Home Database Indicators Population vulnerability to extreme heat in Europe

Population vulnerability to extreme heat in Europe


Heat negatively affects human health. Age, pre-existing medical conditions and social deprivation together with working and living conditions co-determine the vulnerability of people and the severity of adverse health outcomes.


Since no consistent and universally accepted standard exists for distinguishing urban from rural areas, urban classification mostly based on the size or characteristics of settlements can differ between countries. In addition, this indicator does not capture the effect of adaptation measures in place, such as heat early warning systems, cooling devices, and green areas in cities.


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Reference information



van Daalen, K. R., et al., 2022, ‘The 2022 Europe report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: towards a climate resilient future’, The Lancet Public Health 7(11), pp. E942-E965. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(22)00197-9

Data sources:

  1. Population data, DALYs and deaths: GBD 2019 - Disease and Injuries Collaborators. Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, Lancet 396:1204-1222 (2020)
  2. Urban population: UNDP. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2018)
Lancet Countdown in Europe

Published in Climate-ADAPT Jan 19 2021   -   Last Modified in Climate-ADAPT Dec 06 2022

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