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Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for France are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

French Strategy for adaptation to climate change (2006)

First National Adaptation Plan (2018) 

Second National Adaptation Plan (2018)

The National Health Strategy (2018-2022)

4th National Health and Environment Plan 

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

All information was reported under the MMR in 2019.

Within the frame of the second National Adaptation Plan (NAP-2, 2018 [editors]), a resource centre for climate change adaptation will be developed, making the best use of new technologies to facilitate shared learning, access to best practices and a mapping presentation of actors, especially at the territorial level. The centre will cover the following topics: health (including at work), water, agriculture, forestry, soils, biodiversity, natural hazards, urban planning, mobility, fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, the financial sector.

Information from WHO publication. Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018)

France has developed a strategic framework on climate change adaptation with health as a cross-cutting approach (2007 [editors]). The national climate change vulnerability, impact and adaptation assessment (2009 [editors]) includes health.

The Ministry of Environment oversees the entire NAP, but the country’s Public Health Agency is in charge of climate change health adaptation actions. It also carries out scientific surveillance and research, vulnerability and health risk assessments, personnel training and risk communication.

A national heat prevention plan has been developed, based on collaboration between climate services and the Public Health Agency. It includes weather forecasting, near-real-time health surveillance and health promotion.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on France