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Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted.

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Bulgaria are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

Bulgaria National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan

National Health Strategy (2014–2020)  

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from WHO. Health and climate change: country profile (2021)

This WHO/EURO UNFCCC health and climate change country profile for Bulgaria provides a summary of available evidence on climate hazards, health vulnerabilities, health impacts and progress to date in health sector efforts to realize a climate-resilient health system.

The overall aims of the WHO and UNFCCC Health and Climate Change Country Profile Project are to:

  • Increase awareness of the health impacts of climate change
  • Support evidence-based decision making to strengthen the resilience of health systems
  • Support health involvement in national and international climate processes such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • Promote actions that improve health while reducing greenhouse gas emissions

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

The National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan (2019 [editors]) for the Republic of Bulgaria lists 9 sectors including the health sector and disaster risk management as a cross-cutting topic. Appendix 5 provides an Assessment of the Human Health Sector, which includes a risk and vulnerability assessment and analysis, an explanation of the baseline policy context, and adaptation options.

The Operational Programme Environment 2014-2020 provides a separate Priority Axis 4 - Prevention and Flood Risk Management, which is directly linked to climate change. Measures envisaged under Priority Axis 4 of the programme are aimed at providing resistance to disasters, preventing risk to human health and the environment and mitigating the consequences of floods.

The National Development Programme Bulgaria 2020 points that the most vulnerable sectors, including health, need to be addressed with priority to limit any economic losses in the long run.

Information from WHO publication. Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018)

Bulgaria has developed a national climate change vulnerability, impact and adaptation assessment.

The Ministry of Environment and Waters has established the Coordination Council on Climate Change and National Expert Council on Climate Change, with health sector participation. The Chief State Health Inspector is the responsible focal point within the Ministry of Health for organizing and managing activities related to climate change, health adaptation promotion and integrated disease prevention, and to carry out preventive and anti-epidemic activities related to extreme weather events.

In a publication assessing the risks to the Bulgarian economy from climate change, a special part analyses and assesses the potential risks for public health and the country’s vulnerability to climate change. The vulnerability assessment characterizes the health sector’s vulnerability as moderate and adaptation capacity as insufficient. Considering the results of the analysis, the Bulgarian NAS will include a dedicated section on human health and specific measures for the sector will be planned.

A national early warning and disclosure system for executive bodies and population provides warnings and informs the population about impending or emerging disasters. It also serves as a platform for exchange of information and coordination of activities of the executive authorities and the components of the joint rescue system (ministries and agencies, municipalities, commercial companies and sole traders, emergency medical care centres, other medical and health care establishments, non-profit legal entities including voluntary formations and armed forces) in the event of impending or occurring disasters.

The Ministry of Health annually purchases a vaccine against Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, which is given to individuals at risk of infection (service personnel, agricultural workers, medical personnel in Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever endemic areas).

A national vector-borne disease control and prevention programme for 2014–2018 in Bulgaria was adopted by the government. The strategic goal of the programme was to reduce morbidity and mortality from vector-transmitted infections by controlling the spread of vectors through early detection and maintaining an integrated epidemiological, veterinary and entomological surveillance, with multilateral and intensive cooperation between medical and veterinary authorities at the national and regional levels.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Bulgaria