This paper explores methodological approaches that can be used to monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation initiatives at the projects and programme levels. It examines approaches that have been used in other areas of development practice to see what lessons have been learned that can inform the development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks targeted at adaptation. The paper focuses on three methodological challenges related to monitoring and evaluation that are particularly relevant for adaptation:

  1. establishing baselines and targets, and
  2. assessing attribution,
  3. dealing with long time horizons.


The paper also considers the importance of on-going learning in evaluation and the benefit of applying a comprehensive approach to monitoring and evaluation, building on tested practices from participatory methods and social sciences techniques.

Reference information

OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 74, OECD Publishing.

Published in Climate-ADAPT Jul 12, 2016   -   Last Modified in Climate-ADAPT Dec 12, 2023

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