT systems for city management. Moreover, there is insufficient access to information about the environment and communication
3. Increasing social awareness of the issues of climate change

In Polish society, social capital deficits are observed and the associated low level of involvement of local communities for the common good.
4. Integrating activities and undertaking intersectoral cooperation

Activities in the field of environmental protection and adaptation to climate change overlap with elements of other sectoral development policies. The implementation of its objectives requires not only appropriate planning of activities at the local government level, but also good coordination at the national and supranational level.
5. Water management

The height of the water surface in the majority of main rivers in the country and the groundwater level is systematically dropping with every passing year. This problem is intensified in the cities, areas of which are characterised with high percentage of impermeable surfaces, including the occurrence of concrete river banks. Storm water drainage systems in cities are not adjusted to heavy rainfall, which causes frequent flooding and the necessity to pump water from flooded drains. Cities are missing small retention facilities which could store excessive heavy rainfall water and use them in drier periods.

Source: http://obserwatorium.miasta.pl/
The main national strategies that are guiding the climate adaptation actions in Poland are "Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change by 2020 with the perspective by 2030” (NAS 2020); "National Environmental Policy 2030" (PEP2030); "National Urban Policy 2030" (KPM2030); "Strategy for Responsible Development by 2020 (with a perspective until 2030)" (SOR2020).
1. NAS2020: The overarching goal of that strategy is ensuring sustainable development and effective functioning of the economy and society in the conditions of climate change.

Main goals and actions of NAS 2020:
a) Ensuring the energy security and good environmental status:
- Adaptation of the water management sector to climate change
- Adaptation of the coastal zone to climate change
- Adaptation of the energy sector to climate change
- Protection of biodiversity and forest management in the context of climate change
- Adaptation to climate changes in spatial development and construction
- Ensuring the functioning of the effective health care system in the conditions of climate change
b) Effective adaptation to climate change in rural areas:
- Creating local systems for monitoring and warning against hazards
- Organizational and technical adaptation of the agricultural and fishery activity to climate change
c) Development of transport in the conditions of climate change:
- Developing design standards that take into account climate change
- Management of communication routes in the conditions of climate change
d) Ensuring sustainable regional and local development, taking into account climate change:
- Monitoring of the state of the environment and early warning and response systems in the context of climate change (cities and rural areas)
- Urban spatial policy taking into account climate change
e) Stimulating innovations conducive to adaptation to climate change
- Promoting innovation at the level of organizational and management activities conducive to adaptation to climate change
- Building a support system for Polish innovative technologies conducive to adaptation to climate change
f) Development of social behaviour conducive to adaptation to climate change
- Increasing awareness of risks related to extreme phenomena and methods of limiting their impact
- Protection of vulnerable groups against the effects of adverse climatic phenomena
2. PEP2030 - Goals and actions related do climate change adaptation:
a) Environment and health. Improving the quality of the environment and ecological safety
b) Environment and economy. Sustainable management of environmental resources
c) Environment and climate. Climate change mitigation and adaptation and disaster risk prevention
d) Environment and education. Developing environmental competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) of the society.
e) Environment and administration. Improving the effectiveness of the environmental protection instruments
3. KPM 2030 - challenges related to climate change adaptation:

Challenge I: Fostering urban and spatial order

Challenge II: Counteracting chaotic suburbanisation processes

Challenge III: Strengthening cooperation of self-governments within functional urban areas

Challenge IV: Mitigating the negative effects of climate change in cities

Challenge V: Improving the quality of natural environment in cities

Challenge VI: Ensuring a sustainable and integrated urban mobility system in functional urban areas
4. SOR2020 - Actions and timelines related to climate change adaptation:
a) Strategy for the transformation to a low-carbon economy (from 2019)
b) Roadmap for Transformation Towards a Circular Economy (2017 - 2025)
c) Land management for sustainable development (from 2018)
d) Ecological Transport program (since 2017)
e) Water for agriculture (2017 - 2023) - a program to support family farms and improve water management in agriculture in conditions of periodic water shortages and excesses
f) Clean air (2016 - 2023) - Solving environmental issues, including reducing the problem of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and adapting urban areas to climate change
g) State Raw Material Policy (from 2018)
h) Forest Coal Farms (2017-2050)
5. Financing adaptation:

Supporting adaptation to climate change and disaster-related risk prevention, as well as resilience, taking into account the ecosystem approach has been envisaged for financing in the European Funds for Infrastructure, Climate and Environment 2021-2027 programme and the European Funds for Eastern Poland 2021-2027 programme. The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management continues financing adaptation to climate change through “Adaptation to climate change” priority programme.

Main sources of financing:
1. State:
a. National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOSiGW) (1,15 billion PLN)
b. Regional Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management (WFOSiGW)
c. Country budget
2. EU:
a. European Funds for Infrastructure, Climate and Environment (2021-2027) (1,4 billion EUR)
b. European Funds for Eastern Poland 2021-2027 (255 million EUR)
c. Regional Operational Programmes (2021-2027) (ca. 740 million EUR – works in the regions on the programming of the 2021-2027 financial perspective is still ongoing and this is not the final allocation, as part of the voivodships have not yet established the allocation)
d. Life
e. Horizon
3. Foreign, outside the EU:
a. World Bank
b. International Monetary Fund
c. EEA and Norway Grants
4. Other:
a. Entrepreneurs
b. Banks
c. Investment funds
d. Foundations
1. PEP2030: One of the important elements of PEP2030 strategy is climate change mitigation and adaptation and natural disaster risk prevention. The core of that are strategic projects on adaptation to climate change: Adaptation to climate change, A comprehensive programme for the adaptation of forests and forestry to climate change, Water for agriculture and other activities:
a. developing green and blue infrastructure of urbanised areas in order to maintain spatial communication inside these areas and with open areas, as well as support the processes of adaptation to climate change,
b. supporting investments related to adaptation to climate change executed by territorial government units
c. supporting investments related to improving the level of protection against the results of natural risks and serious malfunctions, improving the elimination of their effects and enhancing selected elements of environmental management

2. National Urban Policy 2030:

Mitigating the negative effects of climate change in cities. Proposed solutions:
a. Introduction of the standard of protection and shaping greenery in investment processes
b. Legal empowerment of ‘blue-green infrastructure’
c. Managing water resources in the catchment system
d. Financial, legislative and organisational mechanisms to the benefit of increasing natural retention
e. Counteracting urban floods and droughts and their negative effects by legislative changes
f. Introduction of the urban blue-green infrastructure management plan as the implementation of the recommendation to draw up a ‘greening plan’, included in the EU Strategy for Biodiversity 2030.

