Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted.

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Cyprus are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

National response for preparation to climate change (2017) 

Cyprus 7th National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2018) 

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

All information was reported under the MMR in 2019. No additional information on health was reported under GovReg in 2021.

The National Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan for Cyprus (2017 [editors]identifies eleven sectors in which climate change is significant for Cyprus; public health is one of them. It also foresees 57 measures, actions and practices that are required for effective climate change adaptation in each of the eleven policy areas.

Measures for Public Health include:

  • Instructions for personal protection from heat waves through the media.
  • Preparation of an emergency plan to determine the responsibilities of the various health centres, social care services and municipal health centres.
  • Empowerment and preparation of medical/nursing staff and utilities in response to climate-related emergencies.
  • Development of a contingency plan in health and social care systems as well as municipalities to serve an increasing number of climate change related patients/incidents.
  • Development and implementation of an information system for diseases associated with climate change.
  • Recommendation to avoid walking outdoors during high-risk hours.
  • Prohibition of work outdoors during extreme events.
  • Development and empowerment of early warning systems.
  • Operation of community centres in each municipality/local community (e.g., town halls, schools, Centres of Open Care for elderly people) to provide protection (air, shade, liquids) to the population at risk.

The Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) of Cyprus was published in 2016 and includes the health sector.

Information from WHO publication. Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018)

The Department of Environment coordinates the management of climate change issues via a national multisectoral body. The role of the health sector is to support this body as one of the partners in the implementation of measures to address health issues.

An impact, vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the public health sector regarding climate changes observed in recent years showed that the sector has good adaptive capacity. The main vulnerability identified relates to deaths and health problems due to frequent heatwaves and high temperatures, especially during summer. In addition, human discomfort – particularly for the elderly – increases when humidity levels are high and when air is polluted with particles of dust from the Sahara Desert.

Research into the effects of climate change on public health in Cyprus is performed by institutions and government departments concerned with the study of climatological data and their possible health effects. Cyprus also participates in MedCLIVAR, an international network that aims to study climate change impacts and challenges posed to public health, as well as the occurrence of extreme events closely related to climate variability in the Mediterranean.

The climate change impacts on the public health sector were assessed based on Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies projections for the future (2021–2050) within the Development of a national strategy for adaptation to climate change adverse impacts in Cyprus (CYPADAPT, 2011-2014 [editors]) project. Direct impacts include:

  • deaths and health problems related to heatwaves and high temperatures;
  • deaths/injuries from floods;
  • deaths/injuries from landslides; deaths/injuries from fires.

Indirect impacts include:

  • vector-borne and rodent-borne diseases;
  • water- and foodborne diseases;
  • climate-related effects on nutrition;
  • air pollution-related diseases.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Cyprus