Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Netherlands are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

National Climate Adaptation Strategy (2016)

Implementation programme 2018-2019 

National Delta Programme 2022

National health policy memorandum/Landelijke nota gezondheidsbeleid 2020-2024 

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

The National Adaptation Strategy (NAS, 2016 [editors]) has incorporated the six main climate impact issues in its National Adaptation Plan (2018-2019 [editors]), two of which are health specific:

  • Greater heat stress leading to increased morbidity, hospital admissions and mortality, as well as reduced productivity
  • Greater health burden and loss of productivity due to possible increase in infectious diseases or allergic (respiratory) conditions such as hay fever

The Knowledge Agenda Climate Change and Health (published in June 2019) has been included under the NAS.

Within Disaster Risk Reduction, specific attention is paid to climate adaptation, including looking into public health. The Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport is developing a climate heath agenda, and the National heatwave plan is operational.

As part of the Delta Programme (2018 [editors]),  the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management started to initiate and monitor actions for seven sectors with vulnerable infrastructure, which includes health institutions. 

In 2014, seven sectoral climate change risk and vulnerability assessments were published, including for health.

Information from Adaptation preparedness scoreboard. Country fiches (2018)

In the health and wellbeing sector, a National Heat Plan of 2007 was updated in 2015. This plan has been implemented annually since 2007 and informs regional health organisations (GGDs and the Red Cross) when and how to put preventive measures in action in care homes and hospitals. KNMI and RIVM have a warning system in place with threshold values that indicate the occurrence of a heatwave. When a heatwave is expected, all Dutch care institutions receive a warning.

The NAS programme team organises national adaptation dialogues on the issue of health and heat stress.

Information from WHO publication. Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018)

Apart from the NAS adopted in 2016, no health sector-specific strategy has been developed. However, a heat action plan is in force, as is a surveillance structure on emerging pathogens. Both programmes are considered to cover climate-related health impacts to an extent, for the time being.

Information on surveillance of infectious diseases is shared weekly with partners in signal meetings on infectious diseases and zoonoses, where analysis of surveillance data is carried out. The level of surveillance specific to a single pathogen is adapted if indicated, regardless of the driver.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Netherlands