Improving the quality of natural environment in cities:
a. Legislative changes increasing the possibility of developing blue-green infrastructure on intensively developed areas
b. Reducing energy intensity of residential buildings
3. IOS-PIB is implementing the Project co-funded by the European Union KLIMADA 2.0. The project comprises numerous tasks, the main objective of which is to raise knowledge on climate change and its impacts with the aim to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation measures undertaken in the sectors vulnerable to climate change.
4. In 2020, the National Disaster Management Plan was updated, where climate factors and climate change were taken into account. Preventive and preparatory actions were developed for floods, strong winds, severe frost, intense snowfall, drought and heat. A risk assessment of threats which may cause the occurrence of an emergency situation was developed using risk matrices developed for the needs of subreports to the Report on National Security Threats, also taking into account threats which in recent years were the subject of meetings of the Government Crisis Management Team
5. Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought (PPSS), was developed by the State Water Company Polish Waters and was adopted in 2021. This document, together with river basin management plans, flood risk management plans and water maintenance plans, will contribute to improving water management in Poland in the context of adaptation to climate change. The objective of the PPSS is to ensure adequate quantity and quality of waters for the society, environment and all sectors of the national economy.
6. The LIFE COALA project, implemented in partnership with the Silesian Voivodeship, aims to increase the region's climate resilience, improve the quality of the living environment of its inhabitants and support the region's sustainable development. One of the tasks of the LIFE COALA project is to prepare the first regional plan for adaptation to climate change in Poland.
7. As part of the 'No more concrete in city centres' initiative, coordinated by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, in addition to the implementation of activities aimed at increasing green areas and enabling retention in cities, activities are carried out aimed at increasing awareness of adaptation to climate change among various target groups. The Ministry of Culture and National Heritage is preparing a handbook for municipal governments to support decision-making resulting in spatial development with greater use of green and blue infrastructure, which will also concern issues related to historic areas (including cooperation with monument conservators).
8. National Institute of Public Health-National Research Institute implemented the project “Study and assessment of the impact of climate on health and development of adaptation measures to climate change”. Main objectives of the project:
a) Assessment of the prevalence and dynamics of health phenomena related to climate change, including extreme emergencies
b) Formulating recommendations in the area of health care
c) Dissemination of the acquired knowledge through reports and an online system of presentation of data on monitored phenomena.
Adaptation Manual for cities, guidelines for preparing the Urban Climate Change Adaptation Plan indicates that when developing urban adaptation plans it is advisable to involve residents of the city exposed to the effects of climate change, including the risk of flooding and risk associated with the occurrence of an urban heat island (e.g. inhabiting floodplains of rivers and submersible areas, close city centres).

The Ministry of Climate and Environment is leading the strategic project "Adaptation to climate change including implementation of the initiative No more concrete in city centers”. The aim of the project is to provide public administration institutions and local governments with the necessary knowledge and effective instruments to implement adaptation measures to strengthen resilience to climate change and to limit the soil sealing in city centers by increasing the level of micro and small retention and greenery in cities, as well as creating financial and legal solutions to support the achievement of the goals. Workshops with the representatives of cities regarding the identification of challenges related to de-sealing and greening of public spaces in cities have been carried out in 2022.

The Ministry of Climate and Environment has continued the initiative “Climate-friendly cities”, launched in 2020, which objective is to disseminate modern, effective and efficient solutions that improve the quality of life of residents and increase cities' resilience to the effects of climate change. Under this initiative Ministry of Climate and Environment supports pro-climate transformation of cities, including clean energy and transport, clean air and increasing resilience to climate change, particularly to drought, floods and heat waves through the development of green and blue infrastructure. As a part of the initiative 15 cities will receive specialist strategic advisory services from renowned institutions such as the Institute of Environmental Protection, the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, the Forest Research Institute and the National Centre for Nuclear Research.
National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management

The National Fund offers loans, subsidies and other forms of financing for projects implemented by local governments, enterprises, public entities, social organizations and individuals. Between –2021-2022 it has supported dozens of programs in the field of environmental protection. Directly related to climate change adaptation are open calls in the following areas (already completed, onging and planned) among others:
a. Adapting to climate change and limiting the effects of environmental threats (including financing of blue-green infrastructure) where finance support is directed to i.a. commercial law companies, state-owned enterprises, state legal entities.
b. Water and sewage management in industrial plants which aims to reduce pressure on the environment by reducing water consumption and reducing the pollutant load entering the environment along with waste water generated by the food industry.

As part of the adaptation policy for private sector involvement, attention should be paid to priority programmes financed by the Regional Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management. An example is the "Clean Air" programme, a nationwide financial support programme for the replacement of heat sources. It is a programme for owners and co-owners of single-family houses offering subsidies for heat source replacement and thermomodernisation works (http://czystepowietrze.gov.pl/). Another programme dedicated to the private sector is 'My Water'. The programme aims to protect water resources by increasing retention on properties next to single-family houses and making use of accumulated rainwater and snowmelt, including through the development of green and blue infrastructure (https://www.gov.pl/web/susza/program-moja-woda/).

The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management has continued a programme for adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental risks. The aim of the programme was 1) increasing the level of protection against the effects of climate change and natural hazards and major emergencies and serious failures, improving the removal of their effects and strengthening selected elements of environmental management and 2) dissemination of modern, efficient and effective solutions in cities to improve the quality of life of residents and improve the resilience of cities to the effects of climate change by selecting through a competition the best investment solutions in the field of green and blue infrastructure

In 2022, the 2nd edition of the priority programme “Adaptation to climate change” was launched, which co-finances activities consisting in the elimination of impermeable surfaces, the introduction of sustainable rainwater management systems and rainwater drainage systems, water retention facilities (such as: watercourses, revitalization of oxbow lakes and restoration of wetlands).
https://www.gov.pl/web/nfos[…]od-przed-zanieczyszczeniami

The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management run a priority programme "New Energy". The purpose of the programme was to increase the level of innovation in the economy by supporting the implementation of projects in the field of modern energy technologies, aimed at the development of zero-emission energy, zero-emission industry, as well as systemic solutions to achieve maximum efficiency of energy production, management and use. These projects also include climate change adaptation aspects in their focus in the field of energy. https://www.gov.pl/web/nfosigw/nowa-energia

