Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Portugal are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

National Adaptation to Climate Change Strategy (ENAAC 2020) 

Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change (P-3AC)

National Health Plan 2020 

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

The revised National Adaptation Strategy (NAS, 2015-onwards, ENAAC 2020) covers nine priority sectors, including health. For health, Regional Strategies of Adaptation to Climate Change were completed and submitted for adoption for the period 2019-2020. The implementation of health sector strategies is based on the networking of health services with other security, environmental and/or social support entities.

The health sector published a report within the scope of the first stage of the NAS, where climate change impacts were systemised in the domains: extreme temperature events, water, air, disease transmitting vectors, food, and extreme hydrological events. However, instead of identifying an exhaustive collection of adaptation measures the report established a link between the implementation of certain plans and programs addressing environmental conditions influenced by climatic phenomena and impacts on public health. In relation to the other sectors, the approach to adaptive management for health has followed a different pathway: through decentralisation. Recently, the Regional Health Administrations prepared their own adaptation strategies, where the main impacts on health and vulnerabilities of the health services and infrastructures, and respective adaptation measures were identified.

Regarding the health sector, there are several public health programmes contributing to adaptation, namely Contingency Plans for Adverse Extreme Temperatures, Contingency Plans of Seasonal Health, and the Vector-borne Diseases Prevention Programme. It is worth noting that the Algarve Health Regional Administration has assured the integration of adaptation in their responsibilities by issuing technical-sanitary opinions and participating in advisory committees within the processes of development of territorial management instruments.

The SIAM projects (Climate change in Portugal: Scenarios, impacts and adaptation measures) from 2002 and 2006 were the most comprehensive multi-sectoral, national climate change impacts and vulnerabilities assessments for Portugal, which included health impacts and adaptation measures.

Information from Adaptation preparedness scoreboard. Country fiches (2018)

The health sector was also represented in ENAAC 2013 (first phase of ENAAC) where it produced a state-of-the-art report on the effect of climate change in the sector. A Contingency Plan for heatwaves was established in 2004, with warning system and responses to emergencies.  A Surveillance System on Vector Borne Diseases was set up in 2007.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Portugal