Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Estonia are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

Climate Change Adaptation Development Plan until 2030

National Health Plan (2009-2020) 

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

The National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) for 2030 sets eight subgoals based on the priority sectors of Estonia’s economic and administrative structure (independent of each other and partially also combined), including health and rescue capabilities.

Vulnerability assessment, climate change impacts and adaptation measures described for priority areas are based on results outlined in the Estonian development plan for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. A synopsis of important climate change impacts in Estonia until 2100 includes the spread of new pathogens and increasing health disorders.

The main measures in the National Adaptation Plan (NAP, 2017-2020, to be superseded by a NAP for 2021-2025 [editors])  for the health sector include increasing of the awareness of the population of the health impacts of climate-related risks and the development of information, monitoring, and support systems and drawing up action plans to increase the efficiency of the management of the health risks arising from climate change and the management of the health risks.

Information from WHO publication. Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018)

The Estonian NAS for 2030 and its NAP refer to planned activities that will monitor the expansion of vector-borne diseases due to climate change and will estimate the risk of parasites, primarily in surface water (especially in times of flood) and identifying hazards from cyanotoxin in water bodies.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Estonia