Selection of actions and (programmes of) measures

Description
The Ministry of Climate and Environment is coordinating the work on the draft act amending the Act - Environmental Protection Law and certain other acts. One of the proposed changes is the obligation to develop urban plans for adaptation to climate change in cities with population equal to or above 20,000 residents and reporting on the implementation of these plans.
Status
Key type measure (KTM)
A: Governance and Institutional
Sub-KTM
A1: Policy instruments
Description
The Programme supports actions on adaptation to climate change, including: green blue infrastructure, removal of impervious surfaces and sustainable rainwater management systems
Status
Key type measure (KTM)
D: Nature based solutions and ecosystem-based approaches
Sub-KTM
D1: Green options
Description
The programme aims to protect water resources by increasing retention on properties next to single-family houses and making use of accumulated rainwater and snowmelt, including through the development of green and blue infrastructure
Status
Key type measure (KTM)
D: Nature based solutions and ecosystem-based approaches
Sub-KTM
D2: Blue options
Description
Klimada 2.0 is a portal on climate change and adapting to climate change impacts. The main objective of the portal is to raise knowledge on climate change and its impacts with the aim to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation measures undertaken in the sectors vulnerable to climate change
Status
Key type measure (KTM)
E: Knowledge and behavioural change
Sub-KTM
E1: Information and awareness raising
Description
The manual is addressed to authors of EIA reports, investors, designers, representatives of environmental authorities. It describes the relationship between project and climate and explains the concepts related to climate change relevant in the EIA. The manual presents the analyses and assessments necessary for the preparation of the EIA report and focuses on the relationship between the project and the local climate, including aspects related to adaptation to climate change
Status
Key type measure (KTM)
E: Knowledge and behavioural change
Sub-KTM
E2: Capacity Building, empowerment and lifestyle practices
The Strategy for Responsible Development and PEP indicate strategic projects that include various smaller projects and initiatives. Their implementation is monitored and reported on a quarterly basis. These programs are implemented both by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, other public institutions, including those subordinate to the Ministry, but also by external entities selected in the form of collective procurement, including commercial ones.

As concerns implementation of the MPA project - individual adaptation plans are monitored by the Ministry of Environment and Climate, among others as part of the project sustainability check. The cities adopted the adaptation plans in the form of resolutions of municipal councils. Adaptation plans are reviewed and updated. A report on the implementation of the plan is also being prepared. It should be noted that cities do not have to submit these reports to the Ministry of Climate and Environment. To date, reports on the implementation of urban adaptation plans have been sent to the Ministry of Climate and Environment by 18 cities. Currently, plans have been adopted by 85 cities over 20,000 inhabitants (including 42 from MPA project). The adopted plans have the status of communal strategic documents, which will be implemented and for which financial resources are guaranteed. The Ministry of Climate and Environment supports cities in the implementation of adaptation plans, including through appropriate programming of the new EU financial perspective.
For the assessment of the implementation of adaptation policy in Poland, a system for monitoring the implementation of projects implemented under the EU funds is used, based on appropriate indicators of performance, output and result (environmental effect) specific for adaptation measures - the SL 2014 system. At the level of national funds, a similar system is used by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOSiGW) and the voivodeship funds for environmental protection and water management (wfosigw), which are also based on tracking the achievement of specific indicators of material performance, output and result, dedicated to projects in the area of climate change adaptation. NFOSiGW and WFOSiGW then submit reports on the implementation of the indicators and the objectives of the priority programmes in the area of climate change adaptation to the Ministry of the Climate and Environment, usually at annual intervals.

Before commencing the creation of a new national adaptation strategy, the Ministry of Climate and Environment carried out an assessment of the implementation of the objectives assumed in SPA2020 and the specific directions of action assigned to them - the assessment was carried out on the basis of questionnaires sent to selected ministries, voivodeship and marshal offices, as well as all communes and poviats. Moreover, the questionnaires were sent to General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways, Polish National Railways, State Fire Service, maritime offices.
According to Partnership Agreement for the implementation of the Cohesion Policy 2021-2027, Poland is obliged to contribute 30 % of the ERDF, i.e. approx. EUR 14.4 billion and 37 % of the CF, i.e. approx. EUR 4.2 billion in expenditure to achieve climate objectives. According to estimates, the share of CF expenditure (after transfer from ESF+ to CF) in Poland for the climate objective will be approx. 60%.

In the European Funds for Infrastructure, Climate and Environment 2021-2027 560 million EUR from the Cohesion Fund will be dedicated to action “Adaptation of urban areas to climate change” and 538 million EUR from the European Regional Development Fund will be dedicated to action “Adaptation to climate change and disaster prevention”.

In the European Funds for Eastern Poland 2021-2027 255 million EUR from the European Regional Development Fund will be dedicated to action “Adaptation do climate change”.

In 2022 next edition of the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management Priority Programme "Adaptation to climate change” was launched. The budget for the implementation of the programme in the period 2022-2027 is PLN 1,15 billion.

Also in regional programmes for 2021-2027 allocations for actions increasing climate resilience has been planned.
The details and earmarked amounts for adaptation activities are described in the section above. The expenditure tracking methodology involves tracking and monitoring the physical output and result indicators to which the expenditure is linked - this applies to both national and EU level funds as well as EEA Norway Grants. Details on monitoring by indicators are described in section MRE methodology related to the implementation of adaptation actions. The system for tracking marked adaptation expenditure is also linked to impact indicators.
Some adaptation activities are carried out at the sectoral level, in particular for agriculture, water resources, coastal zones and forestry (actions that are included in existing strategies). The implementation of the National Adaptation Strategy includes mainstreaming adaptation into sectoral policies, primarily those related to agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, ecosystems and water resources, coastal zones, urban sector, infrastructure, and, subsequently, the preparation of a programme for implementation.

The Ministry of Climate and Environment does not track climate spending by sector and does not collect such data. Data on expenditures on climate objectives or investments, for example on stormwater drainage infrastructure or green-blue infrastructure at the level of municipalities or counties can be obtained and aggregated from the data of the Central Statistical Office (public statistics). At the same time, climate expenditure tracking is carried out in Poland as part of the implementation of EU funds - every year reports are prepared in this regard as part of the implementation of the Partnership Agreement. In the IT system for the implementation of EU funds (SL 2014), it is also possible to obtain and aggregate data on climate-related expenditures through indicators associated with them (on the basis of the so-called Rio Markers).
The KLIMADA 2.0 project identified and updated key climate risks, impacts and vulnerabilities.

