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Preparing the ground for adaptation Assessing risks and vulnerabilities to climate change Identifying adaptation options Assessing adaptation options Implementation Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E)

Monitoring, Reporting and Evaluation (MRE) is a key aspect of an iterative adaptation process. MRE can help us to understand progress and performance, learn and communicate lessons and inform future policy and practice. It therefore plays a critical role enabling adaptation to evolve and improve over time.


As governments increasingly invest in adaptation it becomes essential to ensure the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of adaptation interventions. Yet we are still at an early stage in understanding how best to adapt to future climate change, how risks can be most effectively reduced and resilience enhanced, and what the characteristics of a well-adapting society might be. Learning what works well (or not) in which circumstances and for what reasons is critical. The development of an adaptation strategy presents an opportunity to consider how to best monitor, evaluate, and report on, adaptation progress and performance.

For national-level M&E approaches it is important that they ‘look' both downwards and upwards, so that national level decisions are informed by sub-national experiences and nations are able to share their adaptation progress effectively with the wider international community. The delivery of an adaptation strategy and/or action plan provides a useful focus for monitoring and evaluating progress in adapting to climate change.

Deciding what an MRE system for adaptation aims to accomplish (purposes) has an impact on the way this can be achieved (the methods used), the actors who should be involved in the process, and the extent to which the results of MRE activities are used in policies and practices. Consequently, Step 6 of the AST considers each of these elements in more detail.

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