Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Greece are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (2016)

National Action Plan to Address Environmental Risks to Health (2008-2012) 

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

The Greek National Adaptation Strategy (NAS, 2016 [editors]) suggests alternative adaptation options for 15 specific priority sectors, including health.

According to the Annual Bulletins on the Climate in Greece of years 2014-2019 of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, the main climate extremes refer to heat waves, high precipitation and flooding events, cyclones, sandstorms and landslides. The extreme heat waves have negative consequences on public health.

The Ministry of Health issues circulars on public health measures to be adopted in the event of extreme weather (e.g., floods, forest fires), as well as instructions to protect public health and reduce harm from severe heat and heatwaves. It also issues regulations and circulars to address growing threats of disease outbreaks, as rising temperatures linked to climate change increase infectious disease occurrence and spread. The Operational Programme Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship & Innovation (2014-2020) supports measures to improve the energy performance and comfort conditions of public buildings, such as hospitals.

The creation of an online National Adaptation Knowledge Hub that pools together adaptation relevant data, information, good practices and approaches can also contribute to reaching out to stakeholders, including stakeholders particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. The National Adaptation Knowledge Hub is planned to be developed under the LIFE IP AdaptInGR and one of the objectives for its development is to raise awareness among different target groups on adaptation, including citizens and promote the sharing of good practice among adaptation stakeholders.

Information from Adaptation preparedness scoreboard. Country fiches (2018)

Four national priority sectors (agriculture, forests, biodiversity, health) include mainstreaming of adaptation in policy documents.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Greece