As a result of the strategic projects and initiatives of the Ministry of Climate and Environment identified in this Report and being developed or implemented, the climate risk is still being reduced and the climate resilience in Poland is gradually increasing. A very important completed activity lowering the climate risk of the country was the project “Development of Urban Adaptation Plans for cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Poland”. In the European Funds for Infrastructure, Climate and Environment 2021-2027 programme funds have been allocated to support implementation of the investments identified in 44 urban adaptation plans, including sustainable and climate-adapted rainwater management systems and the development of green-blue infrastructure. In the European Funds for Eastern Poland 2021-2027 programme funds have been allocated: to support preparation of urban adaptation plans in cities covered by the programme, to support water management in urban catchment areas (systems designed to prevent and reduce flooding, increase land absorption, slow drainage and retention of water along with its distribution systems during drought, which is mainly related to the construction of sustainable rainwater management systems) and establishment of green-blue infrastructure in the city.

The initiatives of the Ministry of Climate and Environment, i.e. "Climate-friendly Cities", "My Water", the priority programme "Adaptation to Climate Change", as well as the funds spent so far on adaptation to climate change within the implementation of the EU funds described in this Report constitute a very significant progress in building the country's resilience. This Report indicates, among other things, the actions and projects undertaken by the Ministry of Climate and Environment to reduce vulnerability to climate change. A good example worth mentioning here is another programme in the forestry sector. Poland is implementing a comprehensive programme of adaptation of forests and forestry to climate change. The main goal of this project is to prevent or minimize the adverse impacts of droughts. An important objective is to protect against excessive soil erosion and the strengthening of the resilience of forest ecosystems threatened with the escalating climate change
The initiatives, projects and activities identified in this Report build to a significant extent the adaptive capacity of Poland. As a result of significant financial resources invested so far and various soft activities such as preparation of guidelines, training, awareness raising, implementation of strategic projects by the Ministry of Climate and Environment and at all levels of government (local, regional and national), the adaptive capacity at all levels increases significantly. The Ministry of Climate and Environment is coordinating the work on the draft act amending the Act - Environmental Protection Law and certain other acts. The draft law makes the following changes:
• the obligation to develop urban plans for adaptation to climate change in cities with a size equal to or above 20,000. residents and reporting on the implementation of these plans;
• taking into account the issue of adaptation in the strategic and planning documents of communes, regional, voivodeships, and the country
• procedural facilitations related to the construction of septic tanks for rainwater and snowmelt
• introducing an obligation for communes to allocate, as part of the funds spent on the implementation of the participatory budget, a pool of funds intended for the implementation of projects related to the protection of the urban natural environment;
• indication of the rules of operation of commune councils when establishing and maintaining green areas
clarifying and facilitating the construction of septic tanks for rainwater and snowmelt.
Ojectives envisaged in SPA2020

Ojective 1. Ensuring the energy security and good environmental status:
• Investments in distribution networks – including cable (underground) networks that are resistant to atmospheric hazards and ensure a higher level of supply security
• Solutions for distributed sources were introduced (energy cooperatives, clusters, collective prosumer, virtual prosumer), thanks to which it is possible to mitigate risks related to the phenomenon of uncontrollability of large RES sources
• The General Directorate for Environmental Protection established the Central Data Register on Invasive Alien Species. The Alien Species Act (2021) supplements the EU legislation contained in the Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species
• In order to reduce the risk of flooding and mitigate the effects of drought, the Water Shortage Counteracting Programme for 2021-2027 with a perspective by 2030 was developed
• Long-term directions of actions in the field of counteracting the effects of drought are presented in the Plan for Counteracting the Effects of Drought.

Objective 2. Efficient adaptation to climate change in rural areas
• The Council of Ministers adopted a resolution on the adoption of the draft Strategic Plan for the Common Agricultural Policy for 2023-2027
• In the second half of 2020, the programme Adaptation to climate change and mitigation of the effects of environmental threats - financing retention in the countryside was launched

Objective 3. Development of transport in the conditions of climate change
• Cooperation of representatives of the largest transport companies with the National Center for Research and Development in order to take into account the changing climatic conditions in the process of designing and building transport infrastructure
• Implementation of the programmes promoting e-mobility addressed to various groups

Objective 4. Ensuring sustainable regional and local development taking into account climate change
• Development and implementation of urban adaptation plans
• In municipal and regional strategic documents (other than urban adaptation plans), there are issues related to adaptation to climate change, protection of urban greenery, development of green-blue infrastructure, maintaining the continuity of aeration corridors

Objective 5. Stimulating innovations conducive to adaptation to climate change
• The Ministry of Climate and Environment runs the GreenEvo project, which aims to support Polish companies that offer green technologies that can also contribute to adaptation to climate change

Objective 6. Development of social behaviour conducive to adaptation to climate change
• Implementation of the LIFE EKOMalopolska project - Implementation of the Regional Climate and Energy Action Plan for the Malopolskie Voivodeship (2021-2030), which aims to fully implement the Regional Climate and Energy Action Plan for the Malopolskie Voivodship
The analyses carried out by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, including the MPA project, show that the most frequently occurring obstacles to the implementation of adaptation measures are:
- limited funding for climate change adaptation activities in cities as well as the need for intensification of activities in the field of counteracting and adapting to climate change in cities.

Removing this obstacle involves supporting adaptation activities through financial programs from the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management and EU funds (activities related to rainwater retention using green and blue infrastructure were also supported under the EEA Norway Grants). Additionally, under the EU financial perspective 2021-2027 we plan to continue support for projects in the field of sustainable rainwater management, as well as support for activities in the field of green-blue infrastructure, greening of urban space, in local government units - is also crucial for air quality improvement. Climate change adaptation projects will also be submitted for funding from the National Recovery and Resilience Plan.
- city policies (e.g., changing priorities after local elections)-removing this obstacle involves creating urban policies at the national level so that priorities for cities are set by strategic documents such as National Adaptation Strategy, National Environmental Policy, or the National Urban Policy.
- community (including local communities) reluctance and low public awareness - removing this obstacle consists in continuously raising awareness and educating the public on climate change adaptation. It is also very important to have a participatory model, applied as widely as possible by the Ministry of Climate and Environment, in which stakeholders of a given policy are invited to cooperate, be consulted and kept informed about proposed actions.

