Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 


Information from the 7th National Communication to the UNFCCC

Following the Official Norwegian Report on Climate Adaptation (2010), the Norwegian Parliament adopted the first white paper on climate change adaptation in 2013, outlining national policies and guidance for adaptation in Norway. The paper provides an overview of the implications of climate change for Norway and sets out a framework to facilitate the development of adaptation strategies and identification of effective adaptation measures across sectors and administrative levels.

The exact scope, severity and pace of future climate change impacts are difficult to predict, but it is clear that climate change will affect societal safety. Specific examples include:

  • Increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events, such as storms, floods and droughts, will threaten human lives and health, material assets and vital societal functions.
  • Both changed extreme weather events and a gradual change in the average climate will increase the vulnerability of critical infrastructure.
  • Global effects of climate change can have an indirect impact on societal safety in Norway. For example, intensifying droughts or floods can result in food insecurity, economic collapse and human suffering, which in turn may lead to cross-border migration and the spread of harmful organisms.

Climate change will thus challenge society's ordinary emergency management capacity.

From 2006-2009, The Norwegian Directorate for Civil protection (DSB) prepared a National Risk and Vulnerability Report (NSBR) as a basis for follow-up of cross-sectoral social security work. In 2012, DSB further developed methodology that enabled analyses of different types of events across sectors and areas of responsibility. From 2012-2014, the report was called National Risk Analysis and included a selection of likely worst case scenarios that could affect Norwegian society and that the authorities should be prepared to demand extraordinary government efforts. From 2017, the National Risk Analysis has changed its name to "Crisis Scenarios" - analyses of serious events that may hit Norway.

The Crisis Scenarios concluded that extreme weather and landslides are among the hazards most likely to affect Norway, with potentially severe consequences for citizens.

Large forest fires can lead to great economic loss and damage to forestry, and may represent danger for life and health, housing and critical infrastructure. Norwegian Centre for Climate Services concludes that the Southern and Eastern parts of Norway will have an increase in forest fire risk in the coming century. In Eastern Norway, changes in climate could lead to doubling of the number of days with forest fire risk by 2050.

In accordance with the principle of responsibility, the issue of climate change adaptation is addressed in several sectoral policy documents published recently. Among these are:

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Norway