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Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic. Summary for Policy-makers (2017)


This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings and implications of the second SWIPA assessment, conducted from 2010 to 2016 and published in 2017, by more than 90 scientists.

SWIPA focuses on changes to the Arctic cryosphere (the portion of Arctic land and water that is seasonally or perennially frozen), and the implications of those changes.

Key findings of the SWIPA 2017 assessment include:

  1. The Arctic’s climate is shifting to a new state
  2. Climate change in the Arctic has continued at a rapid pace
  3. Changes will continue through at least mid-century, due to warming already locked into the climate system
  4. Substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions now can stabilize impacts after mid-century
  5. Adaptation policies can reduce vulnerabilities
  6. Effective mitigation and adaptation policies require a solid understanding of Arctic climate change

Reference information

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)


Climate Impact Assessment, Decision-making, Water cycle, arctic monitoring

Climate impacts

Extreme Temperatures, Sea Level Rise


Sector Policies, Adaptation Plans and Strategies, Vulnerability Assessment


Biodiversity, Marine and Fisheries

Geographic characterisation


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