The remaining barriers listed in section Challenges, gaps and barriers to adaptation of this Report are also effectively addressed:
- Providing up-to-date and reliable information on the state of the environment
- Implementation of the KLIMADA II project and the MPA project.
- Taking environmental and climate challenges into account in spatial planning objectives and tools.
- Rationalization of water management
- The major financial instruments provided by the MKIS are used for the preparation and implementation of water management measures, including drought prevention and mitigation
The assessment of the climate change-related risk was carried out for territorial self-government units (municipalities) as part of the project “The knowledge base on climate change and adapting to climate change effects, together with knowledge dissemination channels, to strengthen economic, environmental and societal resilience as well as to support management of extraordinary risks associated with climate change (Klimada 2.0)”. Its purpose was to present in a spatial approach changes in the risk level for the projected climate change.

A method for the multi-criteria risk analyses based on the system of concepts described in the IPCC reports was developed for the purposes of the risk analysis. It is estimated that this risk primarily depends on the frequency, intensity, range (location) and duration of the extreme weather and climate events.

The method adopted for the risk assessment took into account the multidimensionality and interactivity of the applied indicators of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. For this reason, all the indicators were normalised so that they could be compiled and compared. As a result of this, it was possible to include at the same time both the qualitative indicators (e.g. the significance level of a given indicator in relation to a climate hazard or the need to protect a given ecosystem, the presence or absence of an element vulnerable to a hazard in a given area) and the quantitative indicators (e.g. a change in the temperature or precipitation levels, the amount of resources allocated to adaptation or the number of persons vulnerable to a given hazard). Due to such an approach, it was possible not only to analyse risk changes in time (e.g. with consideration given to climate change scenarios or the timetable of planned adaptation measures within a specific time period), but also to carry out a spatial analysis (using maps of indicator changes in the area analysed, e.g. the distribution of the precipitation amount and frequency, the population density or the presence of ecosystems or critical infrastructure).

The inclusion of the multi-criteria and multi-indicator approach to determine the hazard, vulnerability and exposure in the climate risk assessment made it possible to avoid its overestimation caused only by the assessment of the hazard level and, to almost completely eliminate the subjective assessment of the perception of the hazard. At present, the spatial risk assessment for the areas of municipalities in Poland was carried out for public health, biodiversity, forestry, road transport, agriculture, tourism and water management. The methodology applied has demonstrated a large application and information capacity and can be used to assess the risks for other types of areas and sectors (or their individual elements) in different timeframes.
National Environmental Policy 2030 - Development strategy in the area of the environment and water management" was adopted by the Government on 16 July 2019. It is a supporting document for NAS 2020, plays a role in its update and supplementation, as it also refers to the area of adaptation to climate change, including references dedicated to urban areas. A set of indicators has been introduced to progress the implementation of PEP2030. The defined values in 2020 were compared with the values in 2019 to analyse any changes and trends. In 2023, an evaluation of the first four years of PEP2030 implementation is planned (2019 Implementation Report. National Ecological Policy 2030 - development strategy for environment and water management).

In 2021, Poland began work on the SPA 2020 update, . Questionnaires and surveys were sent to major responsible institutions indicated in the National Adaptation Strategy in order to assess the progress in the implementation of adaptation actions. As a part of the SPA2020 update, in October 2021 the Ministry of Climate and Environment submitted a request for technical support from Technical Support Instrument of the European Commission for Strengthening coordination in climate change adaptation policy between local, regional and national authorities. The Ministry’s request was accepted for funding under the second round of the Technical Support Instrument (TSI 2022). In October 2022 the contract between the European Commission Directorate-General for Structural Reform Support and the Contractor was signed. The goal of this project is to contribute to the creation of reforms increasing the country's resilience to climate change. Based on the EU adaptation to climate change principles, the intention is to provide solutions which make climate change adaptation smarter, swifter and more systemic based on robust data and risk assessment tools. The goal will be achieved by updating the policy framework, including the Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change up to 2040, action plan and roadmaps towards 2050, and updating the institutional framework, including the establishment of a climate adaptation coordination body. The key element is significant stakeholder involvement in the project and participatory approach to development of the new strategy

Good practices and lessons learnt

The webinar offered an overview of available adaptation knowledge, guidance, and tools on knowledge platforms at national level in Poland and at the EU level such as high-quality climate data, an urban adaptation support tool and case studies. The target audience of the webinar were current and potential new users and information providers of Climate-ADAPT in Poland, i.e., governmental decision-makers, representatives of self-government units
Guidance for cities, containing detailed instructions for calculation, including visualisation of all activities reflecting the way of obtaining data, and reporting 10 improved and new indicators on adaptation to climate change: greenery and urban retention, urban heat island, impervious surfaces (concrete), biodiversity
https://www.gov.pl/web/klim[…]-miast-przewodnik-dla-miast
The Ministry of Climate and Environment carried out a survey to examine the extent to which local authorities are paying attention to urban green issues. The survey was the starting point for discussion on shaping urban greenery, de-concreting public spaces and introducing new solutions. Together with representatives of the cities, we analysed the current state and identified challenges related to greening and de-concreting cities

Cooperation and experience

In 2022, the Council of Ministers adopted the National Crisis Management Plan (updated 2021/2022) (https://www.gov.pl/[…]/krajowy-plan-zarzadzania-kryzysowego).

The National Crisis Management Plan (KPZK) is a planning document prepared by the Government Security Center in cooperation with ministries, central offices and provinces, based on the Crisis Management Law. Nineteen hazards have been identified in the NCMP: flood, epidemic, chemical contamination, disruption of telecommunications systems and services, disruption of energy, fuel, gas systems, severe frost, intense snowfall, hurricane, large-scale fire, epizootic, epiphytosis, maritime disaster, drought, heat, radiation contamination, collective disruption of public order, terrorist event, disruption of information networks and systems, and hybrid activities.

KPZK is divided into two parts - A and B. Part A focuses on activities implemented to minimize the risk of a crisis situation, and includes tasks carried out by public administrations in the first two phases of crisis management: the prevention and preparation phases. Part B, describes the administration's activities after the crisis has occurred and includes solutions applied during the subsequent phases: response and recovery.

In addition, the Government Center for Security, in connection with its function as the National Contact Point for the UN for the implementation of the Sendai Framework Action Program for 2015-2030, launched a survey on disaster risk reduction.

The results were to be used to prepare information for the UN in connection with the mid-term review of the implementation of the Sendai Framework Program of Action.

