Country profiles





The sources used to compile the health and adaptation information for country profiles vary across countries. For EU Member States, information is based on their official adaptation reporting: 2021 adaptation reporting under the Regulation on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action (see EU Adaptation ReportingClimate-ADAPT Country Profiles) and 2019 adaptation reporting under the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism Regulation. These two reporting mechanisms are together referred to here as “EU official reporting on adaptation”. Note: The relevant information has been copied from the EU official reporting on adaptation (submitted until July 21, 2021), without further elaborating the contents of the text. Some information, valid at the time of reporting, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

In addition, information collated in the EEA’s analysis of Climate change and health: the national policy review in Europe (2021), the Adaptation preparedness scoreboard country fiches (2018) and the WHO study on Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018) are presented. Note: Some information, valid at the time of publication, may no longer be valid today. Any necessary additions to the text are clearly highlighted. 

Information sources for non-EU member countries of the EEA are more limited. 

Information from EEA report. Climate change and health: the national policy overview in Europe (2022)

National policies on climate change adaptation and national health strategies were analysed to identify the coverage of climate-related impacts on health (physical, mental, and social) and the types of interventions addressing them. The report provides a European overview, while the geographical coverage of various aspects of national policies across Europe can be visualized using the map viewer. The results for Slovakia are summarised here.

Policy documents reviewed:

Adaptation strategy to climate change of the Slovak republic (2018)

Adaptation plan for implementation of the Adaptation strategy to climate change of the Slovak republic (2021)

Aspects covered in the reviewed policy document:

Information from WHO. Health and climate change: country profile (2021)

This WHO/EURO UNFCCC health and climate change country profile for Slovakia provides a summary of available evidence on climate hazards, health vulnerabilities, health impacts and progress to date in health sector efforts to realize a climate-resilient health system.

The overall aims of the WHO and UNFCCC Health and Climate Change Country Profile Project are to:

  • Increase awareness of the health impacts of climate change
  • Support evidence-based decision making to strengthen the resilience of health systems
  • Support health involvement in national and international climate processes such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • Promote actions that improve health while reducing greenhouse gas emissions

Information from EU official reporting on adaptation. GovReg reporting (2021), MMR reporting (2019)

Slovakia’s National Adaptation Strategy (NAS) links scenarios and the possible impacts of climate change with proposals for appropriate adaptation measures. The key areas and sectors in terms of adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate change are the following: rock environment and geology, soil environment, natural environment and biodiversity, water regime in the country and water management, residential housing, health, agriculture, forestry, transport, tourism, industry, energy, other areas of business and risk management. Its implementation document will be the NAP.

In the area of public health, the revised 5th National Action Plan for Environment and Health was adopted by Governmental Resolution No. 3/2019 in 2019. It is the basic document for activities within environmental health. Climate change in relation to public health in Slovakia is one of the key areas that is addressed in this document. The framework calls for climate change adaptation in public health and presents a couple of suitable monitoring measures, including monitoring of:

  • cyanobacterial proliferation in natural bathing waters,
  • occurrence of biological allergens in the air,
  • occurrence of vector-borne diseases, and
  • tick-borne encephalitis.

The Action Plan stresses the importance of awareness-raising activities focused on heatwaves, floods and frosts.

Climate change impact and vulnerability assessments are available in the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute's (SHMU) report on Climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in key sectors, prepared in 2011 in cooperation with various partners. The report addresses climate change impacts in eight key sectors, such as health and its economic and environmental consequences.

The vision of Envirostrategy 2030 is to achieve better environmental quality and sustainable circulation of the economy, which is based on rigorous protection of environmental compartments and using as little non-renewable natural resources and hazardous substances as possible, which will lead to an improvement in health of the population. Environmental protection and sustainable consumption will be part of the general awareness of citizens and policy makers. Through the prevention and adaptation to climate change in Slovakia, the consequences will be as subdued as possible.

Information from WHO publication. Public health and climate change adaptation policies in the European Union (2018)

Adaptation measures and activities in the field of climate change and public health are included within the national environmental health action plan of Slovakia. Several goals are defined, including incorporation of health issues in all adaptation and mitigation climate change policies and strategies in all sectors and at all levels. Other aims are strengthening health and social systems and providing services to improve responses to the impacts of climate change, accounting for the protection of water supplies, hygiene and safe food through preventive and adaptation measures.

A pollen forecast informs the public about pollen concentrations in the air on a weekly basis.

Resources in the Observatory catalogue on Slovakia