Climate change, biological diversity, desertification, land degradation and drought are intricately related on the social, economic and environmental fronts. Because these issues are closely linked, the secretariats of UNFCCC, CBD and UNCCD are engaged in collaborative actions to solve these challenges at all levels.
Poland is a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and therefore strives to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases responsible for global warming. Poland has organised three United Nations Climate Change Conferences. The conferences were held in Poznan (2008), Warsaw (2013) and Katowice (2018). In 2021 the EU and its Member States submitted the EU adaptation communication (ADCOM) that takes due consideration of the guidance from the Katowice Climate Package in relation to the adaptation communication and the transparency framework.

This ADCOM systematises the latest developments on adaptation at the EU level, in particular the 2021 EU Adaptation Strategy as well as relevant information, best practices, experiences and lessons learned on adaptation planning, implementation and evaluation on national level, including the examples of Poland. Poland is fully committed to the Paris Agreement, its long-term goals and associated ambition cycle, including on adaptation, in light of the latest available science and aims to ensure a just transition.

Cities in Poland participate in the Covenant of Mayors, a partnership programme in Europe to learn, be inspired and take action on climate and energy challenges. At the moment, 84 signatories in Poland have made the political decision to adhere to the Covenant. And 44 cities have already sent their Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan ( https://eu-mayors.ec.europa.eu/en/home).

Poland cooperates with the Slovak Republic on border waters. The cooperation focuses on water level assessment, cooperation in hydrology and flood control in the border waters, as well as implementation of tasks under the Water Framework Directive and the EU Floods Directive in Polish-Slovak border waters ( https://www.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-polsko--slowacka). Cooperation on border waters was also undertaken with the Czech Republic ( https://www.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-polsko--czeska), Lithuania ( https://www.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-polsko--litewska) and Ukraine (https://www.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-polsko---ukrainska).

Poland is also a signatory to the Helsinki Convention, which means that it monitors and protects the Baltic Sea environment. A team of experts working for HELCOM collects information on the state of the environment and pollution discharged into the sea. This data is analysed and, on this basis, recommendations are drawn up addressed to the Member States, obliging them to take specific actions aimed at protecting the Baltic area.
In its adaptation activities Poland cooperates with EU countries. Poland cooperates with the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ukraine and Lithuania in the field of border waters. This cooperation is focused on the assessment of water status, cooperation in hydrology and flood control on border waters as well as implementation of tasks under the Water Framework Directive and the Floods Directive ( https://www.gov.pl/[…]/wspolpraca-miedzynarodowa-w-gospodarce-wodnej).
19 Polish regions and local authorities signed a Mission Charter of the EU Mission on Climate Change Adaptation. The Mission on Adaptation to Climate Change focuses on supporting EU regions, cities and local authorities in their efforts to build resilience against the impacts of climate change. The Mission’s objective is to accompany by 2030 at least 150 European regions and communities towards climate resilience.
5 Polish cities (Kraków, Lódz, Rzeszów, Warszawa, Wroclaw) have been selected to participate in the EU Mission: Climate-Neutral and Smart Cities. The selected cities will develop Climate City Contracts, which will include an overall plan for climate neutrality across all sectors such as energy, buildings, waste management and transport, together with related investment plans. This process will involve citizens, research organisations and the private sector.

The representatives of MKiS participate in 2 working groups of the Strategic Configuration of the Horizon Europe Programme Committee on Mission Climate-Neutral and Smart Cities and on Mission Adaptation to Climate Change.

At the international level, Poland also cooperates with Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Sweden. Poland is a member of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - also known as the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM).

Another example of international cooperation on local level is the Covenant of Mayors. Currently, 84 signatories in Poland have taken the political decision to join the Covenant, while 44 cities have already sent their Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans ( https://eu-mayors.ec.europa.eu/en/home).

The Ministry of Climate and Environment, in consultation with the then Ministry of Maritime Economy and Inland Navigation, proposed in 2019 the adaptation of water ecosystems to climate change as the subject of the resolution for the 5th session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-5, Nairobi, February 28 – March 3, 2022). Preparation of the draft resolution, supported by all EU countries, was carried out mainly in 2021. At the end of 2021 the project was set aside for re-consideration in preparations for UNEA-6. Nevertheless, the EU ensured integrating some key messages of that resolution already in other outcome documents of UNEA-5.2.

Overview of institutional arrangements and governance at the sub-national level (where “sub-national” refers to local and regional)

- Joint projects, joint working groups, informal cooperation, various forums for the exchange of opinions and information, including conferences, meetings, etc. are carried out
- The scientific sector is involved (incl. IMGW-PIB, IOS-PIB, IETU)
- MKiS will be coordinating “Environment for Development Partnership” national network in 2021-2027 EU funds perspective and adaptation to climate change will be one of the thematic area of this network.
- MKiS strictly cooperates with Ministry of Development Funds and Regional Policy
- coordination of the inter-ministerial initiative 'No more concrete in city centres'
- participation in the Partnership Initiative of Cities: Green Network (Ministry of Development Funds and Regional Policy)
1. a series of climate hackathons - YouthKrakHack. Youth for climate (Kraków), Klimaton for cities, Hackathon Koszalin, Hackathon — Energy for the future and climate neutrality Lódz 2022
2. workshops with representatives of cities regarding the identification of challenges related to de-sealing and greening of public spaces in cities (as part of the KzB initiative)
3. active cooperation with partners of LIFE projects, the subject of which is related to adaptation to climate change (local/regional/private sector)
4. participation in the Partnership Initiative of Cities within the Green Network; advice during study visits and as part of the work carried out as part of the project in the field of adaptation to climate change
1. Adaptation Plans for cities over 100 000 inhabitants (MPA).

Adaptation Plan for cities over 100 000 inhabitants are the implementation of the Polish National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (NAS 2020), the first governmental document in response to the challenges of adaptation to climate change. The project was carried out in 2017- 2019 by the Ministry of Climate and Environment and in cooperation with local authorities of 44 cities mostly over 100 000 inhabitants. The developed plans were approved by city councils and are valid until 2030. Since then, local governments should consider MPA in their policies and long – term planning, diverse needs of stakeholders and local communites. MPA was prepared for the following cities by far: Bialystok,Bielsko-Biala,Bydgoszcz,Bytom,Chorzów, Czeladz,Czestochowa, Dabrowa Górnicza, Elblag, Gdansk, Gdynia, Gliwice, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Grudziadz,Jaworzno,Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Kraków, Legnica, Lublin, Lódz, Myslowice,Olsztyn, Opole, Plock, Poznan, Radom, Ruda Slaska, Rybnik, Rzeszów, Siemianowice Slaskie,Slupsk,Sopot,Sosnowiec, Szczecin, Tarnów, Torun, Tychy,Walbrzych, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zabrze, Zielona Góra, . MPA, as well as Warsaw Adaptation Plan (as part of the Adaptcity project overviewed below) contributes to protecting about 30% of the Polish population against the effects of climate change. Climate Change Adaptation Plans are continued at the local level in smaller towns and communities. Each MPA was developed with experts. Its main goal is to improve safety of city dwellers and increase protection against the harmful effects of climate change. It takes into account the local conditions and problems, because cities differ in terms of threats and difficulties they face. The comparison of MPA in 44 cities depicts different level of detail e.g. in planned activities.

Each MPA consists of:
- risk analysis and identification of the main climate threats
- indication of specific goals and priority areas of adaptation plans
- characteristics of preferred activities
- monitoring and evaluation including indicators which will show the progress of implementation.

MPA is excellent example of governmental engagement in local adaptation plans.

At the national level, the MPA project was coordinated by the Ministry of Environment (now the Ministry of Climate and Environment). It was aimed to provide support for 44 major Polish cities. The overarching goal was to identify and analyse adaptation challenges each city may face, draft plans for local authorities, indicate sources of funding and raise awareness for the need for adaptation. The MPA Project was cofounded (85%) by the EU Funds (Cohesion Fund within the framework of Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment) and the Polish State Budget (15%).

All Urban adaptation plans were developed under one methodology by one contractor. Urban areas have been identified as a priority in the implementation of the adaptation to climate change policy in Poland.

The following Project Goals were fulfilled:
• Determination of vulnerability of the largest cities to climate change
• Planning for adaptation actions at the local level
• Raising awareness of the need for adaptation to climate change at the local level

Polish Ministry of the Climate and Environment supported local governments from both – organisational and financial side.
2. ClimCities. CLIMate change adaptation in small and medium size CITIES

The CLIMCITIES project was devoted to adaptation to climate change in small and medium-sized Polish cities. Financed under the Bilateral Cooperation Fund of the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area for 2009-2014 (85%) and from the state budget (15%) took place in 2017. Aimed at cities with a population of approx. 50 thousand. up to 99 thousand and smaller.

The main goal of the CLIMCITIES project was to develop the adaptability of small and medium-sized cities in Poland to climate change by ensuring local access to knowledge on adaptation to climate change and the implementation of adaptation goals defined in Polish Strategic Plan for Adaptation(NAS 2020). Public administration employees gained the opportunity to broaden their knowledge and acquire new skills necessary to undertake activities for the adaptation of the city to climate change and to effectively involve local communities in these activities.

The project included a series of trainings for representatives of local government administration and local leaders involved in pro-ecological and environmental activities. Participants learned how climate change affects cities and how to adapt.

Moreover, as part of the CLIMCITIES project, experts developed climate change adaption plans for 5 cities(Belchatów, Nowy Sacz, Ostroleka, Siedlce, Tomaszów Mazowiecki). The strategies- a tool for undertaking adaptation measures for the city and its inhabitants - was developed by experts from the Institute of Environmental Protection and National Research, in close cooperation with the local governments and its residents. The task of the team was to prepare a comprehensive diagnosis of threats and support local government authorities and city residents in conscious and responsible responses to the forecasted climate changes and their anticipated effects.

The benefits of the project include increase of the climate change and adaptation awareness among local communities and increase competences of local governments in solving urban climate problems.
3. LIFE_AdaptCity_PL - a pilot strategy to adapt to climate change for the Capital City of Warsaw

Project realized in 2014–2019. The observations and research carried out in the ADAPTCITY project have enabled the description of key climate-related phenomena that have an adverse effect on Warsaw and its residents. These phenomena are:1)Increase in air temperature, and thus the number and intensity of hot days and hot nights, 2)Increase in the frequency and intensity of precipitation causing local flooding.3)Increase in intensity and scale of floods or droughts.4)Increase in intensity of storms and strong winds. The forecast of climate change carried out until the end of the 21st century stated that all these phenomena may intensify in Warsaw. Therefore, the project's goal was to take effective measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change in the Warsaw ecosystem and to start adaptation measures in other metropolises in Poland. This goal was achieved through:1.Support for the Capital City of Warsaw in developing the first strategy for adaptation to climate change in Poland using an ecosystem approach.2.Stimulating the activity of authorities, administration and city services of large Polish cities to take actions for adaptation to climate change -based on Warsaw's experience.3.Showing the purposefulness and possibilities of using prognostic climate maps to build strategies for adapting the city to climate change.4.Raising awareness of the global problem of climate change among city authorities and encouraging them to get involved in European action.

During the implementation of the ADAPTCITY project, the awareness of administration employees of the largest Polish cities and Warsaw residents regarding climate change and activities that may contribute to their prevention or adaptation to them increased significantly.
4. According to the estimates of the Ministry of Climate and Environment, 115 (54%) cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants have started work on developing the MPA, including 85 (40%) cities that have adopted the plan by way of a resolution.
5. National Urban Policy 2030(KPM2030)

On 14 June 2022, the Polish government adopted the most important document for conducting urban policy: National Urban Policy 2030 (KPM2030). The National Urban Policy is a document focused on the sustainable development of cities and urban functional areas. It is guided by the principle that the key element of conducting urban policy is to face development challenges and to build conditions for strengthening the capacity of cities and their functional areas for sustainable development, as well as building resilience to climate change and, above all, improving the quality of cities inhabitants life.

Challenges of the National Urban Policy 2030:

Challenge I: Fostering urban and spatial order

Challenge II: Counteracting chaotic suburbanisation processes

Challenge III: Strengthening cooperation of self-governments within functional urban areas

Challenge IV: Mitigating the negative effects of climate change in cities

Challenge V: Improving the quality of natural environment in cities

Challenge VI: Ensuring a sustainable and integrated urban mobility system in functional urban areas

Challenge VII: Improving road safety

Challenge VIII: Increasing housing availability

Challenge IX: Improving investment capacity of cities

Challenge X: Unlocking the social potential

Challenge XI: Accelerating the pace of digital transformation of cities

KPM 2030 is aimed at providing tools and solutions across Poland which will make it easier for self-governments of cities and functional urban areas to implement local and supralocal sustainable development policies. Postulated changes in legal provisions and modifications of financial mechanisms are aimed at extending the range of solutions applied by self-governments
The project "Development of Urban Adaptation Plans for cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Poland” included a methodology for developing urban adaptation plans that include groups that are particularly sensitive to climate change. In assessing vulnerability and adaptive potential, the population and living conditions of elderly, lonely, disabled and chronically ill as well as homeless people were assessed. Almost in all 44 cities participating in the project, the public health sector was selected as a sector sensitive to climate change. Within this sector problems of various socio-economic groups are considered. Among the adaptation activities the following are proposed: actions improving the functioning of municipal services and social infrastructure, activities concerning warning systems for residents about the risks associated with climatic events, as well as measures to strengthen public awareness, so that urban residents care for the weakest. The methodology of developing strategies that has been prepared in the project takes into account the vulnerability assessment of various socio-economic groups, in particular the homeless as a social group directly exposed to meteorological factors and older people (who are often lonely) as a group vulnerable to the effects of extreme temperatures. In the vulnerability assessment, the populations of these social groups in the city and its distribution in space (settlements with a high proportion of elderly people in the population) were identified. The analysis covered social infrastructure and social services, their availability for homeless and elderly people.
Adaptation Manual for cities, guidelines for preparing the Urban Climate Change Adaptation Plan indicates that when developing urban adaptation plans, it is important to identify stakeholders who will be involved in the process of a plan development and consultation. It is advisable to involve non-governmental organisations, and in particular those operating at the local level (e.g. environmental organisations, associations, associations) with a statutory interest in matters of climate change and entrepreneurs.
In 2017-2019, the Ministry of Climate and Environment implemented the project "Development of climate change adaptation plans in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. residents." A municipal adaptation plan was prepared for each city. Currently, 28 cities have expressed the need to update the adaptation plans created in 2019 under the project. Individual adaptation plans are monitored by the Ministry of Environment and Climate as part of the project sustainability check. The cities adopted adaptation plans in the form of resolutions of municipal councils. The adopted plans have the status of communal strategic documents, which will be implemented and for which financial resources are guaranteed. The Ministry of Climate and Environment supports cities in the implementation of adaptation plans, including through appropriate programming of the EU financial perspective 2021-2027. Adaptation plans are reviewed and updated. A report on the implementation of the plan is also being prepared. It should be noted that cities do not have to submit these reports to the Ministry of Climate and Environment. To date, reports on the implementation of urban adaptation plans have been sent to the Ministry of Climate and Environment by 18 cities.

Urban adaptation plans have also been prepared / adopted by other than 44 cities which participated in the abovementioned project. Currently 85 cities over 20,000 inhabitants adopted their urban adaptation plans.
The Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute has published a manual: “Climate change and adaptation to climate change in environmental impact assessments”. This manual is addressed to authors of EIA reports, investors and designers. It is also addressed to representatives of environmental authorities, in particular the local level. The manual describes the relationship between project and climate and explains the concepts related to climate change relevant in the EIA. The Manual presents the analyses and assessments necessary for the preparation of the EIA report, but in particular it focuses on the relationship between the project and the local climate, including aspects related to adaptation to climate change. lt contains information on the correct implementation of the climate characteristics in the EIA. The annexes contain analytical matrices and details on minimising the negative impact of the project on the local climate and the adaptation of the project to climate change.

Adaptation Handbook for Cities prepared in 2015. is a practical guidance in the process of preparing urban adaptation plans The handbook also devotes chapters to the implementation, monitoring, evaluation and updating of plans. (http://44mpa.pl/podrecznik-do-adaptacji/ An update of the Adaptation Manual for Cities will be prepared in 2023 by the Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute)

In 2017-2019, the Ministry of Climate and Environment implemented the project "Development of climate change adaptation plans in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. residents." A municipal adaptation plan was prepared for each city. Currently, 28 cities have expressed the need to update the adaptation plans created in 2019 under the project.
https://pois.inig.pl/[…]/ ).

The Ministry of Climate and Environment is coordinating the work on the draft act amending the Act - Environmental Protection Law and certain other acts The draft law makes the following changes:
1) the obligation to develop urban plans for adaptation to climate change in cities with a size equal to or above 20,000. residents and reporting on the implementation of these plans;
2) taking into account the issue of adaptation in the strategic and planning documents of communes, regional, voivodeships, and the country
3) procedural facilitations related to the construction of septic tanks for rainwater and snowmelt 4) introducing an obligation for communes to allocate, as part of the funds spent on the implementation of the participatory budget, a pool of funds intended for the implementation of projects related to the protection of the urban natural environment;
5) indication of the rules of operation of commune councils when establishing and maintaining green areas;
The LIFE COALA project involves a total of 13 partners, who were selected to ensure sufficient institutional background and expertise in such a way that the selected procedures could be verified directly during the project itself. The project coordinator is the Moravian-Silesian Region. The LIFE COALA project, implemented in partnership with the Silesian Voivodeship, aims to increase the region's climate resilience, improve the quality of the living environment of its inhabitants and support the region's sustainable development. One of the tasks of the LIFE COALA project is to prepare the first regional plan for adaptation to climate change in Poland.
https://www.lifecoala.cz/partneri/index-pl.html
19 Polish regions and local authorities signed a Mission Charter of the EU Mission on Climate Change Adaptation. The Mission on Adaptation to Climate Change focuses on supporting EU regions, cities and local authorities in their efforts to build resilience against the impacts of climate change. The Mission’s objective is to accompany by 2030 at least 150 European regions and communities towards climate resilience.
5 Polish cities (Kraków, Lódz, Rzeszów, Warszawa, Wroclaw) have been selected to participate in the EU Mission: Climate-Neutral and Smart Cities. The selected cities will develop Climate City Contracts, which will include an overall plan for climate neutrality across all sectors such as energy, buildings, waste management and transport, together with related investment plans. This process will involve citizens, research organisations and the private sector.

Ministerstwo Klimatu i Srodowiska (Ministry of Climate and Environment)

Department of Air Protection and Urban Policy
Coordinating adaptation policies and reponsible for reporting
Ilona Ligocka
Counsellor, including responsibility for coordination of reporting.
[Disclaimer]
The source of information presented in these pages is the reporting of EU Member States under 'Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action' and the voluntary reporting of EEA Member Countries.'
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